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FLORA INDICA; 



OR, 



DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIAN PLANTS. 



BY THE LATE 

WILLIAM ROXBURGH, M. D. F. R. S. E. 



ETC. ETC. 






VOL. ir. 



SERAMPORE: 

PRINTED FOR W. THACKER AND CO. CALCUTTA, 

AND 

PARBURY, ALLEN AND CO. LONDON. 
1832. 



-\- o^^ :>^i 






CONTENTS. 



CLASS V. 

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA I 

DIGYNIA 27 

TRIGYNIA 98 

PENTAGYNIA 107 



CLASS VI, 

HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA 114 

DIGYNIA 

TRIGYNIA 

HEXAGYNIA 



CLASS vn. 

HBPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA 



CLASS VIII. 



OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA . 

TRIGYNIA ... 

TETRAGYNIA 



CLASS IX. 



ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA 
HEXAGYNIA 



200 

208 
215 



217 



221 

285 
293 



295 
315 



CONTENTS. VI 

CLASS X. 

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA •• 316 

. DIGYNIA 444 

TRIGYNIA 446 

■ — PENTAGYNIA 450 

DECAGYNIA 458 

CLASS XL 

DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA 459 

TRIGYNIA 465 

CLASS XIL 

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA 475 

DIGYNIA 509 

PENTAGYNIA 510 

POLYGYNIA 512 

CLASS XIIL 

POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA 521 

TETRA6YNIA 645 

PENTAGYNIA 646 

POLYGYNIA 646 



FLORA INDICA. 



CLASS V. 

PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

FINK A. Schreb. gen. N. 419. 
Corol funnel-shaped. Follicles two, erect. Seeds nak- 
ed. Embryo inverse, and furnished with a perisperm. 

\.V. rosea. Willd.l. 1233. 

Perennial, erect, ramous. Flowers in pairs, sessile. 
Leaves ovate -oblong, base of the petiole two-toothed. 

Hind. Gool-fering. 

Obs. Both the red and white varieties are common in 
gardens over India, and in flower great part of the year. 
1 have never found it in its native siate. 

2. V parviflora. Wilhl. I. 1234. Retz. Obs 2. N. 33. 
Annual. Leaves lanceolate ; flowers in pairs. Mouth 
of the tube contracted, and shut with hiirs. 
^ Cupa-veela, Wieed. Mai. 9. t. 33. 






Vinka pulsilla, Linn. Sitppl. 1C6. 



A small, erect, annual, ramous plant; a native of opf n, 

c* fertile, cultivated lands. Flowers during the wet se:isou. 

^"^ Stem erect, smooth, branchy, four sided ; angles acute. 

5 from six to twelve inches high. Leaves oppwsito, si)ort- 

petioled, lanceolate, entire, smooth ; about tw o inches and 



2 PBNTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Nerium. 

ahalf lon<?, and three-fourths of an inch broad. Stipules 
subulate. Flowers axillary, in pairs, small, white, short- 
peduncled. Corol, mouth of the tube contracted, and shut 
with hair. Nectarial corpuscles as in the family. 



NERIUM. Schreh. gen. N. 420. 

Corol funnel-shaped ; mouth of the tube variously 
crowned. Germ tno-cclled ; cells many-seeded, attach- 
ment interior. Follicles two. Seeds many, c omose. Em- 
bryo inverse, (sub-convolute, or expanded.) 

1. N. odorum. Wilkl. 1. 1215. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, tern. Segments of the calyx 
erect. Nectaries many cleft divisions filiform. 

Sans. Karavira, vide Asiat. Researches, 4. 265. 

Beng. K«rwbee, l'//ktrt Kj^rwbee (the red variety), 
Sweta KMr?djee (the white variety), Pwdnirt Kwrwbee 
the double variet\ ). 

Hind. Lall-Karpud, (the single rose-coloured), SufTet 
or Shwet Karpud (single white), Padmu-Karpud (the 
double variety.) 

Belutta-areli, Hheed Mai. 9. t. 2. 

Tsjovanna-areli, Rheed. Mai. i). t. 1. 

Common in gardens in every part of India, and in 
flower the whole year. 

2. N. coccioeum. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves sul)-sessile, ovate-oblons;, entire, 
apex alternate. Flowers terminal, three or four; necta- 
riurn acetabuliform. Follicles linear, rough. 

PwllMm, the vernacular name in Silhet. 

A native of the eastern frontier of Bengal, beyond the 
mouth of the Megna, ironi thence introduced by R. K. 
Dick, Esq. into the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where it 
blossoms in April . In its native soil it grows to be a large 



Nerium. pentandria monogynia. 3 

timber tree; the wood white, remarkably light, but Thmi, 
and much used by Turners to make palkees, &,c. where 
lif;ht, strong wood is required. 

Stem (ill phints six or seven years old) short, but 
straight, and to the base decorated with numerous patent 
branches and branchlets. Bark of the ligneous pairs ash- 
coloured and smooth ; whole height from six to ten feet. 
Lactescent. Leaves opposite, very short-petioled, bifa- 
rious, ovate oblong, entire, long, taper-pointed, smooth on 
both sid< s, dark green, from two to six inches long, and 
from one to two and a half broad. Stipules, sosne short 
bristles in the axill of the leaves. Flowers terininal, soli- 
tary, tern, twice tern, or more, with one in the forks, 
short peduncled, and pedicelled, large, of a deep, but ra- 
ther dull red. Bractes opposite, lanceolate, waved. 
Calyx divided to the base into five, nearly equal, sub- 
cordate, smooth .segments, with somewhat waved mar- 
gins. Corol ; tube very short, fleshy, sub-campanulate. 
Border divided into five, obliquely obovate, thick, tough 
segments, soon after expansion they become revolute. 
Nectarium five-lobed ; crimson-coloured ; lobes with 
rounded, somewhat crenulate margins, and firmly unit- 
ed to the base of the segments of the corol. Filaments 
very short and thick, inserted on the nmuth of the tube 
of the corol, w ithin the nectary. Anthers sagittate, united 
and forming a conic dome over the stigma. Germ two- 
lobed; each lobe one-celled, with numerous seeds at- 
tached to the incurved margins of tlie suture on the in- 
side. Style cylindric. Stiyma with two-lobed apex. 
Follicles two, linear, about as thick as the little finger, 
and nearly tvNclve inches long, olive-coloured, but ren- 
dered rough with elevated white specks. .S'eeJs numer- 
ous, imbricated, linear-lanceolar, with very ample coma, 
pointing to the base of the follicle. Integuments two, 
the exterior one rather thick; the interior one a thin 
membrane adhering to the embryo. Perisperm none 

\ 2 



4 PENTANDRIA MONCGYNIA. Nerium. 

Embryo inverse ; cotyledons triangularly convolute. Ra- 
dicle c}lindric. superior (pointing from the coma to the 
apex of the follicle.) The whole almost exactly as in 
Gtsrtners Nerium Zeylanicum, 2. p. 172. f. 117. 

3 N. tinctorum. R. 

Arboreous. Ze«i'es opposite, ovate-oblong. Panicles 
terminal. Follicles pendulous, very long, united at the 
apex. 

Nerium indicum, &c. Biirm. Zeijl. 167. t. 77. 

Telinga. Chite-ancalloo. 

A middling-sized tree, agreeing perfectly in its botani- 
cal character \vith Nerium of the Linncean sexual system, 
and from the quality of its leaves I have called it {Neri- 
um) tinctorum, Dyer's rose bay, for to n.e it seems a 
new species ; at least it is not taken notice of by Linnce- 
us, nor by his son in his last Botanical puldication, the 
Suppkmeiifum Plantarmn published in 1781. It comes 
nearest Nerium antidys; nterinm, the tree which yields the 
Conessi bark of our Materia Medica Cadaga-paJa of the 
H rtas Makibaricus Pala Cadija of the Tcliiigas. They 
are bot!» natives of fhe lower reuion of those mountains 
which bound the Rajaniundry Circar on the north side,and 
are so much alike in most respects, (the Nectarium ex- 
cepted ) that \Aithout a tolerable knowledge of both, the 
one may be mistaken for tlie other; and 1 have no doubt 
but the bark of the Nerium may have been gathered and 
sold for Conessi bark, to which I attribute the disrepute 
that has fallen upon Conessi bark in Europe ; for with the 
natives of most part of India it is deemed a specific in 
most coi'.iplaints of the bowels. And I am inclined to 
think it deserves a better name than it has hitherto ac- 
quired amongst Europeans. 

Trunk very irregular in shape, when very old it is 
from one and a half to two feet in diameter, but when of. 
that size, it is full of large, rotten cavities ; its height to 



Nerium. penta.ndria monogynia. 5 

the branches when lar^e, is from ten to fifteen feet; the 
bark of the old wood is scabrous, of the young pretty 
smooth, and ash-coloured. Wood remarkably white, 
close-<?rained, very beautiful coming nearer to Ivory in 
appearance than any other I know. i?r«/ic/tes irregular- 
ly disposed, beini^ bent in various directions ; small 
branches opposite. Leaves numerous, opposite, short- 
petioled, oval-pointed, pretty smooth, entire, pale green; 
when full «;rown from six to ten inches long, and from 
three to four broad. Stipules none. Flowers about an 
inch and a half in diameter, when fully expanded per- 
fectly white, fragrant, disposed on lax globular panicles 
at the extremities of the branches. Bractes a small oval 
one below each sub-division of the panicle. Calyx di- 
vided into five equal semi-orbicular, permanent segments. 
Carol one-petalled. Tube short, somewhat gibbous. 
Border large, divided into five, oblique, linear-oblong, 
spread insi segments. Nectarhim, many ramous, white fi- 
laments crowning the mouth of the tube of the corol, (no 
nectary in the Conessi bark tree.) Filaments five, very 
short, ri;L;id, inserted just within the mouth of the tube, 
and within the nectarium. Anthers arrow-shaped, rigid, 
united to one another laterally, forming a very firm, co- 
nical cover for the stigma, their lower parts inwardly are 
covered ^^ith tine white hairs. Germ two, seemingly 
united. -Style the lentrth of the tube. Stigma double, co- 
vered with transparent gluten, by which it adheres to the 
inside of the anthers. Follicles two, very long, slender, 
pendul()us, united at both ends singly, they are from 
twelve to twenty inches long; and about as thick as a 
common pencil. Seeds numerous, long, slender, crown- 
ed with down, like the seed of the common thistle. Em- 
bryo inverse, without peri.sperm, and the cotyledons roll- 
ed up in a compound manner between involute and con- 
volute. 

06.9. This tree as 1 o'oserved before, is a native of the 



8 PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Nerium. 

which the natives of tlic country where tlic plant throws, 
use as a subsfitnte for hemp. In steepinij; some of the 
younf? shoots in a fish pond in order to accelerate the 
removal of the bark, and cleanins: the fibres, many, if 
not the whole of the fish were killed, hence the specific 
name. 

Stem and larger branches lif^neous, and ramble to a vast 
extent. Young shoots lon^r, round and smooth. Leaves 
opposite, short-petioled, o'ulongf, taper-obtuse jointed, 
entire, firm and lucid; about six inches long, by two 
broad. Panicles terminal, sub-globular ; C(>mposed ola 
few pairs of brachiate, short, few flowered branches ; all 
are round and suiooth. Flowers many, larpe. pale yellow, 
salver-shaped. Bractes oblong, rather (btuse, and small. 
Calyx five-leaved. Leaflets ovate, smooth. Tube of the 
corol larger than the five obliquely trapcziform segments 
of its border, tibbous in the middle where the stamina are 
lodged. Nectarium consists of five bifid, villous seg- 
ments, rising from the five fissurss of the border of the co- 
rol, round the mouth of its tube. Gertn two-lobed, two- 
celled, with numerous ovula in each, attached to an eleva- 
tion down the centre of the partition. Style scarce half the 
length of the tube. Stigma lar!.e, with contracted lifid 
apex. Follicles ovate-oblong, while fresh very large, by 
being much inflated or pufled, smooth, obtuse, greenish 
yellow when ripe. Seed many, thin, oval, >\ith broad 
membranaceous margin, crowned. Integuments two; ex- 
terior, soft, smooth, light brown ; interior, rather fleshy 
while the seeds are recent. Perisperm no other than the 
interior integuments of the seed. Embryo inverse ; co- 
tyledons round-cordate, strongly marked with veins. Ra- 
dicle cylindric, superior. 

C). N. reticulatum. R. 

Shrubby, twining. X^aves oblong, smooth. Tymes ax- 
illary. Nectarial scales five, wedge-shaped. 



Nerium. pentendria monogynia. 9 

Kalli-pal-valli. Rheed. Mai 9. t. 11. 

Apocyimm reticulatum. B. 11. 

Teling. Adivi pala-tiga. 

Hind. Karwnta. 

A large twining shrub, a native of hedges, thickets, &c. 
Flowering time the rainy season, abounds with milky 
juice. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, obovate, or oblong, en- 
tire, smooth, very pale underneath ; with numerous, small, 
reticulated veins running through every part, from three 
to six inches long. Cymes axillary, many times shorter 
than the leaves, and short peduncled, many-flowered. 
Flowers small, yellow. Calyx five-parted; division 
short, ovate. Corol ; tube very short, gibbous ; divisions 
of the border linear-lanceolate. Nectary five wedge-form- 
ed scales, inserted on, or rather in the mouth of the tube. 
Stamens within the tube, below the nectarial scales. 
Style short. Stigma peltate, five sided. Follicles lance- 
olate, horizontal, about three inches long. 

7. N. chinensis, Hunter, 

Shrubby, with erect, dichotomous branches. Leaves 
sub-sessile, ovate-lanceolate, smooth. Peduncles terminal, 
becoming lateral, or in the forks of the branches, few-flow- 
ered. Segments of the corol narrow, and end ensiform. 
Stamina in the base of the tube- 

A native of China. In one garden on Pulo-penang 
Dr. Hunter found it in blossom in July. 

I can find no nectarial crown on the tube of the corol, 
hence I suspect it to be an Echites. ^ 

8. N. caudatum, R. 

Shrubby, scandent. Leaves oblong, smooth. Cymes ieX" 

mmdi\. Segment oi ihe corol ending in long, filiform points. 

A large climbing shmb, a native of the mountainous 

B 



10 PENTENDRIA MONOGYNIA. Nerium. 

parts of the Coast, bark ash-coloured with scabrous 
specks. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oval, waved, smooth, 
shiniui^. Corymbs terminal, two-forked. Bractes nar- 
row-lanceolate> revolutc. Flowers large, pretty numer- 
ous. Calyx five-cleft ; divisions linear, w aved, revolute, 
coloured, very much like the bractes. Corol ; tube con- 
tracted at the middle, each of the segments of the border 
endin^^ in a large linear filament, as in Echites caudala. 
Nectary crowning the mouth of the tube as in the famil^ 
i4wf/iers within the tube, and ending in filaments as in the 
genus. Germs two. Style length of the tube, white, 
rugose as if it were composed of small air bladders. 

I know of no u.se any part of this plant is put to. If 
Burman's Echites caudata is the same, the nectary, and 
threads to the anthers, arc omitted in his figure, Flora In- 
dica Table 26. Is allied to De Candoll's Strophanthus. 

9. IV. grandiflorum, R. 

Shrubby, twining. Leaves oblong, polished. Flowers ter- 
minal. Nectaries bifid. Follicles three-sided horizontal. 

A native of the Peninsula of India. In the botanic 
garden at Calcutta it is in flower great part of the year 
though the seeds do not often come to maturity. 

Stem stout, and woody. Bark smooth, greenish ash co- 
lour. Branches twining up and over trees of very consi- 
derable size,every part abundantly lactescent when wound- 
ed. Leaves opposite, short petioled, oblong, entire, obtu- 
se-pointed, polished on both sides; underneath minutely re- 
ticulated, about three inches long, by one and a half broad. 
Flowers terminal, from one to many, forming a dichoto- 
mous raceme with one in the fork, very large, pale pink. 
Bractes conically-lanceolate, opposite, caducous. Calyx 
five-leaved. Leaflets oval-lanceolate, with ample, thin 
curled margins. Corol campanulate, half five-cleft. Nec- 
taries five, not alternate with, but attached to the tube of 



Echites. pentandria. monogynu. H 

the corol immediately above the stamina ; each divided in- 
to two long, lilifonii, coloured segments. Filaments short, 
inserted ou the contracted base of the tube of the corol. 
Anthers cordate, incurved in form of a dome over the stig- 
ma. Germs two, one-celled, each containing many ovula 
attached to a large projecting fleshy receptacle on the in- 
side. Style at the base double and coalescing into one 
body near the top. Stigma single, large, globular, with 
the vertex two-toothed, and five glands round the side, 
which are firmly attached to the inside of the five anthers 
near their base, between these are five dark-coloured, 
spoon-shaped scales, which become detached by age. 
Follicles horizontal, three sided, with the angles sharp j 
tapering to a long, incurved, rather obtuse beak, ^ 

ECHITES. 

I^By some accident the Generic Character of Ecliites, and the 
description of the three first species, viz. Antidysenterica, Tincto- 
ria, and Scholaris are wanting in my copy of Dr. Roxburgh's work; 
The two first of these are now removed to Wrightca, and the last 
to Alstonia. It is thought better to print the genus as it stands 
with this deficiency, than to insert a generic character of the ge- 
nus, and a description of the three species whicli would not he Dr. 
Roxburgh's. W. Caret/.'] 

4. E. caryophyllata, R. 

Twining. Z«e«i;es ovate-cordate, pointed. C«/W2es termi- 
nal. Tube gibbous at top. Nectary tubular, five-toothed. 
Segments of the corol, triangular. 

Sans. Malati. See. Asiat. Res. iv. 246. 

Kemetti valli. Rheed. mal. ix. t. 13-5. 

Compare with E. costata Willd. 

This is a large twining shrub, a native of mountain- 
ous tracts only. It flowers during the wet season ; the 
flowers are delightfully fragrant, partaking much of the 
smell of cloves. Stem woody, twining, as thick as a man's 



12 PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. EcMteS. 

leg. Bark dark rust-colour, with fissures and scabrous 
specks. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, ovate-cordate, 
pointed, entire. Petioles with the nerve and veins colour- 
ed red. Cymes terminal, sub-globular. Bracies falling. 
Flowers numerous, large, pure white, delightfully fra- 
grant. Calyx five-leaved, leaflets lanceolate, as long as 
the corol, somewhat coloured, on the outside a little 
downy. Corol; fw&e five-sided, gibbous; segments oi 
the border large, triangular. Nectary and pistillum as in 
other species. Follicles cylindric, spreading. Seeds a 
few, very large, crowned with down. 

The delightful smell of the flowers of this plant, as well 
as their beauty, makes it highly deserving a place in the 
flower garden. On my arrival in Bengal I found it in a 
few gardens only. 

5. 'E.frutescens, R. 

Twining. Leaves oblong, pointed. Panicles terminal ; 
segments of the corol long twisted and hairy ; tube gib- 
bous above the middle. Nectary of five headed filaments. 
Follicles linear. 

A. floribus fasciculatis. Burm. zeyl. 23. 1. 12 f. 1. 

Syama. Asiat. Res, iv. 261. 

Beng. Syaraa-lwta. 

Teling. Nalla-tiga. 

This plant Dr. Konig thought was Apocymum frutes- 
cens of Linnceus. It is a large, ramous, twining, shrubby 
species ; common in hedges, &c. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblong, or broad-lanceo- 
late, pointed, smooth, entire ; from one to t»vo inches long. 
Panicles terminal ; ramifications opposite. Flowers 
small, white, inodorous. Corol. Tube gibbous where the 
stamens are lodged ; mouth contracted, and shut with 
hairs ; segments o£ the border linear, twisted hairs. iViec- 
tary five subulate bodies with large recurved heads, sur- 
rounding the germs. Style single, of a length sufficient to 



Echites. PENTANDRIA MONOGYNlA. 13 

brinjEj the large, compound Stigma in contact with the 
anthers. Follicles and seeds as in the grenus. 



(). E. macropliylla, R, 

Shrubby, twining. Leaves sub-rotund acuminate, dow- 
ny underneath. Cymes terminal. 

Belutta-kaka-kodi. Rheed. mal. ix. t. 5 and 6, 
Ilarkee the vernacular name in S<lhet; where it is in- 
digenous. Flowering time the hot months of May and 
June ; the seeds do not ripen until the following March 
or April. Stem and larger branches ligneous, twining, 
young shoots marked with little elevated brown specks. 
Leaves opposite, short-petioled, from oval to roundish 
oval, entire, acute, downy underneath ; from ten to twelve 
inches long by from seven to ten broad. Cymes termi- 
nal, elevated on a strong erect peduncle, many-flowered. 
Flowers very large, white. Bractes opposite, at the 
divisions of the cyme, ovate, acute. Calyx companu- 
late, five toothed. Corol infundibuliform. Tube gib- 
bous immediately above the base where the anthers are 
lodged; segments of the border unequally obovate, spread- 
ing. Filaments short, hairy. Anthers sagittate, united 
at the sides into a cone over the stigma. Germ superior, 
ovate, two-lobed, two-celled, with many ovula in each, 
attached to the thick middle ofthe partition. .S^i/Ze short, 
grooved, as if composed of two portions firmly united. 
Stigma headed, with an acute, bidentate apex. Follicles 
pendulous, about twelve inches long, and as thick as the 
little finger, tapering to an acute point, pretty smooth. 
Seeds numerous, large, spatulate ; coma ample, pointing 
to the apex of the follicle ; the reverse of Nerium cocci- 
num. Liteguments single, firm, and brown. Perisperm 
in a small quantity ; in fact an interior integument. 
Embryo inverse. Cotyledons oblong. Radicle subcylin- 
dric, superior, and pointing to the coma. 



14 r C N T A N I) K 1 A , IM O N O G 'i N 1 A , ^7/ itCS. 

cv^-u^^v/^V 7. E. gvaudijlova, U. 

ScandcMit. jA'avcs cnnoato-obloni;. Cijmcs torminal, 
ami axillary. Lcajlcts oitho calvv-laiu-colar. wavoil, and 
colourod. (\)r()/ conipaimlato. Follicles linear. 

A native of the hilly parts ol" Chittagorig and Silfiet, 
where it blossoms dating the dry season. The seeds take 
nearly one year to ripen. 

iStiHi ai\d large branehes ligneons. and scanden^t to a 
very great extent, joung shoots villous. Leaves oppo- 
site, short-petioled, from oblong-cuneiform, to obovate- 
oblong, entire, apex lounded, >vi(h a short point; void of 
pnbcseenee. hard ; from six to eight inches long by from 
two to five broad. Ci/iiies axiUary. becoming lateral, 
short, fe\v-ilo\vered. all the parts thereof clothed with fer- 
ruginous down. Flourrs very large, equalling those o^ So- 
Jandra (jidiulijlora: greenish yellow. Hractcs oblong, co- 
loured and veiutd. (\////.v to the liase divided into li\e 
louii'. lanceolate, waved, acute, coloured, veined s;«- 
mcnts. Cciyo/campanulate; fto?(/cr expanding about live 
inches, and divided into tive oval, waved, rather actnni- 
nate. broad segments. Filaiiicnfs tive, nearly as lon^- as 
the corol, ascendinu in a gentle curve, smooth, inserted 
into the base oi the bell of the corol. Anthers sagittate, 
sides tirmly united, ibrming a conical cover for the stig- 
ma, to which they cohere. Genu two-lobcd, hairy, 
two-celled ; ovula numerous, attached to a jugiform 
receptacle in each cell, rising from the partition. Style 
leitgth oi' the stamina. Stigma large, clammy. Follicles 
horizontal, linear, obtuse, pretty smooth, the thickness of 
the little linger: points rather incurved, and obtuse ; from 
six to ten inches long. Seeds numerous, imliricated, ob- 
long, compressed, brown, comose ; coma very ample. I 
have rarely seen so large points to this apex of the folli- 
cles. Perisperm thin, li^ht grey. ENibri/o straigiit. Cotij" 
hdons oblong. Radicle long-cN lindric, superior. 



EcJlites. PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 15 

8. E. acuminata , R. 

Shrubby, scandent. Leaves Irom oblong to broad-lan- 
ceolate, acuminate. Panicles axillary, longer than the 
leaves, diffuse, trichotomous, segments of the corol linear 
and falcate. Follicles filiform, about eight inches long. 

Pingoree, or Bcngeree the vernacular name in Silhet, 
where the plant is found in the forest, climbing up and 
over trees, &c. to a large extent. Flowering time May ; 
the seeds ripen in about nine months. 

Young shoots rather rough with little, lighter coloured^ 
elevated specks. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, broad- 
lanceolate, entire, acuminate, smooth ; from two to four 
inches long, by one and a half broad. On young plants 
linear-lanceolate, and waved. P^/«ifVA'.s axillary, solita- 
ry in one axil, the other vacant, longer than tite leaves, 
lax, trichotomus throughout, smooth. Flowers many, 
large, white, and fragrant, ^rf/c^cs opposite, long, slen- 
der, and smooth. Calyx, large divided to the base, into 
live, long, narrow smooth segments. Corol. Tube the 
length of the calyx, enlarged at the base, the border cut in 
to five long, narrow, falcate, curled segments, which are 
imbricated in the bud. Nectary cup-shaped, embracing 
the base of the germs, obscurely five-toothed. Filaments 
five, short, attached to the tube a little below the middle. 
Anthers sagittate, completely within the mouth of the tube, 
Germs two, or very completely two lobed, each one- 
celled, containing numerous ovula, attached to a groov- 
ed vertical receptacle on the inside. Style half the length 
of the tube. /S'//</mf/ large, oblong, bidentate. Follicles 
pendulous about a foot and a half long, and not thicker 
than a goose quill, dark brown, marked with small lighter 
coloured specks. Seeds many, crowned with an am- 
ple coma, which points to the apex of the follicle. Pe" 
risperm scarcely any. Embryo inverse. 

9. E. marginafa. It. 



16 PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. EcklteS, 

Shrubby, scaudent. Leaves lanceolate ; an anasto- 
mosing vein near the margin. Panicles terminal, corym- 
bose. 

Dood-h«ta the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is 
indigenous climbing up, and over trees &c. Flowering 
time April and May when the air is perfumed with its 
fragrance. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, lanceolate, entire, 
smooth, veins large, apices anostomosing and forming a 
waved line within the margin ; from two to six inches long. 
P«wicZes terminal, longer than the leaves, lax, corymbi- 
form ; first ramifications opposite, i. e. subtrichotomous 
afterwards dichotomous ; all smooth. Bractes en^iform. 
Flowers many, large, white, fragrant. Calyx five- 
leaved ; leaflets ensiform. Tube of the corol gibbous at 
the base, the stamina lodged near the middle. Segments 
oftlie border five, linear, falcate. Nectary a ring round 
the base of the germ. Germ two-lobed ; ovula in each 
lobe numerous, attached to a projecting receptacle down 
the centre of the partition. Style half the length of the- 
tube of the corol. Stigma large, oblong, bidentate. 

10. E, cymosa. R. 

Shrubby, hairy. Leaves elliptic, acuminate. Cymes 
terminal, shorter than the leaves, crowded. Calyx five 
leaved, length of the corol. Nectary poculiform, with 
five-toothed mouth. 

Kasee. Ewtaesbrab. 

A native of the copses, or low jungle in the Silhet dis- 
trict, where it grows to be a middle sized, ramous shrub; 
flowering in May. 

Young shoots hairy. 

Leaves petioled, opposite, elliptic, acuminate, hairy, 
particularly underneath ; from three to four inches long, 
by from one and half to two and half broad. Cymes ter- 
minal, subglobular, much shorter than the leaves, crowd- 



Echites, pentancria monogynia. 17 

ed with small dull white, fragrant flowers. Bractes en- 
siform, hoary. Calyx of five, hoary, ensiform leaflets, 
scarcely united at the base, and as long as the tube of the 
corol, Corol hoary on the outside. Tube gibbous; bor- 
der of five, obliquely ensiform segments, which are shorter 
than the tube, and white in the bud, imbricated. Necta- 
ry poculiform, embracing very completely the whole 
germ ; mouth five-toothed. Anthers within the tube, sa- 
gitate. Germ of two distinct lobes, their apices very 
hairy, each lobe one-celled, and containing numerous o- 
vula attached to a vertical ridge on the partition. Style 
short. Stigma large, acuminate, adhering by gluten to 
the inside of the anthers. 

8. E. paniculata, R. 

Shrubby, scandent. Leaves broad-lanceolar, entire, 
smooth. Panicles axillary and terminal, trichotomous 
throughout. Nectary cup-shaped, surrounding the germ, 
five-toothed. Follicles obclavate, few-seeded. 

An extensive, powerful, woody rambler ; a native of 
the forests of Silhet. Flowering in March and April, the 
seeds from the flowers of the former year ripening about 
the same time. 

Young shoots round and perfectly smooth. Leaves op- 
posite, short-petioled, broad-lanceolar, smooth and of a 
very firm texture, entire, obtuse-pointed ; from four to 
eight inches long, and from one and a half to three broad. 
Stipules none. Panicles axillary, and terminal, long- 
er than the leaves, smooth in every part, throughout tri- 
chotomous to the extreme divisions, and they are three- 
flowered. Bractes oval, embracing the base of the divi- 
sions. Flowers very numerous, and very small, pale-yel- 
low. Calyx five parted. Corol with a short gibbous tube, 
and border of five, falcate, woolly-margined segments. 
Nectary cup-shaped, five-toothed, embracing the low- 
er half, or more, of the germ. Filaments short. Anthers 

c 



18 PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. EchitCS. 

saggitate, adhering to each other, in the gibbous part of 
the tube, and forming a dome over the stigma. Germs 
two-lobed, two celled, &c. Style very short. Stignia 
very large, with a pointed, bifid apex. Follicles horizon- 
tal, five or six inches long, as thick as the little finger 
at the base, and from thence tapering to an obtuse point, 
smooth. Seeds a few, with an immensely long and large 
coma to the apex and Embryo, as in the Asclepiadce. 

9. E. hircosa, R. 

Twining. Leaves petioled, oval, smooth. Panicles 
axillary, globular, and open. Anthers exert, a pearl like 
gland on the back. 

Fergularia glabra. Willd. 1. 1247. 

Tlos pei'gularia. Rnmph. amb. 51. 29./. 2. 

A pretty extensive, perennial, twining shrub ; a native 
of Bengal, but scarce. The flowers are pretty white, 
larger and more numerous than in dichotoma, but have 
a very ofi'ensive smell, truly goatish, as noticed by Rum- 
phius. It flowers about the end of the hot season, and 
the beginning of the rains in May and June. 

Leaves opposite, rather short-petioled, oval, somewhat 
pointed, entire, smooth ; from three to five inches long, and 
from two to three broad. Panicle axillary, shorter than 
the leaves, subglobular, very open, though very ramous, 
slightly villous. Flowers large, pure white, long pedicelled. 
Bractes from lanceolate to ensiform. Calyx 5-parted ; seg- 
ments sub-lanceolate, acute. Corol with a short, rather gib- 
bous tube. Border of several round spreading segments; 
which are imbricated in the bud. Nectary of five, fleshy, 
smooth scabs, covering the germ. Filaments five from the 
mouth of the tube, thick, and short. Anthers saggittate, 
forming a pointed cone over the stigma on the base ; on 
the outside a large, beautiful pearl-like gland. Germ hairy, 
two-lobed, 2 celled ; Ovula numerous, attached to an 
elevated vertical receptacle on the partition. Style long- 



Echites. pentandria monogynia. 19 

er than the tube of the corol, columnar. Stigma large, 
clammy, and adhering to the anthers, apex two-toothed, 

13. E. dichotoma, JR. 

Twining, ieave* opposite, lanceolate-oblong. 

Racemes axillary, dichotomous. Segments of the corol 
obovate. Filaments thick, headed, and woody. 

Beng. Happ?<r-malee. 

Pergularia glabra, Kon. in B. H. 

A large, twining, shrubby plant, found in forests, .&c. 
nediV Calcutta ; flowering time, the hot season. Stems 
ligneous. Branches numerous, spreading and twining ; 
6arAr of the woody part ash-coloured, of the young shoots 
^reen and smooth. Leaves opposite, very short-petioled, 
from oblong to lanceolar, acute, recurved, entire, smooth ; 
from two to three inches long, and from, one, to one and 
a half broad. Stipules, some awl-shaped, brown glands 
surrounding the insertions of the leaves. Racemes axilla- 
ry, or a little above, solitary, generally two-cleft, or two 
racemes to a common peduncle, rachis winding. Flowers 
alternate, generally solitary, pretty long-pedicled, large, 
pure white, pleasantly fragrant. Bractes, a few of an 
unequal size at the insertion of each pedicel. Calyx of 
five, cordate, pointed leaflets ; the length of the tube of the 
corol. Corol tubular ; tube short; border large, flat; di- 
visions roundish-obovate. Nectary cylindric, surround- 
ing the germs ; mouth five-notched. Filaments inserted on 
the mouth of the tube of the corol, very thick, with a large 
round pearl coloured projection behind the insertion of the 
arrow-shaped anthers, which are woolly on the fore side. 
Germs two, &c. as in the former species. Style single, 
hairy. Stigma headed, and adhering firmly to a projection 
in the fissure which forms the barb of the Anthers. Follicles 
oblong, large, being about six inches long, and above two 
in diameter at the thickest part, and what is most extraor- 
dinary, the only few seed vessels which I have yet met 

c 2 



20 PENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Plumevia, 

with, divided spontaneously into four parts or equal 
valves, when dry. Seeds numerous, comose, &c. with in- 
verted embryo, as in the other Apocineoe. 

14. E. parviflora R. 

Twining. Leaves lanceolar. Panicles terminal, and 
axillary, brachiate. Tube of the corol gibbous toward 
the base ; segments of the border linear- falcate. Necta- 
ry an entire ring round the germ. 

A stout perennial species, a native of the northern Cir- 
cars. 

15. E. clavata, R. 

Twining, dichotomous. Leaves broad, lanceolate, en- 
tire, villous underneath. Panicles axillary, dichotomous. 
Tube of the corol clavate, with the segments of the border 
falcate. Anthers linear, and within the mouth of the 
tube. 

A native of the Moluccas, and of all the species known 
to me, this most resembles E. Dichotoma, but differs suf- 
ficiently in the length of the tube, the segments of the bor- 
der of the corol, and the stamina, to authorise its being 
considered a distinct species. 

PLUMERIA. Schreb. gen. N. 422. 
Calyx 5-parted. Corol infundibuliform. Germ 2 celled ; 
cells many seeded, attachment interior. Follicles reflex. 
Seeds inserted into their proper membrane. 

P. acuminata of the Banksian herbarium. 

Arboreous. Leaves cuneate-lanceolar, acuminate, those 
of the branchlets obtuse. JRacemes corymbose. 

Flos convolutus. Rumph. Amb. 4. t. 38 good. 

Hind. Gool-achin. 

This very elegant, small tree does not appear to be a 
native of this part oi: India, I have only found it in gar- 
dens; but there it is very common, vhich shews it to be of 



Taberncemonfana. pentandria monogynia. 21 

considerable antiquity. Every part is full of tenacious, 
white juice, which exudes plentifully on being wounded. 
Trunk crooked, from six to ten feet hij^h. Bark rou^h. 
Branches numerous, three-forked, swelled towards the 
ends ; the height of the whole tree fifteen or twenty feet. 
Leaves crowded about the end of thebranchlets, petioled, 
w^edge-lanceolar, acute, entire. Many straight veins run 
towards the circumference, and are lost in another waved 
vein, which surrounds the loaf within the margins ; they are 
smooth on both sides ; about a foot long and three inches 
broad. Petioles round, with a small channel on the upper 
side, which ends below in a hollow filled with blackish co- 
nical glands. Peduncles subterminal, having several co- 
rymbiform racemes, in a verticelled order. Flowers numer- 
ous, succeeding one another for a great length of time : on 
the outside they are tinged red ; the inside pale yellow be- 
low, and white towards the base of the segments ; diffus- 
ing a pleasing fragrance, chiefly during the night. Calyx 
of five, small, roundish, fleshy leaves. Corol funnel-shap- 
ed, with a large imbricated border ; divisions obovate. 
Stamens in the bottom of the tube. Filaments short. 
Anthers sagittate. Follicles pendulous, horizontal, very 
rigid. In thirty-five years I have only met with them 
once, so rarely does this tree ripen its seed. 

TABERNjEMONTANA. 
Contorted. Corol funnel-shaped. Follicles two, re- 
curved. Seeds several, immersed in a pulpy aril, and 
alternately attached to the two margins of the follicles. 

1. T. dicholoma. R. 

Subarboreous, dichotomous. Leaves oblong, and li- 
near oblong, with de verging veins. Racemes simple or 
compound, single, or in pairs from the forks. 

A native of Ceylon and Malabar and introduced into 
the Botanic Garden at Calcutta from the former place, by 



22 PENTANDRiA MONoGYNiA. TaberncBihontana. 

the Rev. Dr. John ; where it jflowers during the greater 
part of the year, but chiefly during the rains. 
Trunk short. 

Branches numerous ; spreading much in every direction, 
dichotomous, the old ones with smooth olive coloured 
bark ; the young ones green, round, and very smooth, 
ieave* opposite, petioled, oblong, and linear-oblong, entire, 
rather obtuse, of a firm texture, and polished on both 
.sides ; veins parallel, diverging from the rib ; length from 
four to eight inches and from one to two broad. Petioles 
short, and united in a cup like a stipulary ring which com- 
pletely embraces the branchlets. All these parts very re- 
sinous. Racemes simple or compound ; single or in pairs, 
in the extreme divisions of the branchlets ; often as long 
as ^he leaves, polished, bright green. Flowers rather 
remote, long-pedicelled, large, white, scarcely fragrant. 
bractes scarcely any. Calyx five-parted ; divisions 
short, semilunar, resinous. Coral ; tube long, gibbous 
near the base, much contracted above the stamina ; 
i?orc?er of five, contorted, falcate segments. Filaments 
short, inserted into the tube of the corol near the mid- 
dle. Anthers sagittate. Germs tw o, closely united ; 
single, one-celled ; ovula numerous, attached to a two- 
lobed receptacle, on the inner side of the cell. Style 
two-thirds shorter than the tube of the corol, two-lobed. 
Stigma large, with a tapering bifid apex. Follicles, it 
is rare to find more than one of the two come to ma- 
turity, they are recurved with the back considerably 
concave ; and very gibbous on the opposite side, where 
an elevated rib runs along each side of the suture ; ob- 
tusely pointed, pretty smooth; when ripe of a bright orange 
colour, four or five inches long, and nearly two in dia- 
meter where thickest. Seeds numerous, of an irregular, 
cuneate-oblpng shape, with a deep longitudinal groove 
on one side ; each enveloped in its own proper, scarlet, 
pulpy aril and inserted along the side of the two margins 



Tabernamontana. pentandria monogynia. 23 

of the suture by the small end of the aril, which is again 
attached by a broad umbilical cord to the centre of the 
longitudinal groove just mentioned. Perisperm in pret- 
ty large quantity, rather soft, and of a pale bluish Avhite 
colour. Embryo nearly as long as the seed, with the two 
cordate cotyledons lodged near the thick end ; and the 
long, almost straight cylindric radicle directed to the 
small end where the aril was attached to the marjiin of 
the follicle ; (relative centripeta ofGcertner.) 

An incomplete drawing, and description of this tree, 
was sent to the Honourable the Court of Directors under 
the name of Cerbera dichotoma, and numbered 1541. At 
that time T had not seen the fruit but since my return to 
India, I have met with it in a perfectly ripe state and find 
the plant must now be referred to the genus TaberncBmoii' 
tana where, I think; it forms a new species. ' 



2. T. coronaria. R. 

Shrubby, dichotomous. Leaves lanceolar, waved, 
smooth. Penduncles from the divisions of the branches 
few flowered. Calyx 5-toothed. Fo^/tc/es recurved, ma- 
ny-seeded. 

Nerium coronarium. Hort. Kew. 1. P. '297. 

Nandi-ervatum major, and minor. Rheed. Mai. 2. f. 

54. and 55. I take to be the double and single varieties 
of this. 

Firki-tugur the Hindoo name of the single flowered, and 
Bura-tugur of the double flowered. 

Jasminum zylanicum. &c. Burm. zeyl. 129. t. .59. 

Flos Manilhanus. Rump. Amb. 4. t. 49. appears to be 
the double variety. 

A flowering shrub common in gardens over India. It is 
in flower the greater part of the year but rarely ripens its 
seed. I mean the double sort, the single ripens them fre- 
quently. 



24 TENTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. TdbertKBmontana . 

Trunk triflingr, but numerous, two forked branches, 
with a pretty smooth light ash-coloured bark. The whole 
shrub is abou^ 6 or 8 feet high. Leaves opposite, short- 
petioled, spreading, lanceolar, smooth, shining, deep 
green; margins waved a little, with elevations above the 
veins ; four or six inches long. Stipules within the leaves, 
resinous as in most species of Gardenia. Peduncles ge- 
nerally solitary, from the divisions of the branchlets, one 
or two inches long, from one to eight flowered. Flowers 
pure white, and delightfully fragrant during the night. 
Calyx five toothed. Corol funnel shaped; tube contract- 
ed towards the mouth, and crowned with small yellow 
glands, (which brings it in this respect near to Nerium ;) 
feorrfer five-parted ; divisions obliquely ovate, and curled 
at, the margins. Stamens rather below the middle of the 
tube. Germs two. Style short. Stigma single, headed with 
its slender apex, bifid. Follicles spreading ; and recurv- 
ed singly, from one to three inches long. Seeds three to 
six, irregularly oblong, dark brown, and striated ; each 
enclosed in its own proper, fleshy, deep red pulpy aril. 
Perisperm conform to the seed ; with the cordate cotyle- 
dons lodged in its thick end, and the long, cylindric, 
straight radicle, directed to the small end. 

Note. This pulp seems fit for yielding a very beautiful 
colour. The double flowered variety is much more com- 
mon than the single and is more beautiful ; few shrubs 
surpassing it. 

3. T. Crispa. R. 

Shrubby, dichotomous. Leaves oblong, pointed, waved, 
smooth. Peduncles from the divisions of the branches, 
three or four flowered. Calyx five-leaved. Follicles three 
or four seeded. 

4. T. alternifolia. Willd. 4. 1246. 
Curutu-pala. Rheed. mal. 1. P. 83. t. 46. 



Taberuccmontana. pentandria monogynia. 25 

This is a large, ramous shrub. I have only found it in 
the Botanic Garden of the Company at Calcutta, where 
it flowers durini; the rains. 

Trunk ^hoxi ; branches numerous, two forked; bark ash 
coloured ; young shoots dotted. Leaves opposite, cross* 
armed, short-petioled, reclined, oblong, pointed, waved, 
pale green, but smooth on both sides ; from 4 to 8 inches 
long and two or three broad. Peduncles from the divisi- 
ons of the branchlets, solitary, few-flowered. Flowers 
pure white, fragrant. Calyx five-leaved, leaflets cordate, 
smooth, falling. Corol ; tube a little gibbous above the 
middle, and there the stamens are lodged ; divisions oi the 
border curled. Germs two, each one-celled, containing 
four vertical rows of ovula, two on each side, attached to 
the inner elevated margins of the cell. Follicles oblong, 
three-six-seeded. Seeds surrounded with their proper 
pulpy arils, &c. &c. as in T. Coronaria. 

I never saw this species with double flowers, nor is it 
so ornamental as even the single flowered. T. Coronaria. 
To distinguish it I'rom that species, attend to the calyx, 
and follicles chiefly, the leaves being in this also oppo- 
site, made me change the Linnaean specific name atterni- 
folia, for crispa on account of its curled petals. 

7\ corymbosa. R. 

Leaves petioled, oblong. Corymbs terminal, ample, de- 
compound, all the primary divisions dichotomous. An' 
thers inclosed. 

A native of the Moluccas. 

T. parviflora. R. 

Shrubby, dichotomous. Leaves broad-lanceolate, ta- 
per, obtuse pointed. Peduncles in pairs at the forks, few- 
flowered. The five segments of the calyx ensiform. 

This small shrub, was sent from Sumatra to the Bota- 

D 



26 PENTANDRIA MONOGYNiA. TahemcBmontana. 

nic Garden at Calcutta, where it flowers during the rainy- 
season ; but has not yet perfected its seeds in Bengal. 

Stem erect, slender, round, and smooth, soon dividing 
into a few, slender, dichotomous branches, the whole 
heiiiht rather under three feet. Leaves opposite, short- 
petioled, broad-lanceolate, taper, obtuse pointed ;mrtrgfins 
waved, but entire, smooth on both sides, length from two 
to six inches and the breadth from one to two. Peduncles 
generally in pairs from the forks of the branches, few- 
flowered. Flowers pedicelled, small, white. Pedicells as 
long as the peduncles. Br«c/es few and small. Calyx 
five-toothed. Dn^mons erect, ensiform. Coro/ infundibi- 
liform; tube widest close to the mouth, and there the 
sessile anthers are lodged. Border of five falcate, linear, 
obtuse segments, which are shorter than the tube. Germ 
two-lobed ; s^?/?e of two, coalesced portions, and sufficient- 
ly long to elevate the stigma even with the anthers. 

T. recurva. R. 

Shrubby, dichotomous. Leaves broad-lanceolar, smooth. 
Peduncles in pairs at the forks, recurved, corymbiforra. 
Calyxes five-cleft. Anthers in the mouth of the clavate 
tube. 

A native of Chittagong from whence it \^as sent to the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta by Dr. Buchanan, where it 
blossoms in March and April. 

Trunk tolerably straight, but short, soon dividing into 
several, dichotomous branches. Bark smooth. Leaves 
opposite, short-petioled, broad-lanceolate, obtuse-point- 
ed ; smooth on both sides ; length from two to six inches. 
Peduncles in pairs from the divisions of the branchlets, 
short, recurved, each ending in a dichotomous corymb 
of many, long, white, drooping flowers. Bracfes lanceo- 
late. Calyx five-cleft to very near the base ; divisions li- 
near, unequal, smooth. Corol ; fufte many times longer 
than the calyx, widened at the mouth, where the an- 



Ceropegia. pentandria digynia. 27 

thers are lodged. Border of five, large, wedge-shaped, 
very obliquely, smooth, entire ses^ments. Fit short. Ati- 
thers sagittate, lodged just within the tube of the corol. 
Germ two lobed. Style nearly as long as the tube of the 
coroJ. Stigma bifid, issuing from the apex of an enlarg- 
ed glutinous gland. 

T. per^icariafolia. Willd. 1. 1246. 

Arboreous. Leaves opposite, lanceolar. Panicles ter- 
minal and axillary, small, dichotomous. Follicles many- 
seeded. 

A small tree, with smooth opposite and dichotomous 
branches and branchlets. Flowers rather small, pale yel- 
low. 



PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 

CEROPEGIA. Schreb. geu. n. 431. 

Ca/yx five-toothed. Corol with the divisions of its 
borders converging. Nectary surrounding the fructifica- 
tion, protruding five sterile filaments. Follicles linear. 
Seed comose. 

1. C. Candelabrum. Willd. 1.1275. 

Perennial, twining, smooth. Leaves ovate-oblong. Urn- 
hells pendulous. 

Njota-njoden-valli. Rheed. mal. 9. t. 16. 

Native of Malabar. It flowers in the rainy season in 
the Botanic Garden at Calcutta. 

2. C. hulhosa. Willd. 1. 1275 R. Corom. pi. 1. N. 7. 
Root tuberous, perennial. Sterna herbaceous, twining. 

D 2 



'2S PENTANDRIA DiGYNiA. Ceropegia. 

Leaves obovate, short- petioles, fleshy. Umbels short- 
peduncled, few-flowered. 

Teling. Manchi, viz. good Mandu. 

It g;rows amongst bushes in hedges, &c. on dry, barren, 
uncultivated ground and flowers during the hot sea- 
son. 

Root tuberous, a little flattened like a turnip, with 
several fibres from its base ; it is about as large as a 
small apple. Stems twining, herbaceous, smooth, succu- 
lent ; from 2 to 4 feet long. Leaves opposite, short-petiol- 
ed, obovate, with a small point, entire, fleshy, size vari- 
ous. Umbels lateral, length of the leaves, peduncled few- 
flowered, direction various. Flowers pretty large, erect ; 
tube greenish ; border purple. Calyx five toothed ; tooth' 
lets acute, permanent. Corol one-petalled ; tube swelled 
at the base, contracted about the middle, enlarging from 
thence into a bell-shaped mouth. Border five-parted ; 
segments linear, downy, purple, erect, tops united, gaping 
at the sides. Nectary ; its body is already described in the 
preliminary observations ; from each of its five divi- 
sions, rises a curved tapering, filiform, sterile filament, of 
about half the length of the tube. Anthers ?i\e pair, rest- 
ing on the black pointed angles of the common stigma. 
{Corpus truncatum.) Germs two united. Styles two, 
united, short, thick. Stigma common large, peltate, five- 
cornered, before the flower opens these corners adhere 
firmly to five, incurved, yellow glandular parts of the nec- 
tary, and between them are the anthers. It requires some 
force to separate them, to have a view of the anthers ; 
when the flower is afterwards fully blown, they separate 
of themselves, the anthers are then seen poised, as it were, 
on the five black, pointed angles of the stigma. Follicles 
two, slender, singly about 3 or 4 inches long. 

Every part of this plant is eaten by the natives, either 
raw or stewed in their curries. The fresh roots taste like 
a raw turnip. 



Asdepias. pentandria digynia. 29 

3. C. aguminata. Willd. 1. 1276. R Corom, pi 1, N. 8. 
Root tuberous, perennial. Stems herbaceous, twining. 
Leaves ensiforra, succulent.^ 
Teling. Commoo-madu. 



ASCLEPIAS. 

Contorted. Calyx five- toothed. Corol rotate, or sal- 
ver-shaped. Nectary subcylindric, embracing the organs 
of the fructification. Anthers five pairs, attached to the 
five angles of the common stigma. Follicles two. Seeds 
coraose. 

The East Indian plants of this extensive family, be- 
longing to the natural order Apocinea of Jussieu, are, 
with the exception of two or three species, uniformly 
twining perenials. The Leaves always opposite ; inflo- 
rescence sub-axillary or rather laterifolius umbells. The 
Calyx and Corol five-parted. The nectary a subcylindric 
pentagon, more or less deeply divided into five, lanceo- 
late, lamellated segments. The organs of the fructifica- 
tion consist of five pair, of one-celled anthers and as I 
cannot subscribe to Brown's opinion, I must say at all 
periods attached to the circumference, or when angular, to 
the five angles of the common stigma, and furnished with 
2i fecundating fluid, instead of pollen. The germs two, 
or very perfectly two-lobed, superior, each crowned with 
its proper style, but the two are often pretty firmly unit- 
ed, and end in a single large, roundish, or pentagonal, 
spongy body, which I call the common stigma, ( Jacquin's 
tuherculum staminiferum, and Cavanille's radix stamine- 
um) and gives the germs nearly as great a claim to t he 
first order of this class, as the other parts of the pistil- 
lum do to the second. This body is in some parts 
firmly attached to the interior lamella of the five seg- 
ments of the nectary, and that organ being united to the 
Corol, the whole falls ofi" in one body. Several of our In- 



80 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. AsckpictS. 

dian plants of this order hitherto consigned to ^ergula- 
ria, Periploca,Cynanchium, drnd Apocynum, fall into this 
genus ; nor can 1 contrive any possibility of placing 
them elsewhere, so exactly alike are all the essential 
parts of their generic character, which appears to me as 
completely Gynandrous, as any of the Orchidees. 



Section 1st. Corol rotate. 

1. A. gigantea. Wdld. 1264. 

Shrubby, hoary. Leaves stem clasping, oblong, obo- 
vate, downy underneath. Umbels simple. 

Madorus Rumph. amb. 1 . t. 14. f. 1. 

t7rka is the Sanscrit name of the lilac variety, and 
Ulurka, the name of the white. 

Ericu. Rheed. mal, 2. t. 31 the lilac, and Bel-ericu, 
31 the white. 

Neila-jeberoo, the Telinga name of the lilac flowered 
variety, and Zella-jeleereo of the white flowered. Beng. 
Akwnda, and Swetakwnd. 

This is one of the most common, large, ramous shrubs 
over India. It is in flttwer, and has ripe seed all the year 
round. It grows every where, but chiefly about old walls, 
hedges, or ruinous places. 

Stem often as thick as a man's leg, or thigh, sub-erect 
ramous. Bark ash-coloured. Young shoots covered with 
soft woolly down. Leaves opposite, decussate, sub-ses- 
sile, embracing the stem, broad, wedge-form, bearded on 
the upper side where they end in the petiole ; the upper 
surface pretty smooth ; the under one, covered with a 
white woolly pubescence, from four to six inches long, 
and from two to three broad. Umbels generally simple, 
though sometimes compound, peduncled. Peduncles round, 
covered with the same woolly substance, as the leaves 
and young shoots, and issuing alternately from between 
the opposite leaves, nearly erect, half the length of the 



Asclepias, pentandria digynia. 31 

leaves. Involucres several oblong, pointed scales. Flowers 
large, beautiful, a mixture of rose colour, and purple: 
Calyx five-parted. Corol flat. 

The white flowered variety differs only from the lilac 
flowered, in the colour of the flowers. 

A large quantity of an acrid, milky juice, flows from 
wounds made in every part of these shrubs ; the natives 
apply it to various medicinal purposes; besides which, 
they employ the plant itself, and the preparations thereof 
to cure all kinds of fits ; Epilepsy, Hysterics, Convulsions 
from Coitu immediately after bathing ; also Spasmodic 
disorders such as the locked jaw. Convulsions in children, 
Paralytical complaints, Cold sweat, Poisonous bites, and 
venereal complaints. Good charcoal for gunpowder issaid 
to be made of it. A fine sort of silky flax is in some parts 
prepared from the bark of the young shoots. A large, 
beautiful, inactive species of Gryllus feeds upon the 
leaves. 

2. A. sussuela. R. 

Succulent and smooth. Leaves petioled, oblong, point- 
ed succulent smooth. Peduncles few-flowered. Calyx 
five-leaved. Carols flat, fleshy, five-lobed. Genitalia 
short, and obcbnical. 

Corona Ariodnes. Rumph. amb. 5. 1. 182. 

A native of the Moluccas and by far the largest flow- 
ering species I have yet met with ; when expanded it is 
nearly three inches in diameter. 

3. A. acida. R. 

Leafless. Unibellets terminal simple. 
Soma-lata in Sanscrit, rendered Jioon by Wilkinsin his 
translation of the Bhagavut Geeta, p. 80, and note 42. 
Cynanchium viminale. Willd. 1. 1252. 
Teling. Tiga-tshomoodpo. 
Beng. Bramee or shom-lota. 



32 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. AsckpiaS. 

A native of hedges, forests, &c. but by no means com- 
mon. 

Stems twining, woody. Branches and branchlets most 
numerous, cyiindric and smooth ; particularly the young- 
est shoots, and they are generally pendulous when not 
supported ; naked and succulent, like those of Euphrobia 
Tirucalli. Leaves scarcely the rudiments of any to be seen. 
Flowers small, pure white, fragrant, pedicelled, collected 
round the extremities of the branchlets, in the form of ele- 
gant, small, simple umbellets. Calyx small, five-parted, 
star-like. Corol flat seemingly five-petioled, as the fis- 
sures are continued close to the base. Nectary enlarged 
at the base in form of a cup, on which rests five, large 
fleshy, incurved, undivided, white segments. Stamens 
and pistil, as in the germs. Follicles, I never saw them. 

This plant yields a larger portion of very pure milky 
juice than any other I know ; and what is rare, it is of a 
mild nature, and acid taste. The native travellers often 
suck the tender shoots to ally their thirst. 

4. A. racemosa. R. 

Twining to a vast extent. Leaves round, cordate. Gc- 
nitalia oblate. Follicles linear oblong, obtuse. 

A native of various parts of India. Flowering time, 
in Bengal, the month of May. 

Stems, and old branches woody, covered with dark, 
scabrous bark, twining up, and over trees of a large 
size ; young shoots round, smooth, bright green. Leaves 
opposite, petioled, round-cordate, entire, acuminate ; 
Loftes large, and rounded, smooth on both sides ; some 
conic glands at the base, which become brown by age ; 
length, from 3 to 6 inches and nearly as broad. Petioles 
shorter than the leaves, round, smooth. Racemes late- 
rifoliate, peduncled, smooth, nearly erect, continuing to 
lengthen as the spirally disposed flowers expand. 
Pedicles diverging, long, round, and smooth. Floivers 



Asclepias. pentandria digynia. 33 

small, smooth. Calyx ^\\c-c[c^i\ segments xo\\nAe<\. Corol 
perfectly rotate, most slightly contorted ; segments ovate, 
speckled with ferruginous marks, on a pale yellow 
ground. Nectarium very short, the five exterior lamina 
of its five divisions obversely crescent-shaped. Follicles 
large, linear-oblong, obtuse, smooth. Seeds ovate, thin 
membrane-margiued. Coma large. Integument single, a 
rather thick, light brown. Perisperm conform to the seed, 
thin, white. Embryo straight, inverse. Cotyledons cord- 
ate, thin, five-nerved, large and nearly dividing the peris- 
perm into two. Radicles clavate, pointing to the coma, 
which points to the apex of the follicle. 

5. A. asthmatica. Willd. 1. 1270. 

Leaves petioled, long-cordate, downy underneath. 
Umbels axillary, compound. Calycine. Segment s.ensi- 
form. 

Beng. C/nta-mool. 

Teling. Kaka-palla. 

This is a perennial, twining species ; it is common al- 
most everywhere, and delights most in a light sandy soil. 
It flowers during the cold season. 

AVliat is A. alixicaca of Jacquin. See Willd. 1. 1270? 
I suspect it is the same or a variety. We have one varie- 
ty in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta w ith the young 
shoot peduncles and petioles tinged with red. Root of 
many, long, thick, whitish, or light ash-coloured, fleshy 
fibres, issuing from a small, hard, ligneous head. Stems 
several, twining, slender, round, from 6 to 12 feet long ; 
young parts downy. Leaves opposite, petioled, linear, 
cordate-ovate ; those near the extremities are narrower, 
all are entire ; above smooth ; below downy ; from two 
to three inches long. Petioles about half an inch long, 
channelled. Umbels solitary, axillary, and alternate, 
generally compound. Peduncles, and pedicels twice the 
length of the petioles, round, downy. Involucres lanceo- 



34 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. AsclepiOS. 

late. Flowers numerous, small, colour a mixture of bad 
yellow, and orange. Cahjx ; divisions lanceolate, very 
acute. Corol flat ; divisions oval. Follicles lanceolate, 
spreading, three or four inches long, and about two in cir- 
cumference. 

On the coast of Coromandel, the roots of this plant 
have often been used as a substitute for Ipecacuana. I 
have often prescribed it myself, and always found it an- 
swer as well as I could expect Ipecacuana to do ; I 
have also often had very favorable reports of its effects 
from others. It was a very useful medicine with our Eu- 
ropeans who were unfortunately prisoners with Hyder 
Ally, during the war of 1780, 81, 82 and 83. In a pretty 
large dose, it answered as an Emetic ; in smaller doses, 
often repeated, as a Cathartic, and in both ways very 
effectually. 

I had made and noted down many observations on its 
uses, when in large practice in the General Hospital at 
Madras in 1776, 77 and 78, but lost them, with all rhy 
other papers, l)y the storm and inundation at and near 
Coringa in May 1787. I cannot therefore be so full on 
the virtues of this valuable, though much neirlected root, 
as I could wish. I have no doubt but it would answer 
every purpose of Ipecacuana. 

The natives also employ it as an Emetic ; the bark of 
about three or four inches of the fresh root, they rub up- 
on a stone, and mix with a little water for a dose ; it ge- 
nerally purges at the same time. 

Note by Dr. P. Russell. 
" Dr. Russell was informed by the Physician General 
at Madras, (Dr. J. Anderson,) that he had many years 
before known it used, both by the European and Native 
Troops with great success in the dysentery which happen- 
ed at that time to be epidemic in the camp. The store of 
Ipecacuana had it seems, been wholly expended, and 



Asclepias, pentandria digynia. 85 

Dr. A.nderson finding the practice of the black doctors 
much more successful than his own,ackno\vled;;ed, with 
his usual candour, that he was not ashamed to take in- 
struction from them, which he pursued with good suc- 
cess ; and collecting a quantity of the plant which 
they pointed out to him, he sent a lar^'e package of the 
roots to Madras. It is certainly an article of the Hin- 
doo materia medica highly deserving attention. 

6. A. tunicata, R. 

Leaves long-cordate, smooth. Stipules short- petioled, 
broad-cordate. Umbels simple. Nectary double. 

Periploca tunicata. Willd. 1. 1252. Retz, 3. ohs. 2. N. 35. 

Hind. Kallia-luta. 

Beng. Chagwl-patl. 

A pretty large, twining shrub, a native of the hedges, 
&c. Flowering time, the rainy season. Its milky juice 
is particularly gummy. 

Leaves opposite, petioled, cordate, with large, round- 
ed, posterior lobes ; pointed, entire, both sides smooth ; 
from 2 to 4 inches long. Petioles half the length of tlie 
leaves, stem-clasping. Stipules two in the same axil, none 
in the other opposite one ; they are short-petioled, broad- 
cordate, pointed, smooth, about an inch long each way. 
Umbels solitary, small, simple, few-flowered, occupying 
the axil opposite to the stipules. Flowers small, rusty 
colour. Corol flat. Nectary double. Exterior tubular, 
gibbous, considerably large, and completely embracing 
the inner, and the fructification ; towards the apex plait- . 
ed, and contracted ; mouth ten-toothed, the alternate 
ones very large, and emargiuate. Interior as in the ge- 
nus. Follicles lanceolar, flat on the inside, with sharp 
margins, black, deeply and irregularly furrowed. 

7. A. microphylla, R. 

Leaves cordate, with a minute point, smooth and 

E 2 



36 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA, Asclepias. 

fleshy. Racemes lateral, few-flowered, scaly with bran- 
ches. 

Parparam. Rheed. mal. 9. t. 17. 

Teling. Poola-palla. 

A lono:, small, delicate twining perennial, a native of 
hedijes, &c. Flowering time, the wet season. It is pro- 
bably CynancMum parvijlorum of the Banksian herba- 
rium. 

Leaves opposite, petioled, cordate, with a minute acute 
point, smooth, shining, entire, fleshy ; from half an inch, 
to an inch long. Racemes lateral, sessile, small, few- 
flowered. Bractes lanceolate. Flowers small, stellate, 
long-pedicelled, many of them without stamens, or pistil. 
Corol flat. Follicles as in the last two species, but smaller. 

8. A. voluhilis. Willd. 1269. 

Leaves petioled, broad.ovate, pointed, smooth. FruC' 
tification with nectary, turbinate, and truncate. Umbels 
simple. 

Watta-kakacodi. Rheed. mal. 9. 1. 15. 

Teling. Doodee-palla. 

Beng. Tita-kwnga. 

A large woody, twinihg species ; common in hedges, 
thickets, &c. Flowering time, the wet season. Bark of the 
woody parts smooth, ash-coloured. 

Leaves opposite, petioled, broad-cordate, but not sinu- 
ate at the base, pointed, entire, smooth ; from 3 to 4 in- 
ches long. Petioles from 1 to 2 inches long. Umbels la- 
teral, or a-xillary, simple, many flowered. Flowers nu- 
merous, green, with pedicels as long as the peduncle. Co- 
rol flat. Nectary turbinate, truncate. Anthers reflected 
over the common stigma. Follicles horizontal, obtuse, 
about three or four inches long, and four in circumference. 

9. A. pendula, R. 

Leaves oblong, veinless, very smooth, and fleshy. Urn- 



Asclepias. pentandria digvnia. 37 

bels simple, many flowered. Nectaries protruding five 
horns at the base. 

Nansjera-patsja. Rheed. mal. 9. 1. 13. 
■ A native of the mountainous parts of the Circars ; it 
flowers during- the hot and rainy seasons. 

Ste7ns and larger branches woody, twining, running 
over trees, kc. to a great extent. Branchlets twiggy, 
and pendulous. Leaves opposite, oblong,, smooth, shin- 
ing, of a very firm, hard, fleshy texture, veinless. Um- 
bels peduncled, lateral, solitary, pendulous with the 
branchlets many flowered. Flowers milk-white, fragrant, 
pendulous also. Pedicels as long as the peduncles. Ca- 
rol flat, inside covered with a kind of silky down. Nec- 
tary stellate; O may represent one of its five parts much 
magnified. Anthers remarkably large, reflected over, and 
resting upon the common stigma. If taken out and examin- 
ed before the flower opens, they are then found much 
swelled ; along the sharp edge there is a double line, 
which I conclude forms an opening for the prolific fluid to 
escape at, but in old flowers they are mere collapsed 
membranes. On dividing the plump ones I could readily 
press out a yellow fluid. 

Note. This is the most favorable species I have met 
with for examining the structure, and contents oftheaw- 
thers of this Gynadrous genus. 

10. A. annularia, R. 

Leaves petioled, cordate, pointed, smooth ; nerves and 
veins red ; genitalia sitting on a large annular receptacle. 

Ada-kodien. Rheed. mal. 9. t. 7. 

Teling. Palla gurgi. 

It is a native of moist vallies. Flowering time, the wet 
season. 

iS^ewi twining, perennial. Young shoots round, and very 
smooth. Leaves opposite, petioled, cordate, deeply lobed 
at the base, pointed, entire, smooth on both sides, nerve 



38 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. Asckpias, 

and veins red ; on the upper side near the base are some 
small bristly points ; from three to five inches long, and 
two or three broad. Petioles about two inches long^. 
Umbels lateral, peduncled, simple, few flowered. Flow- 
ers large, the colour a beautiful mixture of red, y^reen 
and white. Calyx five-leaved ; leaflets ovate. Corol 
flat. Nectary, its base forms a large, fleshy, somewhat 
five-sided ring. Filaments twisted. Anthers very long, 
they hang down on the sides of the common stigma, which 
is here very large, of an oval form, composed of five 
lobes, with a pentagonal crown. 

11. A. suberosa, R. 

Bark of the woody parts suberose. Leaves petioled, 
cordate, downy. Umbels simple. Corols downy. Fruc- 
tification globular. Anthers hornletted. 

Cynanchium reticulatum. Willd. 1. 1258. 

A large, twining, perennial species common in hedges, 
&c. over most parts of the coast of Coromandel. It flow- 
ers during the latter parts of the rains, and the cold sea- 
son. 

Stem, and old branchesvioo^y, twining; bark light ash- 
coloured, suberous, and cracking deep in various direc- 
tions ; young parts slightly downy. Leaves opposite, pe- 
tioled, oblong, cordate, entire, acute, downy, particularly 
when young ; two or three inches long, and one and a 
half or two inches broad. Petioles round, one half length 
of the petioles. Umbels lateral, simple, peduncled, 
about the length of the petioles. Flower numerous, 
small, star-form, greenish-yellow, scentless. Corol ; tube 
scarcely any ; segments of the border spreading ; margins 
revolute, downy. Nectarial sheath surrounding the fruc- 
tification, as in the genus, the whole small, and globu- 
lar. Anthers oval, horned, bent up over the common 
stigma. 



Asclepias. pentandria digynia. 39 

12. A. pseudosarsa, R. 

Shnibby, twininj^, filiform. Leaves from ovate to li- 
near, smooth, shining. Spikes axillary, sessile, imbricate. 
Follicles linear. 

Ceropegia tenuifolia, Linn. Mant. 346. 

Periploca ^V/c//ca. Willd. 1. 1251. when broad leaved. 

Periploca emefica, the wild one. 1251. Retz.ohs. 2. No. 
34. when narrow leaved. 

Naru-nindi. Rheed. mal. 10. t. 34. very good. 

C/himta-mool of the H indoos when the leaves are broad, 
and Sada-boari when narrow. 

Palla-soucandee is the Telinfra name for the narrow 
leaved parts, and Ghodie soucandee for the broad leaved. 

It is one of the most common, twining shrubs on the 
Coast, Bengal, &c. grows equally well in every unculti- 
vated soil, and in all situations. Flowers during the wet 
season. 

Root long, and slender with few ramifications, cover- 
ed with rust coloured bark, which possesses a peculiar- 
ly pleasant sort of fragrance, whether fresh or dried. 
Stems twining, diffuse, or climbing, woody, slender, gene- 
rally from the thickness of a goose quill, to that of a crow 
quill, pretty smooth. Leaves opposite, short petioled, 
shape very various ; on the young shoots that issue from 
old roots, and lie on the earth they are linear, acute, and 
striated down the middle with white ; on the superior, 
and old branches, they are generally broad-lanceolate, 
even, sometimes ovate or oval ; all are entire, smooth, 
shining, and of a firm texture, the length and breadth very 
various. Stipules four-fold, smixW, on each side of each 
petiole, caducous. Racemes axillary, sessile, imbricated 
with flowers, and then with scales like bractes Flowers 
small ; outside green, inside a deep purple. Calyx divisi- 
ons acute. Corol flat ; divisions oblong, pointed, inside 
rugose. Nectary, stamens, and pistil as in Asclepias. 
Follicles long, slender, spreading. 



40 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. AscUpklS. 

The Hindoos make two species of this plant on ac- 
count of the variety of the leaves ; and I long thought 
they were so, till searching more narrowly, and taking up 
many of the roots. I then frequently found every varie- 
ty of the leaves on dillerent branches, issuing from the 
same root ; which confirmed me in their being one plant. 
This is probably what Retz calls name P. Emetica but I 
am pretty clear Dr. Kbnig did not give it that name. To 
the best of my remembrance, he always conceived the 
broad leaved to be P. Indica, and the narrow to be Cero- 
pegia tenuifolia. The plant sometimes employed as a 
substitute for Ipecacuana, is what Konig described un- 
der the name Asclepias vomitoria; a drawing and des- 
cription of it will be found in my collections, viz. N. 608. 
Asclepias asthmatica. The roots, whether dried or fresh, 
have a pleasant, peculiar fragrance, which I cannot des- 
cribe. They are known on the Coromandel coast by the 
name of country Sarsaparilla ; an4 as such were often 
employed by our Medical Gentlemen. The natives em- 
ploy them in medicine more than we do, particularly for 
the thrush in children. For this disorder the dried bark is 
reduced to a fine powder, and fried in butter ; the propor- 
tion uncertain, as is often the case with Hindoo prescrip- 
tions, the quantities being in general guessed ; about a 
dram of this is given, night and morning. They are also 
employed, with some other roots in the cure of venereal 
complaints. 

13. A. roseay R. 

Leaves linear, smooth ; Racemes longer than the leaves. 
Corals fringed with hairs. Follicles inflated. 

Periploca esculenta, Will. 1. 1250. R. Corom. pi. 1. N. 11. 

Periploca esculenta of Konig. See Suppl. plant. 168. 

Dooghdika, (or milk plant ;) is its Sanscrit name. See 
Asiatic Researches, 4. 268. 

Beng. Kirai, Doodhee, Doodh-htta. 



Asclepias. pentandria digynia. 41 

Teling. Doodee-palla. 

It is a twininjj perennial ; growing in hedges, and a- 
mongst bushes on the banks of water courses, pools, &c. 
Leaves deciduous during the dry season. In flower and 
foliage during the rainy season. 

Root of filiform fibres. Stem and branches numerous, 
twining, round> smooth, running over bushes of conside- 
rable size. Leaves opposite, spreading, short-petioled, li- 
near, tapering to a fine point, round at the base, entire, 
smooth, from four to six inches long, and about three 
eighths of an inch broad. Racemes lateral, long, few- 
flowered. Flowers large, beautiful, white, with a small 
tinge of rose-colour, and striated with purple veins, in- 
odorous. Nectary, and Stamens as in the genus. Follicles 
oblong, inflated. 

On this Coast 1 do not find the natives ever eat it, or 
apply it to any purpose whatever ; cattle however eat it. 
Its elegant flowers render it well deserving of a place in 
the flower Garden. Every part abounds with milk, hence 
its names in various Asiatic languages. 

14. A. tenuissima. R. 

Filiform, smooth. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Umbels 
proliferous. Genitalia a truncated cone. 

A native of Bengal. 

Stem perennial, simple, of several yards in length, 
very smooth, about as thick as a pack thread. Leaves 
opposite, short-petioled, linear-lanceolate, base rather 
broad, and somewhat cordate, entire, plain, smooth on 
both sides; almost veinless; length from one to two inches, 
and a little more than a quarter of an inch broad. Petioles 
nearly round, about as long as the leaves are broad. Um- 
bels solitary, from between the insertion of each pair of 
leaves, proliferous. Peduncles diverging, round, smooth, 
filiform. Flowers small, of a dull purple colour. Calyx 

F 



42 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. Aschpias. 

smooth, deeply cut into five, narrow, acute divisions. 
Corol rotate ; division ovate, oblong, obtuse. 

15. A. parasitica. R. 

Parasitic, perennial, creeping. Leaves ovate-lanceo- 
late, fleshy, drooping. Umbels simple, globular ; nectary 
concave, stellate, protruding five ovate rays at the top. 

This charming species is a native of the Sunderbund, or 
forest in theaestuaryof the Ganges, where it grows on trees, 
creeping up, and over their trunks and branches to an 
extent of some fathoms; emitting roots from every part, 
which take fast hold of the parent tree. The first plant 
brought into the Botanic garden at Calcutta died when 
planted in the ground ; but when tied to trees and their 
roots fixed in any cavity or fork where some humidity 
and nourishment was to be found, they grew well, though 
slowly, and blossomed during the hot season, and about 
the beginning olthe rains in June. 1 have, however, reared 
them in common earth since. 

Leaves opposite, petioled, retrofracted, ovate-lanceo- 
late, acute, of a firm fleshy texture, and smooth on 
both sides ; veins scarcely conspicuous above, and invi- 
sible underneath; from two to four inches long, and 
about one broad. Petioles short, round, ash-coloured, in 
fact, more like a part of a branch than a petiole. Pedun- 
cles solitary, interfoliaceous, round, smooth, about an inch 
and a half long, each supporting a most elegant, droop- 
ing, globular umbel, of the most beautiful, exquisitely 
fragrant, rather small, pearl-coloured flowers. Calyx; 
leaflets linear, scarcely half the length of the corol. Corol 
wheel-shaped, with the divisions cordate. Nectary con- 
cave, stellate, protruding five ovate, thick fleshy horns, or 
rays at the the top. Stamens as in the genus. The pericarp 
has not yet been found. 



Asclepias. pentandria uigynia. 43 

Section 2nd. Carols Salver-shaped. 

16. A. tinctoria. R. 

Xgaves petioled, long-cordate. Thyrses axillary, soli- 
tary, glomerate; mouth of the Coro/ hairy. Fructification 
oblong. 

Farooni-akkar. Marsden's history of Sumatra, page 78. 

The natives of the coast of Coromandel have no name 
for it, the plant being foreign to them. 

The following description, and the accompanying draw- 
ings were taken from plants raised in my Garden at Sa- 
inulcofa, the original of which Colonel Kyd sent me from 
tlie Company's Botanical Garden at Calcutta. With me 
it is a large twining shrub and has flowered during the 
hot and rainy seasons. It is quickly and easily propagat- 
ed by layers, and cutings, 1 have not seen the pericarp. 

Stem and branches twining, round. Bark of the woody 
parts ash-coloured ; that of the young parts a little downy. 
Leaves opposite, petioled, horizontal, or rather reclining, 
cordate, or oblong-cordate, obtuse-pointed, a little downy, 
some-what bubbled, waved ; from four to nine inches long, 
and from two to six broad. There are some small subulate 
glands' on the upper side close to the base ; these while 
young yield a waxy substance. Petioles round, from one 
to two inches long. Stipules none. Thyrses solitary, be- 
tween the leaves, peduncled ; as they become old glome- 
rate, from their increasing length. Flowers very numer- 
ous, pedicelled, very small, yellow. Bractes minute. Calyx 
five-leaved ; leaflets oblong, downy. Corol funnel-formed. 
tube short, gibbous ; mouth nearly shut up with long sil- 
ver-coloured hairs. Border horizontal. Nectary, &c. 
agree well with the general character of the gems. 

The leaves of this plant yield Indigo, as mentioned by 
Mr. Marsden, and by Mr. Blake, in the first volume of 
the Asiatic Researches. I have also extracted it fromt 
them by hot water. The few experiments I have yet 

]' 2 



44 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. Aschpias. 

made, do not enable me to say positively in what pro- 
portion they yield their colour; but it was of an excellent 
quality, and as the plant grows very readily from layers, 
slips, or cuttings, I think it very well worthy of being cul- 
tivated ; particularly as it is permanent, like the Nerium, 
so that a plantation once formed, well continue for a num- 
ber of years ; and if we are allowed to draw a compari- 
son between the leaves of this plant, and those of Neri- 
um tinctorium, the quantity of colour they may yield will 
be in a larger proportion than from the common Indigo 
plant. 

Since writing the above I have learned that this plant 
is a native of Cooch-bahar and I had some of the plants 
sent me from thence, also from Pegu, from whence I have 
likewise received plants. 

Some more experiments I have made with the leaves, 
comfirm what is above related, not only respecting the 
quality of the Indigo, but also that the proportion is con- 
siderably greater than is obtained from Indigofera tinc^ 
toria. I have therefore warmly recommended an exten- 
sive cultivation thereof. 

17, A. ecliinata. R. 

Hairy. Leaves long-petioled, round-cordate, pointed, 
downy. Umbels proliferous, long-peduncled. Follicles 
covered with inoffensive prickles. Fructification clavate.. 

Cynanchium extensum. Willd. 1. 1257. 

Pergularia. Lamarck's illust. t. 176. 

Hind. Sa,»owani. 

Teling. Jutuga. 

This is also a perennial, twining species, a native of 
hedges, &c. flowering time the wet, and cold season ; it 
abounds with milky juice. Tender parts hairy. The 
smell offensive. Leaves opposite, petioled, broad- 
cordate, with a deep sinuosity at the base ; and semiorbi- 
cular lobes ; entire, pointed, very downy, from two to 



Asclepias. pentandria digynia. 45 

three inches long. Petioles nearly as long as the leaves. 
Umbels lateral, Ion g-ped uncled, sub-erect, often com- 
pound, many-flowered. Involucres few and minute. Flow- 
ers middle sized, of a dirty whitish colour, long-pedicelled, 
very fetid. Coro? tubular ; tube not quite half the length 
of the nectary ; apexes of the five divisions long, very 
acute, and spirally incurved over the common stigma. 
Anthers spreading obliquely under the margins of the 
common stigma. Follicles hedge-hogged. 



'oo^ 



18. A. geminata. R. 

Leaves ovate, downy. Umbels simple in pairs from 
alternate axils. Nectary a simple, five-toothed tube ; 
common stigma subglobular. 

Beng. Choota-doodee-lwta. 

This is also a large twining woody plant ; a native of 
hedges. Flowering time the same as that of the last 
species. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, ovate, pointed ; 
at the base a little cordate, entire, downy, from two to 
three inches long. Umbels lateral, simple, globular, 
paired, short-peduncled, thewhole being little more than 
the length of the petioles. Flowers numerous, small, 
yellow, wi>h the globular apex of the white common 
stigma projecting in the centre ; it looks like a fine pearl 
set in gold. Calyx five-leaved. Corol ; tubular, downy ; 
on the inside of the tube are five elevated ridges ; divisi- 
ons o{ the border si^re^ding, triangular, acute. Nectarial 
sheath very simple, its apex reaches very little above 
the base of the common stigma, and is five-toothed. 
Anthers erect, affixed round the base of the common 
stigma, which is large, obovate, and two-thirds above 
the nectary. 

19. A, Montana, R. 

Leaves oblong, pointed, smooth. Umbels lateral, solita- 
ry, proliferous. Common stigma globular. 



46 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. AsckpiaS. 

This is another large, woody, twining plant ; a native 
of mountainous tracts. 

Leaves opposite, petioled, oblong, pointed, entire, 
smooth on both sides ; about five inches long. Umbels so- 
litary, lateral, compound, longer than the petioles. Invo- 
lucres lanceolate. Flowers numerous, middle sized, whit- 
ish. Calyx five parted. Corol tubular ; tube five-sided ; 
on the inside are five pair of elevated, hairy ridges ; di- 
vions of the border linear. Nectary, stamens, and stig- 
ma, as in A. geminata. 

20. A, longistigma. R. 

Leaves oblong. Panicles axillary, dichotomous ; divi- 
sions of the corols linear ; common stigma sublanceolate ; 
and elevated above the nectary. Stem twining, woody, 
smooth ; young shoots covered with dark rust coloured 
down. Leaves opposite, petioled, oval, waved, pointed, 
of a smooth, shining, firm texture ; when very young 
covered with the same rusty down. Petioles short, 
generally crooked, covered with rust-coloured liairs. Pa- 
nicles axillary, solitary, dichotomous, much shorter than 
the leaves. Flowers yellow, fragrant. Corol tubular ; 
divisions of the border linear, a little twisted. Stigma 
common, green, oblong, pointed, elevated high above 
the nectary, only its base where the anthers are attach- 
ed, is enveloped by the apex of the nectary. 

21. A. odorotissima. R. 

Bark of the woody parts suberose. Leaves cordate, soft, 
though not downy. Nectary and organs of fructification 
shorter than the tube cf the corol, which is wooly within. 
Stigma subglobular. 

Pergularia odoratissima. Smith's coloured figures of 
rare plants; fasc 3. N. 16. 

Pergularia Minor B. M, N. 755. 



Asclepias. pentanuria digynia. 47 

Flos Siamicus. Rumph. Amh. 7. t. 26 f. 1- 

Mai. Tonki, or Tonkin. 

Cj'uancbium odoratissimum. Lour. Cochin. Ch. 164. 

Beng. K?nija-lMta. 

The Telingas have no name for it. 

Eng. XA^est coast creeper. 

This plant is said to have been originally introduce! 
into our gardens from Sumatra, where it continues to be 
carefully cultivated ; hence its English name, the West 
side of that Island on which we have our settlements, be- 
ing generally called in India, amongst the English, the 
West coast. 

For my part I cannot well consider this plant as a spe- 
cies o( Pergularia ; it seems to uuite the character of this 
genus with that of Asclepias. The nectary w^hich I be- 
lieve is the most essential part, is that of the latter ; and 
the corol that of the former. At all events I consider it 
as a perfectly distinct species from P. tonientosa ; on ac- 
count therefore of the exquisite fragrance of its flowers, I 
call it odoratissima. It is in flower from the beginning of 
the hot, till near the end of the wet season. The Root con- 
sists of many, horizontal, crooted, ramifications, covered 
with thick spongy bark. 

Stems twining, woody. Bark deeply cracked, and cor- 
ky on the old parts ; smooth, ash-coloured on the young- 
er, jointed ; where the joints rest on the ground they 
strike root; young, tender shoots slightly downy. Leaves 
opposite, petioled, cordate, waved, sharp-pointed, entire ; 
when young a little downy, about four inches long, and 
three broad. Petioles round, about an inch long. Umbels 
axillary, solitary, alternate, shorter than the leaves, ma- 
ny-flowered. 5r«cfes lanceolate, F?o?i;ers middle-sized, 
yellow, or orange coloured, exeedingly fragrant. Cahjx 
five cleft ; divisions waved, permanent. Corol; tube gib- 
bous, longer than the calyx ; inside covered with soft 
down. Border spreading ; divisions obliquely-ovate, a- 



48 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. Aschpias. 

bove convex. Nectary, five bodies surroundino; the pis- 
tillum, firmly united at the base but tapering from thence 
upwards into a sharp point. A single one detached, and 
veivved side ways, is seen to be split more than half way 
down, and the exterior lamina is again half two cleft ; 
the interior is concave, pressing upon the anthers, (yellow 
scales,) and receives from them a coloured impression. 
Stamens as in the genus. Germs two, ovate. Styles scarce- 
ly any ; common stigma turbinate, round the upper part of 
which the five pair of yellow anthers are fixed to its 
five minute, dark brown, hairy angles. Follicles two, 
large, oblong, tapering to a point. Seeds numerous, im- 
bricate, ovate, compressed, surrounded with a membra- 
naceous wing, aud crowned with a long coma. Recepta- 
cle cylindric, spongy, free. 

22 A. pallida. R. 

Leaves long-cordate, smooth. Umbels short-peduncled, 
simple or compound ; tube of the corol gibbous, length of 
the oval genitalia ; segments of the border linear. Fol- 
licles smooth, lanceolate. 

A native of various parts of India. Flowering time, the 
rainy season. It has a great resemblance to Vahl's Per' 
gularia purpurea. The flowers are pale yellow, and not 
fragrant, or in a very small degree. 

Stems ligneous, perennial, twining up and over trees of 
considerable size. Young shoots round, slender, and 
clothed with small, soft recurved hairs. Leaves opposite, 
petioled, long-cordate, entire, acute, smooth, but soft ; 
three or four inches long, and less than one and a half, or 
two broad. Petioles an inch long, slender, villous, and 
slightly channelled. Umbels between the leaves, (lateri- 
folius,) very short-peduncled, often compound. Pedicles 
longer than the peduncles, villous. Bractes ensiform, one 
under the insertion of each pedicel. Flowers numerous, 
drooping, pale yellow^ inodorous. Ca7?/x five- parted, shor- 



Asclepias. pentandria digynia. 49 

ter than the tube of the corol. Corol ; tube gibbous, 
outwardly ruj^ose, otherwise smooth, particularly within. 
Border of five, obliquely linear-oblong, revolute mar- 
gined, spreading segments, which are at least twice the 
length of the tube. Their length and narrowness, and 
want of fragrance are the most obvious marks by which 
to distinguish tliis species from A. odoratissima. 

Genitalia oval, just the length of the tube of the corol. 
Common stigma oblong, and almost entirely hid by the 
inner lamina of the nectary. Follicles lanceolate, smooth. 

23. A. laurifolia. R. 

Twining. Leaves petioled, oblong, polished. Panicles 
axillary, round, crowded. Corols subrotate ; genitalia 
round-oval. Follicles slender, diverging horizontally. 

A native of Chittagong, Tippera and the mountainous 
countries east of Bengal. Flowering time in the Bota- 
nic garden at Calcutta, the rainy season ; the seeds are 
ripe in March. 

Stem and branches shrubby, twining to a great extent. 
Bark brown, and every part replete with a milky juice 
which exudes from fresh wounds. Leaves opposite, pe- 
tioled, oblong, entire, some obtusely cuspidate, some e- 
marginate, of a firm, somewhat fleshy texture, polished 
on both sides; a range of dark coloured points where 
joined to the petiole ; length from two to six inches, and 
one or two broad. Petioles one-fourth the length of 
the leaves round and smooth. Panicles laterifolius, soli- 
tary, globular, crowded, much shorter than the leaves. 
Peduncles about as long as the petioles, round, villous, 
with short, ferruginous hairs. Pedicels shorter but simi- 
lar. Bractes minute, triangular. Flowers numerous, very 
small, pale yellow. Calyx five-toothed. Corol sub-rotate ; 
divisions of the border obliquely-oblong, hairy on the in- 
side ; their margins meet only, and are not contorted as 
in most species of this natural order. 



50 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. Asclepias. 

Column of fructification, including the nectarium, 
scarcely differing from the other Asclepiadice will not 
therefore require to be particularized. Follicles slender, 
diverging horizontally, round, about as thick as a goose 
quill where thickest, and about five inches long, obtuse, 
dotted with small, scabrous specks, otherwise smooth, 
and brown. Seeds cuneiform. Tuft or coma very long, de- 
licately fine, and white. Integument single, smooth, brown, 
adhering firmly to the perisperm which is in small quanti- 
ty, and pale coloured. Embryo straight, inverse. Cotyle- 
dons linear-oblong. Radicle cylindric, pointing to the 
coma or tuft. 

24. A. micrantJia. R. 

Twining, smooth. Leaves petioled, oval, rather obtuse, 
long, acuminate, tumid. Panicles sub-axillary, globu- 
lar ; corols companulate, stellate, villous. Genitalia sub- 
globular. A large, perennial, twining, delicate plant, 
a native of Hindoostan, from the vicinity of Cawnpore. 
Colonel Hardwicke sent it to the Botanic Garden at Cal- 
cutta, where it blossoms during the rains. 

25. A. herbacea. R. 

Herbaceous, erect. Leaves petioled, oblong. Umbels 
compound. Corols with globular tube, which enclose the 
genitalia. 

This is probably Sir William Jones's Padmarka, see 
Asiatic Researches, vol. 4. page 267. It is a native of the 
interior parts of Bengal, and was introduced into this gar- 
den by Dr. William Carey. 

Root perennial, ligneous. Stems herbaceous, straight, 
with scarcely any branches. Bark of the oldest parts, light 
ash colour, of the young shoots green. Leaves opposite, 
petioled, oblong, entire, smooth on both sides, pale green, 
underneath more so ; there are four or five minute bristly 
glands on the upper surface of the middle nerve near 



Asclepias. pentandria digynia. 51 

the base. Petioles about an inch long, channelled, smooth. 
Umbels between the leaves, compound, poduncled. Pe- 
duncles short, round, smooth. Pedicels twice as lont^ as 
the peduncles, one-flowered. Bractes subulate ; mixed 
amongst the insertions of the pedicels, i^/owers numerous, 
large, colour a most beautiful mixture of purple, red-pur- 
ple and white. Calyx five-leaved ; leaflets linear, acute, 
scarcely half the length of the corol. Corol ; tube globular. 
Segments of the border three-angular, (not contorted.) 
Nectarium as in Asclepias gigantea, but shorter. Indeed 
the w hole plant comes so exceedingly near that beautiful 
species, that by a common observer it may be taken for 
the same, though very different, particularly in having 
petioled leaves, and a globular tube the corol. Follicles 
two ; but I have not seen any that were full grown. 

Like Asclepias gigantea, and most other plants of the 
same order, every part is replete with much acrid, milky 
juice. 

26. A. tenacissima. R. 

Leaves long-petioled, exactly-cordate, fine-pointed, 
villous. Panicles drooping. Genitalia obovate. Follicles 
ovate-oblong, obtuse, tomentose. 

This plant is a native of the mountains near Rajemahl, 
and the fibres of its bark are employed by the inhabitants 
to make their bow strings. 

This elegant, and very useful species was first taken 
notice of in 1800 by Mr. W. Roxburgh, junior, growing 
wild on the above mentioned hills, and by him introduc- 
ed into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where the plants 
thrive luxuriantly, blossom in April, and ripen their 
seed about ten months afterwards. 

Stem perennial, twaning over trees, &c. to a very great 
extent, and in general about as thick as a large ratan. 
Branches few, young shoots downy. From ^vounds there 

G 2 



52 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. Asclcpias. 

exudes amilky juice, which thickens into an elastic sub- 
stance, very like Caoutchouc and rubs out blacklead pen- 
cil lines as readily as that does, and I think may be reckon- 
ed an additional species of it. Leaves opposite, the pairs in 
luxuriant shoots (fit lor flax,) very remote, petioled, ex- 
actly cordate, acute-pointed, entire, very soft, with much 
fine down on both sides ; general length from four to six 
inches, and from three to four broad. Petioles round, 
downy, from two to four inches long. Panicles interfoli- 
aceous, large, drooping, composed of alternate, drooping 
branches, of numerous, small umbellets, of beautiful green- 
ish yellow flowers. Bractes minute, two or three under the 
insertion of the fascicles of flowers which compose the 
umbellets. Calyx deeply five-cleft ; divisions rather more 
than half the length of the tube of the corol, and downy 
on the outside. Corol salver-shaped. Divisions of the 
border obliquely oval, with apices rounded, greenish to- 
ward the centre, with the exterior half yellow. Column 
of fructification shurt-clavate, about as long as the 
tube of the corol, with the white apex of the common 
stigma naked. Follicles ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, nearly 
round, with a groove on the inside, clothed with much soft, 
velvet-like green down ; about six inches long, and from 
four to five in circumference where thickest. Seeds nu- 
merous, obovate, thin, with a broad membranaceous mar- 
gin, and long soft silky pappus. 

The bark of the young luxuriant shoots yields a large 
portion of beautiful fine silky fibres, with which the moun- 
taineers of Rajemahl make their bow strings, on account 
of their great strength, and durability. 

During the rains, they cut the shoots into lengths at 
the insertion of the leases, peel oft' the barii, and with 
their nails, or a bit of stick on a board, remove the pulpy 
part. A person accustomed to this work, will, 1 am told, 
clean as much as six pounds of the fibres in one day. 
These fibres, and those of the bark of the Malay plant 



Asclepias. pentandria dignyia. 53 

Battang-callooee, or poolas (Urtica tenaclssima, R.) are 
by far the strongest fibres which I have met with in the 
vegetable kingdom, far exceeding those of the leaves of 
my Sanseviera Zeylanica. A line made of common hemp, 
for a standard, broke with 158 pounds when dry, and 190 
when wet ; the average of several trials. A similar line 
of this substance broke with 248 when dry, and 343 when 
wet, while one of Battang-callooee broke with 240 when 
dry, and 278 when wet. 

27. A. tingens. Buck. 

Leaves cordate. Racemes spiral, sub-axillary. Fructifi- 
cations cochleari-cylindric. Stigma oval, crowning the 
tube of the corol. 

A large, twining, shrubby plant, brought from Pegue to 
the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, by Dr. Buchanan. Flow- 
ering time the rainy season ; seed ripe the May follow- 
ing. 

Stem twining-, woody^, with numerous, twining, smooth 
branches, extending far over whatever supporters they 
meet with. Bark pretty smooth, when young brownish ; 
when old,ash-colourcd. Leaves opposite, petioled, cordate, 
entire, pointed, smooth on both sides, from three to six 
inches long, and from two to four broad. Petioles about an 
inchlong, channelled, smooth. f/wi6e/s sub-axillary, short- 
peduncled, compound. When they begin to blossom, the 
inflorescence is a perfect umbel, but becomes a long, shin- 
ing, spiral raceme. Pedicels rather longer than the pedun- 
cles, one-flowered, smooth, diverging in all directions. 
Flowers numerous, pale yellow or cream colour when 
they first expand, but grow gradually darker. Calyx to 
the base five-cleft. Curol ; tube as long as the fructifica- 
ti 3n ; on the inside run five double ridges, which are ci- 
liated with short brown hairs. Border expanding ; divi- 
sions obliquely oval. Nectary as in the genus, with the 
cordate divisions of its mouth covering the stamina, and 



54 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. AscUpias. 

lower part of the stigma. Stamina ; receptacles affixed 
to the base of the stigma. Anthers nearly erect. Style sin- 
gle. Stigma globular, smooth, pearl-coloured, half hid 
in the mouth of the tube, round its underside ten pits are 
found, corresponding with the ten anthers. Follicles o- 
vate-lanceolate, spreading, smooth, and fleshy, length a- 
bout four inches, and one in diameter where thickest. 

Dr. Buchanan informed me that from the leaves of this 
plant, the Burman people prepare a green dye. It is 
probable that those people forgot to inform the Doctor 
that it was necessary to dye the cloth yellow, either 
before or after the application of the colour prepared from 
the leaves of this plant ; in which case it will be the se- 
cond species ofAsclepias described, and figured by me, 
which yields Indigo; though, for my own part, I have not 
succeeded in procuring that material from the leaves. 

28. A. pulchella. R. 

Shrubby, twining. Leaves long-petioled, round-cordate 
acuminate, smooth. Racemes long-peduncled ; genitalia 
subcylindric, with the five exterior lamina of the nec- 
tary long, and subulate ; converging into an open dome 
high over the common stigma, 

Ada-kodien. Rheed. mal, 9. t. 7. would be a tolerably 
good representation of this elegant plant, if the fascicles 
of flowers were long-peduncled. 

It is an extensive, perennial, twining species, a native 
of the forests of Silhet, where it is called Kulum. Flower- 
ing time, the rainy season. 

Stems and branches twining ; young shoots perfectly 
smooth and deep green. Leaves opposite, long-petioled, 
cordate, entire, smooth, acuminate, from four to eight 
inches long, and from three to six broad-» Racemes very 
long-peduncled, sometimes proliferous ; by age the rachis 
lengthens into the form of a short raceme. Flowers very 
large, pure white ; long-peduncled. Calyx five-parted. 



Melodinus. pentandria digynia. 55 

smooth. Coro/ five-parted rotate ; segments oblong, in the 
bud imbricated. Nectary subcylindric ; exterioi' lamina 
membranaceous, ensiforra, ending in long, fine, acute 
points, which converge over the stigma, their texture 
horny and polished ; in their retuse tops, are the pits 
where the anthers are lodged. Germs two ; Style short ; 
common stigma five-angled ; to the points of the angles 
the five-ovate, hard, polished, chesnut-coloured bodies 
are attached, which give substantial support to the five 
pairs of large, oval anthers, by means of their thick, 
short, polished chesnut-coloured, cyathiform pedicels. 

29. A. acuminata. R. 

Ligneous parts with suberous bark. Leaves ovate-ob- 
long, acuminate, above polished, villous underneath. Um- 
bels paired in the alternate axils, sub-globular, crowded. 
Mouth of the corol with five incurved glands. 

A large scandent, and twining perennial, with the bark 
of the trunk, and old woody parts particularly spongy, 
and deeply split. The young shoots villous. UmbelletSf 
in pairs, sub-axillary, and never in opposite axils ; 
crowded with small, white, short-pedicelled flowers. It is 
a native of the forests of Chittagong, and from thence was 
introduced into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where it 
blossoms about the beginning of the rainy season. 



MELODINUS. Sckreb. gen. n. 425. 

Calyx five-parted. Corol infundibuliform ; mouth 
crowned with five simple, or divided scales. Germ su- 
perior, two-celled ; ovula numerous, attached to the thick, 
elevated centre of the partition. Berry two-celled, seeds 
numerous, immersed in pulp. Embryo furnished with a 
perisperm ; radicle centripetal. 



56 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. MelodinUS. 

1. M. monogynus. R. 

Shrubby, scandent. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, glanc- 
ing^, acuminate. Panicles axillary, and terminal, sub- 
globular, crowded, brachiate. Nectarial scales five, un- 
divided. 

Sadiil kou is the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is 
found indigenous in the forests, climbing over trees, &c. 
Flowering time the month of April. Seed ripe in October 
and November. It is eaten by the natives ; the taste of the 
firm pulp in which the seeds are immersed is sweet and a- 
greeable to the taste. 

Young shoots round, and smooth, lactescent. Leaves 
opposite, short-petioled, lanceolate, shining, entire, acu- 
minate, from three to six inches long and one or two broad. 
Stipules none. Panicles terminal, and from the exterior 
axils, subglobular, brachiate ; extreme divisions three- 
flowered. Bractes oblong, acuminate. Flowers pretty 
large, white and fragrant. Calyx of five, smooth, oval, per- 
manent leaflets. Corol infundibuliform ; segments of the 
border five, subfalcate. Mouth of the tube crowned with 
five, undivided, wooly, ensiform scales. Filaments ^ve, 
short, inserted into the tube of the corol near the base. 
Anthers sagittate, lodged rather below the middle of the 
tube, opening on the sides below the apex. Germ superi- 
or, two-celled, with many ovula in each, attached to ele- 
vated receptacles on the middle of the partition. Style 
short, and undivided. Stigma clammy, subovate, em- 
braced by the anthers, apex slender, and bifid. Berries 
of a round, somewhat four-cornered shape, size and 
appearance of a small, deep- coloured, very smooth o- 
range ; two celled. The whole very inviting to the eye, 
the firm pulp in which the seeds are immersed is palat- 
able, and is eaten by the natives where the plants grow. 
Seeds numerous, long, ovate, considerably compressed, 
size of a cucumber seed. Integument besides the pulp of 
the berry two ; exterior rugose, thick, dark brown ; inte- 



Willughbeia. pentandria digynia. 57 

terior membranaceous. Perisperm conform with the seed. 
Embryo straight. Cotyledons oval. Radicles cyliudric, 
centripetal. 



WILLUGHBEIA. Schreb. pen. n. 417. 

Calyx five-toothed. Corol hypocrateriform. Stigma 
capitate. Germ superior, one-celled ; ovula many, attach- 
ed to t AO opposite pirietal receptacles. Berry one-cell- 
ed. Seeds few, nidulent. Embryo without perisperm. 

W. ediilis. R. 

Shrubby, scandent. Leaves opposite, oblong, acumi- 
nate. Flowers in small axillary lascicles. Berries very 
large, spherical. 

L?/ti-am, is the vernacular name in Chittaq;ong, Silhet, 
&c. where it grows to an immense size, running over the 
largest trees. It is in flower and fruitnearly the whole year. 
Bark of the trunk and large branches of large, old plants, 
above half an inch thick, inwardly dark brown; surface 
tubercled ; taste somewhat astringent. Leaves opposite, 
short.petioled, oblong, acuminate, entire, polished, veins 
simple, and parallel ; length from three to five inches, and 
the breadth one or two. Peduncles axillary and terminal 
solitary, short, each supporting a few middling sized, pale 
pink coloured, short-pedicelled flowers, forming small fas- 
cicles. jBrac^es solitary, at the base of each pedicel, ovate. 
Calyx one-leaved, five-toothed. Segments ovate, subcili- 
ate. Corol one-petalled, infundibuliform ; tube gibbous 
near the middle where the stamina are lodged, a little 
hairy on the inside ; border of five, sublanceolate, smooth, 
expanding segments which are imbricated in the bud. Fi- 
laments short, inserted into the tube of the corol, a little 
above its base. Anthers subsagittate, but do not adhere to 
each other, on each side a polliniferous groove. Germ su- 
perior, ovate, smooth, one-celled] ovula many, attached to 
two opposite parietal receptacles. Style short. Stigma 

H 



68 pETSTANDRiA DiGYNiA. Chenopodium. 

conical, and closely embraced by the anthers. Berry, the 
size of a large lemon, subovate, covered with a thick, 
friable, pretty smooth, brownish yellow cortex, one-celled. 
Seeds many, nidulent, in a soft, yellowish pulp, which is 
intermixed with softer cottony flbres ; size, of a small 
garden bean; shape, various. Integuments two, exterior 
rather fleshy, and seems to furnish the soft fibres with 
which the pulp is intermixed ; interior thin and friable. 
Perisperm none. Embryo ; cotyledons conform to the seed, 
of a firm, straw colour with a tinge of pink, while fresh ; if 
wounded, a quantity of milk exudes which soon becomes 
bad. Caoutchouc. Radicle small, roundish, vaga. 

Every part of the plant on being wounded discharges 
copiously a very pure white viscid juice which is soon, 
by exposure to the open air changed into an indifferent 
kind of elastic rubber, or caoutchouc- The fruit is eaten 
by the natives where it grows, and is by them reckoned 
good. 



CHENOPODIUM. Schreb. gen. n. 435. 
Calyx beneath, five-leaved, or five parted, permanent. 
Corol none. Seed solitary, covered with a thin mem- 
brane, and closely embraced by the permanent calyx. 

1. C. album. Willd. 1302. 

Annual, erect, from two to eight feet high. Leaves long- 
petioled broad, trowel-shaped, obtuse, toward the posterior 
angles dentate, lobate, mealy. Panicles terminal, erect, 
contracted, leafy. 

Beng. Betu-sag ; used by the natives for a pot herb. 

It is common in Bengal and many other parts of India. 

2. C. viride. Willd. I. 1303. 

Annual, erect, from two to nine feet high. Leaves long-pe- 
tioled, narrow trowel-shaped, toward the posterior angles 



Beta. PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 59 

dentate-lobate, mealy while young. Panicles terminal, 
erect, contracted, leafless, very minute. 

In India we have two varieties of this species ; one en- 
tirely green ; the other with the angles of the stem and 
branches of a beautiful purple colour, and the leaves, and 
the mealy panicles somewhat reddish. The leaves of 
both, as well as those of album are eaten by the natives, 
and are very frequently cultivated by them for that end. 

3. C. laciniatum. R. 

Annual, erect, three or four feet high. Leaves long-petiol- 
ed, multifid, mealy. Panicles terminal, erect, contracted. 

Common in the vicinity of Calcutta during the dry 
season. 

BETA. Schreb. gen. n. 436. 

Calyx five-leaved. CoroZ none, ^eet/s reniform, within 
the substance of the base of the calyx. 

B. bengalensis. R. 

Annual, erect ; inferior leaves, petioled and trowel- 
shaped ; superior, sessile, and lanceolate. Flowers in 
pairs ; leaflets of the calyx, equal and not toothed. 

Beng. Palwng. 

I cannot be certain whether this diflers from maritima 
so much as to render it necessary to make it a distinct 
species; however, I think it may, as it always grows 
erect, and with its numerous branches nearly so. It is 
much cultivated by the natives of Bengal and the north- 
em Circars. The leaves they use in their stews, &c. 
Flowering time the cold season. 

Root ramous, annual. Stem erect, ramous, furrowed, 
smooth, pale green, the whole height from one to three 
feet. Leaves alternate, the lowermost large, petioled, 
trowel-shaped, and running down the petioles, smooth, 
succulent, with waved margins ; the superior, or floral 

H 2 



60 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. Salsola. 

leaves small, subsessile, incurved, nearly lanceolate, 
and with curled margins. Spikes xevy long. Flowers 
rather remote, always in pairs. Calyx ; leaflets equal, 
without teeth, or process of any kind ; margins mem- 
branaceous. Filaments inserted into a ring round the 
flower. Styles from two to four, short. 



SALSOLA. Schreb gen n. 437. 
Calyx five-leaved. Carol none. Capsules one-seeded. 
Seed screw-shaped. 

1. S. nudiflora. Willd. 1. 1313. 

Prostrate, perennial. Leaves entire, linear, obtuse, 
fleshy. Spikes terminal, long, ramous. Flowers fascicled, 
trigyuous- 

Teling. Rawa-cada. 

It is a native of salt, barren lands near the sea and 
flow ers the greater part of the year. 

Stems perennial, many, spreading close upon the ground, 
and often striking root, ramous, extremities of the 
branches ascending; young parts smooth, and coloured 
reddish. Leaves alternate, sessile, linear, fleshy, obtuse, 
smooth, generally about half an inch long. Spikes ter- 
minal, erect, very long, compound, leafless. Flowers 
very nuaierous, collected in little fascicles. Filaments 
inserted into the bottom of the divisions of the calyx. 
Styles three, spreading. Seeds smooth, horizontal, oval, 
beaked, covered by a thin membrane, and that by the 
permanent calyx. 

This plant is very common in many places near the 
sea ; the natives gather it for fuel only. The taste is 
strongly saline, no doubt it would yield good Fossil 
alkali. How many valuable sources of wealth, and 
happiness lie lost to the world, over many parts of the 



Salsola. PENTANDRJA. DIGYNIA. 61 

Company's Territorial possessions in India for want of 
encouragement, and enterprizing^ men. 

The two species of 5rt^/cormrt, already described, and 
this plant, might be made to yield harrilla suflficient to 
make soap and glass for the whole world ; at the same 
time such a work would give bread to thousands of poor 
starving labourers ; which no doubt would greatly pro- 
mote population, and the consumption of the productions 
of these fertile countries ; for, except during years of re- 
markable drought, there is always more grain produced 
than can be sold on the spot, I will not say than can be 
eaten, because few of the poorer classes can, at the best of 
times procure a sufficiency of food during the dry season 
of the year, when there is little or no employment for 
them. It therefore appears the more necessary to insti- 
tute such branches of manufacture as will employ those 
people during the dry season ; such as gathering these 
plants and burning them for the Alkali. 

Our extensive, and I may also say impenetrable fo- 
rests {^Jungle) which occupy such large tracts of the best 
lands in India mi^ht by degrees be cleared, and turned 
into potash, for the same reasons, and by the same 
means. Certainly labour is as cheap here as in Russia, 
where the largest quantities of that useful commodity are 
made. In this hot climate we have many- ad vantages that 
the Russian manufacturer must ever remain deprived of; 
viz. immense tracts of wood of the most solid texture which 
requires liitle labour to prepare it for the tire, on account 
of the great drought and heat which prevails at the sea- 
son this manuiacture could best be carried on. The same 
heat and drought is fully sufficient to evaporate the ley, 
without the least assistance of fire. All that could be ne- 
cessary, would be some broad shallow vessels, exposed 
to the sun, and wind. (In this manner would I recom- 
mend the extraci of my new Fever hark to be prepared.) 
But to effect such highly interesting objects, the labours 



(^ PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. Salsola. 

olan individual however inclined to promote the public 
good, can avail but little, when not powerfully and cor- 
dially assisted by Government. The Spanish ministry 
sensible of the value of that branch of commerce, has pro- 
hibited the exportation of the seed of their best Barilla 
plant, under the strongest penalties. 

2. S. indica. Willd. 1. 1317. 

Perennial, erect. Leaves linear, acute, semicylindrical, 
fleshy. Spikes panicled, leaf bearing. 

Teling. Ella-kura. 

With C. prostratum, SaJicorniaSy &c. a native of the 
salt moist ground near the sea. It flowers during the 
most part of the year. 

Stem woody, perennial, erect, very short, almost im- 
mediately branching out into many diffuse, alternate ra- 
mifications which sometimes rest on the ground, but in 
general they are sufiiciently strong to support themselves. 
Young branchlets erect. Leaves scattered round every 
part of the branchlets, erect, approximate, sessile, li- 
near, semicylindric, fleshy, smooth ; half an inch long, 
and one-twelfth broad. In young plants, green, in older, 
coloured. Floral leaves shorter, and thicker. Spikes ter- 
minal, erect, compound, or panicled, glomerate, leafy. 
Flowers small, collected at the axills of the floral leaves. 
Cahjx five-leaved ; leaflets outwardly semicylindric, with- 
in concave ; margins slightly membranaceous. Styles 
two, or to near the base two-cleft, hairy. Stamens shorter 
than the calyx. Anthers globular, two-lobed. Seed hori- 
zontal, beaked, enclosed in a tender membrane, which is 
enveloped by the succulent calyx. 

The green leaves of this species are universally eaten by 
all classes of natives wholive near the sea, where it is to 
be had ; it is reckoned very wholesome, and must be so, as 
during times of scarcity and famine, it is a very essential 
article of the food of the poor natives ; they dress it in their 



Celtis. PENTANDRIA DIGVNIA. 63 

curries, &c. The leaves of this plant alone, the natives 
say, saved many thousand lives during the late famine 
of 1791, 2, and 3: for while the plant lasted, most of the 
poorer classes who lived near the sea, had little else to 
eat. 



GOMPHRENA. Schreb. gen. n. 441. 

Calyx coloured, exterior, three-leaved ; leaflets two, 
converging, keeled. Petals five. Nectary cylindric, five- 
toothed. Style half two-cleft. Capsules one-seeded. 

1 . G. globosa. Willd. 1. 1321. 

Annual, at first erect, by age difi'use. Leaves ovate- 
lanceolate. Heads solitary. Peduncles two-leaved. 

Sans. Anilana. 

Hind. Lai gool-makhmul, the crimson flowered va- 
riety. Suffet gool-makhmul, the white flowered. 

Flos globosus. Rumph. amb. 5. 1. 100/. 2. 

Wadapu. Rheed. mal. 10, t. 37. 

In Gardens over India where it blossoms during the 
rainy and cold season, native place uncertain. 



CELTIS. Schreb. gen. n. 1591. 

Polygamous, Hermaphrodite. Calyx five leaved. 
Carol none. Germ superior, one-celled, one-seeded, 
attachment superior. Drupe one-seeded. Embryo trans- 
versely inverse, with scanty perisperni. 

Male. Ca^ya; five-six-parted. Coro/ none. Female. 
Calyx five-six-parted. Drupe and embryo as in the her- 
maphrodite. 

C. tetrandra. R. 

Leaves obliquely ovate, lanceolate, serrate, cuspidate, 
smooth. Flowers axillary, triple, tetrandrous. 



64 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. CeUlS, 

A native of Nepal, from whence the seeds were sent 
by Dr. Buchanan to this Garden in 1802 ; in March 
1809 the trees began to blossom, and ripened their seed 
in September ; they were then fifteen or twenty feet high, 
with stout, short, rather crooked trunks, and smooth 
ash-coloured fecrr^. J5rawc/^e6• spreading much, and end- 
ing in long, drooping, or horizontal twigs. Young shoots 
bifarious, and slightly villous. Leaves alternate, bifa- 
rious, short- petioled, obliquely ovate, lanceolate, the base 
being unequally cordate, and entire ; anterior margins 
obtusely serrulate ; points taper, acute and entire^ rather 
smooth on both sides ; while young, colored, length about 
three inches, by one and a quarter broad. Stipules li- 
near-lanceolate, caducous. Peduncles axillary, tern, 
longer than the petioles, one-flowered, generally one 
hermaphrodite, and two male. 

Hermaphrodite. Cor /i/.t, four-leaved. Stamina four, 
longer than the calyx, and expanding with an elastic jerk, 
as in urtica, &c. Germ, oblong, one-celled, with one seed 
attached to the top of the cell. Styles two, recurvate, 
thick. Drupe round, size of a pea, smooth, olive colour. 
Nut obovate, apex obtuse ; base, acute, ribbed, ohe- 
celled. Seed solitary. Integument single, thin, membrana- 
ceous. Perisperm no other than a fleshy partial Integu- 
ment, entering into the plaits of the cotyledons. Embryo, 
the size of the seed. Cotyledons variously folded. Radicle 
sub-superior, that is ascending toward the umbilicus or 
apex of the cell of the nut, &c. as in Celtis occidentalis. 
Gert. sem. 1. 374. t. 77. 

Male. Calyx smA stamina as in the hermaphrodite. 
No pistillum. 

Note. C. occidentalis has flowered in this Garden, but 
the filaments are short, and not endowed with that re- 
markable elasticity of the Urtica, as in our Nepal spe- 
cies. 



Celtis. PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 65 

2. C. orientalis. Willd. 4. 995. 

Arboreous. Leaves bifarious, obliquely cordate, serrate, 
five-pointed, villous underneath. 

Papyrus spuria. Kcemph. amom. 474, t. 472. 

Beng. Chicon. 

It is common over most parts of India, particularly in 
Bengal, where it grows to be a small, erect tree, covered 
with smooth, dark-coloured bark. It is in blossom th>3 
greater part of the year. 

Leaves alternate, bifarious, short-petioled, ovate-cor- 
date, fine-pointed, minutely serrate; above a little scab- 
rous, villous and whitish underneath. Flowers ax'llary, 
collected on short, common, two-cleft, diverging pedun- 
cles. 

Male. Calyx five-leaved, or to the base five-parted. 
Coro/ none. Stamens five, elastic, longer than the calyx. 
Pistil an oval, abortive body, in the centre of the sta- 
mens. 

Female flowers generally on a separate tree, though 
sometimes androgynous. Calyx as in the male. Germ 
oval. Styles two, hairy. Drupe small, succulent, when 
ripe black. Nut rugose, with one cell, and one seed. 

This tree is neither useful, nor ornamental, nor is it of 
Ions: duration. 



3. C. trinervia. 

Arboreous, ieaves obliquely ovate-cordate, acuminate, 
serrulate, three-nerved, smootli. Flowers pentandrous. 

A middling sized tree, a native of Chittagong where 
it blossoms in February and March, about the time the 
young foliage appears, and that of the former year begins 
to fall. 

Young shoots a little villous, the bark of the old woo- 
dy parts ash-coloured, with still lighter coloured specks. 
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, obliquely ovate-cordiite. 



66 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. UlmitS. 

remotely serrulate, acuminate, smooth on both sides ; 
length from four to six inches, and the breadth two and 
a half. Stipules ensiform. 

Male. Flowers on small, open racemes from the base 
of the young shoots, or solitary under the hermaphrodite 
ones, small and not very conspicuous. Ca/t/x five-leaved. 
Corol none. Filaments, five, short, opposite to the leaflets 
of the calyx. Anthers oval. 

Hermaphrodite flowers on slender, villous, axil- 
lary racemes, they are remote, and rather larger than 
the male. Calyx and stamina as in the male. Germ su- 
perior, ovate-oblong, one-celled, containing one ovula, 
attached to one side of the top of the cell. Style scarcely 
any. Stigmas two, spreading, large, and villous. 

4. C. tomentosa. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves long-cordate, acuminate, serrulate, 
three-nerved, scabrous above, very downy underneath. 
Thyrses axillary short, and dense. 

Native of Chittagong where it flowers in April. 



ULMUS. Schreb. gen. n. 443. 
Calyx five-cleft. Corol none. Germ superior, one-celled, 
one-seeded, superior. CopsM/es pedicelled, compressed, 
membrane-winged, one-seeded. Embryo inverse without 
perisperm. 

9 

1. U. lancifolia. R. 

Leaves obliquely-lanceolate, equally and obtusely ser- 
rulate, obtusely acuminate, hard and lucid. Flowers 
pedicelled, hexandrous. Capsules unequally obcordate, 
pedicelled. 

A large timber tree, a native of the hilly parts of the 
province of Chittagong, where it flowers in March. Trunk 
erect. Branches many, extending far on every side. 



Ulmus. PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 67 

Young shoots slender, smooth and drooping consider- 
ably. Leaves bifarious, short-petioled, unequally lanceo- 
late, very equally obtuse-serrate, of a very hard texture, 
with a lucid surface ; length from two to three inches ; 
about one broad. Stipules ensiform, caducous. Flowers 
numerous, small, lon^-pedicelled, collected in little so- 
litary fascicles in the lower axills, or in those of the 
former year's leaves. Pedkells slender, villous, one- 
flowered. Bractes many, round the insertion of the pedi- 
cells, oval, ciliate. Calyx campanulate, five-toothed, 
smooth. Filaments, six, longer than the calyx, broad, 
smooth. Anthers oval, two-lobed. Germ superior, while 
in the calyx subsessile, but after it opens it becomes 
pedicelled, oblong, one-celled, containing one ovula, at- 
tached to the top of the cell. Styles two, short, broad, and 
villous on the inner edge. Stigmas simple. Capsule pedi- 
celled, unequally-obcordate, very thin, scariose, wing- 
ed, nearly an inch each way, one-celled. Seed solitary, 
oval, compressed. Jn^e^i^menf single, thin, brown. Peris- 
perm none. Embryo conform to the seed, inverse. 

2. U. virgata. R. 

Branchlets pendulous. Leaves lucid, obliquely-oblong, 
equally serrate, base unequal. Flowers crowded, short 
peduncled, tetrandrous. Fruit obliquely oval, sessile. 

From China this beautiful, small slow growing tree, 
was introduced into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, by 
Sir John Royds ; where in about ten years, from the time 
ofits arrival, it began to blossom in November", and ripen- 
ed its seed in February. 

Trunk in trees of ten or twelve years growth, nearly 
erect, short, and not thicker than a man's leg. Branches 
few, spreading much; many of the extreme branchlets run 
out into very long, slender, pendulous twigs. Bark of 
the young parts lighter coloured, and a little scabrous. 
Height of the whole tree about ten feet. Leaves alter- 

1 2 



66 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. UlmuS. 

remotely serrulate, acuminate, smooth on both sides ; 
length from four to six inches, and the breadth two and 
a half. Stipules ensiform. 

Male. Flowers on small, open racemes from the base 
of the young shoots, or solitary under the hermaphrodite 
ones, small and not very conspicuous. Calyx five-leaved. 
Corol none. Filaments, five, short, opposite to the leaflets 
of the calyx. Anthers oval. 

Hermaphrodite flowers on slender, villous, axil- 
lary racemes, they are remote, and rather larger than 
the male. Calyx and stamina as in the male. Germ su- 
perior, ovate-oblong, one-celled, containing one ovula, 
attached to one side of the top of the cell. Style scarcely 
any. Stigmas two, spreading, large, and villous. 

4. C. tomentosa. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves long-cordate, acuminate, serrulate, 
three-nerved, scabrous above, very downy underneath. 
Thyrses axillary short, and dense. 

Native of Chittagong where it flowers in April. 



ULMUS. Schreb. gen. n. 443. 
Calyx five-cleft. Corol none. Germ superior, one-celled, 
one-seeded, superior. CajasM/espedicelled, compressed, 
membrane-winged, one-seeded. Embryo inverse without 
perisperm. 

1. U. lancifolia. R. 

Leaves obliquely-lanceolate, equally and obtusely ser- 
rulate, obtusely acuminate, hard and lucid. Flowers 
pedicelled, hexandrous. Capsules unequally obcordate, 
pedicelled. 

A large timber tree, a native of the hilly parts of the 
province of Chittagong, where it flowers in March. Trunk 
erect. Branches many, extending far on every side. 



UlmUS. PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 67 

Young shoots slender, smooth and droopinoj consider- 
ably. Leaves hiturionA, short-petiolcd, unequally lanceo- 
late, very equally obtuse-serrate, of a very hard texture, 
with a lucid surface ; len«;th from two to three inches ; 
about one broad. Stipules ensiform, caducous. Flowers 
numerous, small, lon:^-pedicelled, collected in little so- 
litary fascicles in the lower axills, or in those of the 
former year's leaves. Pedkells slender, villous, one- 
flowered. Bractes many, round the insertion of the pedi- 
cells, oval, ciliate. Calyx campanulate, five-toothed, 
smooth. Filaments, six, longer than the calyx, broad, 
smooth. Anthers oval, two-lobed. Germ superior, while 
in the calyx subsessile, but after it opens it becomes 
pedicellcd, oblong, one-celled, containing one ovula, at- 
tached to the top of the cell. Styles two, short, broad, and 
villous on the inner edge. Stigmas simple. Capsule pedi- 
celled, unequally-obcorJatc, very thin, scariose, wing- 
ed, nearly an inch each way, one celled. Seed solitary, 
oval, compressed. Integument s,\\\%\e,\\\m,hYo\\n. Peris^ 
perm none. Embryo conform to the seed, inverse. 

2. U, virgata. R. 

Branchlets pendulous. Leaves lucid, obliquely-oblong, 
equally serrate, base unequal. Flowers crowded, short 
peduncled, tetrandrous. Fruit obliquely oval, sessile. 

From China this beautiful, small slow growing tree, 
was introduced into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, by 
Sir John Royds ; where in about ten years, from the time 
ofits arrival, it began to blossom in November, and ripen- 
ed its seed in February. 

Trunk in trees of ten or twelve years growth, nearly 
erect, short, and not thicker than a man's leg. Branches 
few, spreading much; many of the extreme branchlets run 
out into very long, slender, pendulous twigs. Bark of 
the young parts lighter coloured, and a little scabrous. 
Height of the whole tree about ten feet. Leaves alter- 

i 2 



^8 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. Ulmus. 

Date, bifarious, short-petioled, obliquely oblong, equally, 
and obtusely serrate, obtuse, of a hard or firm texture, 
and somewhat scabrous, yet shining on the upper sur- 
face, length one or two inches, and about half of that 
in breadth. Stipules ensiform, caducous. Flowers axil- 
lary, minute, several together, short-peduncled. Bractes 
several, roundish, hard, dry, dark brown, concave scales 
embracing the flowers before expansion, caducous. Calyx 
four, or five-parted ; segments rounded, thin, and perma- 
nent. Corol none. Filaments four, or five ; four most com- 
mon, rather longer than the germ. Anthers large, two-lob- 
ed. Germ obliquely oval, one-celled, with one ovula at- 
tached to the top of the cell. Styles none. Stigmas the 
villous margins, of the somewhat lengthened, bifid apex 
of the germ. Capsule superior, thin, obliquely oval, and 
sessile in the calyx, with a broad, membranaceous, co- 
loured margin ; less than half an inch long, one-celled, &c. 

3. U. integrifolia. Willd. 1. 1326. Corom. pi. 1. N. 78. 

Leaves ovdte, entire. Male flowers mixed amongst the 
hermaphrodite. 

Tarn. Tambachi-marum. 

Teling. Naulee. 

A large timber tree, a native of the Circar mountains. 
It flowers during the cold season. Leaves deciduous about 
the close of the wet season ; they come out again in 
March. 

Trunk tolerably straight, and high. Bark a little sca- 
brous, of a dirty grey colour. Branc/ies numerous, spread- 
ing, horizontal, forming a large shady head. Leaves alter- 
nate, bifarious, short-petioled, ovate, though sometimes 
cordate, entire, smooth, shining ; from three to five in- 
ches long, and about two broad. Stipules lanceolate, 
caducous. Flowers hermaphrodite, and male mixed, 
and springing from little germs over the leafless branch- 
lets. 



Moacurra. pentandria digynia. 69 

Hermaphrodite. 

Calyx or corol four, five, or six-leaved ; leaflets spread- 
inc?, small, oval, caducous. Filaments seven, eight, or 
nine, exceedingly short. Anthers linear, erect, two-lobed. 
Germ superior, obovate, emarginate, compressed. Styles 
two, short, incurved, permanent. Stigmas acute, woolly, 
Capsule pedicclled, orbicular, leafy, compressed, eniargi- 
nate, one-celled, one-valved, not opening. Seed none. 

Malr flowers mixed with the hermaphrodite. Calyx 
and Stamen as above. Pistil, no rudiment of one. 

Observation. The first part of the flowers that appears, 
is the anthers ; they are then reddish ; next the calyx 
increases, and becomes visible to the naked eye, but is 
at all times small, and unless looked for, is seldom ob- 
served. 

The wood of this tree is reckoned of a good quality 
by the natives, and is employed for a variety of uses. 

MOACURRA. R. 

Polygamous. Calyx five-leaved. Corol five-petalled. 
Nectary a scale within the base of each petal. Germ su- 
perior, two-celled, cells two-seeded, attachment superior. 
Capsule two-lobed, two-celled, two-valved. Seed solita- 
ry, arilled. Embryo inverse^ with perisperm. 

M. gelonioides. R. 

Moakurra, is the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is 
indigenous ; it grows to the size of a small tree. Flowering 
time April and May ; the seeds ripen in December. Bran' 
ches numerous, ascending. Bark of the old woody parts 
rather rough with little whitish dots ; that of the young 
shoots villous, and yellowish. Leaves alternate, short- 
petioled, broad-lanceolar, entire, long, taper-pointed, of a 
thin texture, and smooth ; three or four inches long by 
one and a quarter broad. Stipules subulate, villous. 



70 PENTANDRIA DiGYNiA. Gentiaua. 

Male flowers numerous, small, and collected on 
small, axillary, solitary short-peduncled fascicles. Calyx 
five-leaved ; leaflets oval, hoary. Petals five, length of 
the calyx, but narrower and smooth. Nectarial scales five 
on the base of the petals, small, oval, alternate with, the 
filaments. Filaments five, from the receptacle, alternate 
with the petals, and shorter than them ; anthers cordate. 
Hermaphrodite flowers on a difiierent tree and 
disposed as in the male. Calyx, corol, nectary, and sta^ 
mina as in the male. Germ ovate, cordate, a little com- 
pressed, downy, two-celled, with two ovula in each, at- 
tached from the apex to the top of the cells. Styles 
two, recurved. Stigmas somewhat two-lobed. Capsule 
transversely oval, two-lobed, soft, with grey olive-colour- 
ed down, size of a nutmeg-, two-celled, two-valved, open, 
ing round the apex. Partition slender. Seed (nuts ?) one 
in each cell, or lobe of the capsule, oblong, more convex, 
on the outside completely covered with a soft scarlet 
or exterior tunic. Integuments two besides the red aril ; 
exfmor of a tough fibrous ensiform texture, and very 
ragose on the outside ; interior soft, and spongy. Peris- 
perm none. Embryo inverse ; cotyledons two, conform to 
the seed. Plumula from two to five-lobed. Radicle short, 
superior. 

In habit this tree approaches Willdenow's two Geloni- 
ums, and in the structure and contents of the germ and 
mature seed vessel, they agree almost exactly, except in 
the absence of a perisperm in this ; yet their flowers dif- 
fer widely, here they are pentandrous with a five-petalled 
corol, male on one tree and hermaphrodite on another ; 
completely dioecous, no corol, polyandrous. 

GENT I AN A. Schreb. gen. 450. 

Corol one-pe tailed. Capsule superior, two-valved, one- 
celled ; receptacles two pair, longitudinally adjoined to 
the inside of the margins of the valvelets. 



Gentiana. pentanuria digynia. 71 

1. G. verticillata. Linn, siippl. 174. 

Root creeping^, perennial. Stems simple, erect, four- 
sided. Leaves sessile, lanceolate, three-nerved. Flowers 
verticilled ; corols five-cleft, funnel-shaped, with five 
glands below the filaments. 

Exacum liy ssopifoUuni. Willd. 1. 640. 

Tcling. Nella-gullie. 

A small, erect plant, with an annual stem, and perennial 
roots ; a native of moist uncultivated grounds. It flowers 
during the wet season. 

Root perennial, creeping, filiform. Stems herbaceous, 
simple, erect, from six to twelve inches high, four-sided, 
jointed. ieaj;es opposite approximated, cross armed, ses- 
sile, lanceolate, three-nerved, smooth, entire, one and a 
half or two inches long, by half an inch broad. Flowers 
axillary, sessile, generally three-fold, vertical-like, small, 
white. Corol funnel-form. Nectary, a swelled gland at 
the insertion of each filament. Filaments short. Anthers 
within the tube. Style single, length of the filaments. 
Stigma large, two-lobed. 

2. G. cherayta. R. Fleming in Asiat. 11. p. 167. 
Herbaceous, straight. Leaves stem-clasping, lanceolate, 

three or five-nerved. Flowers terminal. Corol rotate, four- 
cleft, tetrandrous. Capsules ovate, bifurcate. 

Sans. Chirsita-tikta, Chzrataka, &c. 

Beng. Chirata. 

Calamus aromaticus of the Ancients. 

This famous plant is said to be found on the mountains 
of Nepal, and the Morungs. 

Root ramous, and probably perennial. Stems single, 
straight, round, smooth, jointed, above ramous ; branches 
generally decussated, nearly erect, with their extremities 
somewhat angular ; the whole height of the plant about 
three feet. Leaves opposite, stem-clasping, lanceolate, 
very acute, entire, smooth, three or five-nerved ; size va- 



72 PKNTANDRIA DIGYNIA. CresStt. 

rious. stipules none. Flowers yellow, most numerous, 
peduncled, the whole upper half of the plant forminji an 
elegant, oblong, leafy decussated panicle. Bractes two 
at each division of the panicle, and like the leaves, but 
smaller. Calyx four-cleft ; divisions linear, acute, perma- 
nent. Corol; border expanding, four-parted ; divisions 
as long as those of the calyx and also permanent. Sta- 
mina four. Anthers cloven at the base. Style single, as 
long as the germ. Stigma large, two-lobed. Capsules 
rather shorter than the permanent calyx, and corol, one- 
celled, two-valved, opening a little at the apex. Seeds 
numerous, affixed to two receptacles adhering to the sides 
of the valvelets. 

Note. When I refer this plant to the genus Gentiana 
I am guided by the capsule chiefly, otherwise I might 
probably have placed it with the Exacums. 

An infusion, or decoction of the whole plant, pulled up 
by the root, about the time the flowers begin to decay and 
the capsules are well formed, is much used by the na- 
tives of Bengal, and the adjoining provinces, as a tonic. 
It appears to me to be a pure bitter, although it gives 
signs of astringency with a chalybeate. Its febrifuge vir- 
tues are in high estimation amongst both natives and Eu- 
ropeans, and I think very deservedly. Our medical gentle- 
men prescribe it in the same manner, and with the same 
intention, particularly when Peruvian Bark is difficult to 
be obtained. 

CRESS A. Schreh. gen. w. 439. 

Calyx five-leaved. Corol campanulate, with stamens 
inserted into the bottom of the tube. Capsule superior, 
two- celled, wrth from one to four seeds in each. 
C. indica. Willd. 1. 1320. 

Annual, erect, ramous, hoary. Leaves alternate. Flow- 
ers terminal, sessile. Apices of the segments of the corol 
bearded. Capsule bearded, four-seeded. 



Nama. pentandria digynia. 73 

A small, erect, ramous annual, a native of sandy, salt 
lands near the sea. It flowers during the wet season. 

Stem nearly erect, from six to eight inches high, hairy. 
Branches numerous, ascending, alternate, hairy. Leaves 
alternate, very numerous, sessile, the lower, or larger cor- 
date ; the upper or smaller ovate, and lanceolate ; all are 
hairy, soft, and very small. Flowers terminal, sessile, 
small, numerous, white. Bractes like the leaves. Calyx 
as in C. cretica. Corol ; f?<6e campanulate. Segments re- 
volute, outside of their apices hairy, withering. Anthers 
oblong, incumbent. Germ, its apex woolly. Stigma large, 
globular. Capsules four-seeded. 

NAM A. Schreh. gen. n. 444. 

CaZi/a- five-leaved. Coro? rotate, five-parted. Capsules, 
superior, one-celled, two-valved, receptacle columnar. 
Seeds numerous. 

N. Zeylanica Linn. sp. pi. 327. 

Annual, creeping. Leaves lanceolate. Hydrola zeyla- 
nica. Willd, 1. 1327. Vahl symb. 2. 46. 

Sans. Langali. 

Beng. Kanchra Isha-langwlya. 

Tsjeru-vallel. Rheed. Mai 10. t. 28. 

An annual ; a native of moist, or marshy ground, such 
as rice fields. Flowering time, the cold season. 

Stems or branches many, creeping, round, pretty smooth, 
from one to four feet long. Leaves alternate, short-petiol- 
ed, lanceolate, entire, smooth. Flowers, numerous about 
the extremities of the branchlets, or solitary, opposite 
to the leaves or between them ; colour a deep bright 
blue. Calyx one-leaved, divided to near the bottom 
into five, long, narrow, pointed, hairy permanent di- 
visions. Corol five-petalled, longer than the calyx. Fila. 
me/ifs shorter than the corol. J w^/ters sagitate. Styles 
two, spreading. 



74 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. PauaX, 

PANAX. Schreh. gen. n. 1604. 

Calyx five-toothed. Corol five-petalled. Germ two- 
celled; cells one-seeded, attachment superior. Berry infe- 
rior, two-seeded. Embryo inverse, and furnished with a 
perisperm. 

1, P. palmatum. R. 

Shrubby, armed. Leaves palmate, serrate. It is found 
indigenous in the moist vallies between the hills over 
the province of Chittagong, where it blossoms about the 
close of the rains in September. 

Stem in healthy plants now three years old, in the Bo- 
tanic Garden at Calcutta, three feet high, and as thick 
as a stout walking cane, very completely armed with 
numerous, straight, acute, brittle prickles ; and on the 
tender young parts mixed with much appressed, short, 
harsh, ferruginous pubescence, which disappears by the 
time the parts become ligneous. Branches few and like 
the stem. Leaves alternate, petioled, nearly round, pal- 
mate, serrulate, smooth and firm ; when very young 
densely clothed with ferruginous down ; lobes from three- 
angular to broad-lanceolate, acute ; length and breadth 
of the whole leaf about twelve inches, say from six to 
eighteen. Petioles nearly as long as the leaves, unarmed, 
columnar base thick or somewhat stem-clasping, and a 
small acute, stipulary process on each side. Racemes 
lateral, solitary, bearing from twenty to thirty, diverging, 
peduncled, globular urabellets, of small white flowers. 
Bractes tern at the base of each peduncle ; some smaller 
on the peduncles and one still smaller under the insertion 
of each pedicel on their little globular receptacle ; they 
are all ferruginous. Calyx minute, and minutely five- 
toothed. Petals five, lanceolar, spreading. Filaments five, 
alternate with the petals, and rather longer. Anthers o- 
vate, two-lobed. Germ inferior, turbinate, two-celled, 
with one cvula in each, attached to the very top of the 
partition. Style short. Stigma bidentate. 



Panax, pentandria digynia. 75 

2. P. digitatum. R. 

Arboreous, armed. Leaves digitate ; leaflets entire, 
lanceolate, acuminate. Pawtc/es pendulous. It is theSoo- 
nath, or Kota-soona of the Hindus about Silhet, where the 
tree is indigenous and flowers in May, and produces seed 
in November. 

It is a pretty large tree, w ith numerous branches spread- 
ing in all directionSjthe younger ones armed with innumer- 
able, short, somewhat incurved, very sharp aculei, which 
fall off" with the exterior coat of the bark. Leaves alter- 
nate, about the ends of the branchlets, digitate. Leaflets 
generally seven, petiolate, oblong, and broad-lanceolate, 
entire, smooth, acuminate ; from three to six inches long. 
Petioles from ten to fifteen inches long, round, smooth, 
and unarmed. Petiolets from one to two inches long. 
Panicles terminal, from two to four feet long, pendulous, 
and composed of many, alternate, simple, globular, long- 
pedicelled, small greenish-yellow flowers. Commonpediin- 
cle armed ; partial or pedicells, with some little scaly brac- 
tes ; all are round, and somewhat downy. Calyx five- 
parted ; rfwmows ensiform. Petals Hye, oblong, patent. 
Filaments five, rather shorter than the petals, inserted be- 
tween them into a fleshy, crenate, poculiform body which 
embraces the germ. Anthers two-lobed. Germ sunk in 
the solid body just mentioned, two-celled, with one ovula 
in each, attached to the top of the partition. Style two, 
shorter than the stamina, coalesced. Stigma simple. 
Berry inferior, nearly round somewhat succulent, black, 
smooth, widely crowned with the remaining five-toothed 
calyx ; size of a black currant, and not unlike one, two- 
celled. Seed solitary, hemispheric, a small groove down 
the middle of the inside, covered with a single, rather 
tough, smooth integument. Perisperm conform to the seed, 
cartilaginous. Embryo small, inverse, lodged on the out- 
side of the upper half of the perisperm. Cotyledons 
small, oblong. Radicle oblong, superior. 

J 2 



76 PENTANDRIA DiGYNiA. Panax. 

3. p. fragrans. R. 

Arboreous, unarmed. Leaves supra-decompound ; leaf- 
lets obovate oblong, acuminate sub-entire, smooth. Pa- 
nicles terminal. 

Gootee-soona is the vernacular name of it in Silhet, 
where it grows to be a middling sized tree. Its immense 
panicles of fragrant blossoms appear in October and 
November, and the seed ripens in February and March. 

ieat;€5 alternate, approximate, oppositely supra-decom- 
pound, from two to four feet long. Leaflets ovate-oblong, 
entire, except in young plants, then remotely and very 
sharply serrulate, all rather obtusely acuminate, and 
smooth ; from two to six inches long, and about half that 
in breadth. Petioles perfectly round, polished ; base 
sheathing, and swelled. Panicles terminal, immensely 
large, and composed of numerous compound branches 
of short peduncled, globular urabellets of small fragrant 
flowers, embraced by a minute, ferruginous mealy invo- 
lucre. Calyx superior, five-toothed. Petals five, spread- 
ing, oblong-lanceolate, a ridge down the middle on the 
inside. Filaments five, alternate with, and longer than 
the petals. Anthers ovate. Germ inferior, two-celled, 
with the ovula in each attached from its upper end to the 
partition. Styles two, short, woolly. Stigma simple. 
Berries two-lobed, a little flattened, two-celled, size of 
two small peas joined. Seed solitary, attached as in 
the germ. Perisperm conform to the seed. Embryo 
minute, lodged almost transversely in the apex of the 
perisperm, with the point of the radicles a little elevated 
towards the umbilicus. 

4. P. fructicosum. Willd. 4. 1127. 

Shrubby. Leaves supra-decompound ; leaflets lanceo- 
late, acutely serrate, often laciniate. Umbellets globu- 
lar, forming terminal panicles. 

Scutellaria tertia. Rumph. amb. vol. 4. t. 33. 



L .ft 
Panax. PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 77 

This elephant erect shrub, was introduced into the Bo- 
tanic Garden near Calcutta from the Moluccas in 17J)8, 
and in April 1800 blossomed for the fust time. There 
were only two plants originally, and both completely 
hermaphrodite. 

Trunk straight, but short, soon dividing into many 
branches ; general height from five to eight feet. Bark 
dark coloured, with many small, ash-coloured, sca- 
brous dots. Leaves alternate, recurved, supra-decom- 
pound ; from ten to fifteen inches long. Pinna and low- 
er pair of Pinnuloi opposite ; there are generally about 
six pair of the former, but the number of the latter is ve- 
ry unequal. Leaflets lanceolate, often variously laciniate, 
serrate ; serratiires ending in subulate, inoffensive points, 
smooth on both sides. Petioles stem-clasping, round, 
smooth, maculated, jointed, and swelled at the jointg. 
Inflorescence may, I think it should, be called a termi- 
nal panicle, composed of numerous, small subrotund 
simple umbellets. Involucres most minute, caducous. 
Perianth small, generally five-toothed, permanent. Pe- 
tals five, linear, first spreading, then reflexed. Fila- 
ments five, alternate with, but shorter than the petals. 
Anthers oblong. Germ inferior, generally two-lobed 
though sometimes three. Styles short, two or three ac- 
cording as there are lobes in the germ. Berry two or 
three-lobed, small, lead-coloured. The pulp stains pa- 
per of a dark violet colour. Seeds one in each lobe of the 
bery. 
It is readily propagated from cuttings and suckers. 

5. P. conchifolium. R. 

Shrubby, Leaves simple, round-cordate, acutely ser- 
rate, concave. 

Scutellaria. Rumph. amb. 4. f . 31 . 

A pretty large, very erect, smooth shrub, a native of the 
Moluccas, from thence introduced by way of Madras in-. 



.7S PKNTANDRiA DiGYNiA. StroemeHa, 

to the Botanic Garden at Calcutta Avhere is grows freely 
during the hot and rainy season ; but when the cold wea- 
ther of December and January sets in sharp, it generally 
loses nearly as much, during those two months, as it gains 
the rest of the year. It is curious and ornamental on ac- 
count of the large, lucid, deep green, concave, or ladle- 
shaped leaves. 



STROEMERIA. Vahl Symh. 1. 19. 

Corol four-pe tailed, or none. Calyx four-leaved. Nec- 
tary ligulato-infundibuliform. Germ one-celled, many 
seeded. Berry pedicelled, many-seeded. 

1. S. tetrandra. Willd. 1. 993. 

Shrubby. Leaves linear-oblong. Corol four-petalled ; 
nectary infundibuliform. Stamina four. 

Cleome fruticosa. Linn. sp. pi. 957. Burm. ind. t. 46. 
/.3. 

Teling. Chemoorda. 

A large straggling, very ramous shrub ; a native of old 
walls, dry barren ground, &c. It flowers during the great- 
er part of the year. 

Stem scarcely any, but woody branches innumerable, 
with the extremities often drooping. Leaves alternate, 
short-petioled, oblong, or broad-lanceolate, entire, an 
inch and a half long. 

Stipules minute. Racemes terminal, few-flowered, 
downy. Bractes awlcd, solitary. Calyx four-leaved ; 
leaflets oval, expanding, greenish white. Petals four, long- 
clawed, equal, oval, waved, sub-erect ; two placed lateral- 
ly, and two above. Nectary tubular, erect, about as long 
as the claws of the petals ; inserted into the upper side of 
the base of the pedicels of the germ, and stamens ; mouth 
oblique, widening, jagged. Filaments four, awled, ascend- 
ing, inserted into the middle of the pedicel, or column that 



Stroemeria. pentandria. digynia. 79 

supports the germ. Anthers oval, two-parted at the base. 
Germ oblonjr, sitting on the extremity of a long, ascend- 
ing pedicel. Style none. Stigma simple. Pericarp a si- 
liqua,subcylindric, pendulous, replete with firm, orange- 
coloured pulp, in which the seeds are immersed. Seeds 
several, kidney-tbrm. 

2. S. trifoliata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves ternate. Flowers two-petalled, hex- 
androus. 

A native of Kootullum, where it was found by Dr. Ber- 
ry, growing to the height of ten feet, with long, unarmed, 
weak branches. 

Leaves alternate, ternate. Leaflets lanceolate, entire, 
smooth, about two inches long, and rather more than 
half an inch broad. Petioles scarcely half the length of 
the leaflets. Stipules subulate. Racemes terminal, from 
five to ten-flowered, villous. Flowers large, on lono- vil- 
lous, patent pedicels- Bractes minute, subulate, gene- 
rally three under the insertion of each pedicel. Calyx of 
two opposite pairs of ovate, oblong, veined leaflets, the 
exterior pair larger, the inner more deeply coloured. Pe- 
tals two, large, round, pure white, beautifully veined and 
elevated on claws nearly as long as the petals themselves 
which ascend opposite to the pedicel of the fructification. 
Nectarium horn-shaped, rising to a curve, just within the 
claws of the petals, and shorter than them ; mouth per- 
forated, and ornamented with a large, reflected border like 
a rufile, colour a bright yellow. Filaments six, elevated 
on a long ascending pedicel, opposite to and as long as 
the claws of the petals, nearly erect, and about as long 
as the pedicel which supports them. Anthers linear, erect, 
opening on the side. Germ elevated rather above the 
anthers, on a second pedicel, or stipe, linear, one-celled, 
with two longitudinal rows of ovula attached to the in- 
side ol both sutures as in the siliquous plants. Style none. 



80 pENTANDRiA DiGYNiA. HoUgama. 

stigma large, convex. Capsules berried, siliquosei- subcy- 
lindric, about as thick as a goose quill, and nearly two 
inches long, one-celled, two-valved. 5eeds a few ; reni- 
form, attached, as in the germ. 



HOLIGARNA. R. 

Polygamous. Ca/yji: five-toothed. Pe/«/s five, germ 
one-celled ; ovula single, attachment lateral. Berry infe- 
rior, one-seeded. Embryo transverse, without perisperra. 

1. H. longifoUa. R. 

Cattu-tsjeru, or Kattou-tjeroe. Rheed. Mai 4. p. 19 ^9. 

Leaves alternate, cuneiform, some inoffensive subulate 
bodies on the inside of the short petiole. Flowers pani- 
cled. 

A large tree, a native of the mountainous parts of 
Chittagong, where it blossoms in January. Seed ripe in 
May and June. 

Dr. Buchanan first found the male tree in Chittagong, 
and some years after found the female hermaphrodite in 
Malabar, and gave it the name Holigariia, from its ap- 
pellation in the language of Kurnata. He thinks it is the 
variety called Bibo of the Cattu-tsjeru, Rheed. Mai. 4. t. 9. 
And says the natives of Malabar by incision, extract 
an exceedingly acrid juice, with which they varnish 
their targets. I am however inclined to consider Van. 
Rheed's Cattu-tsjeroe to be this very tree, and his Bibo, 
or Tsjeeroo, vol. 4. p. 20. to be Semecarpus Anacardium. 
Trunk straight, in a twelve years old male tree ten 
inches in circumference. Bark smooth, ash-coloured. 
Branches patent ; height of the whole tree twenty-five 
feet. In its native soil the trunk attains to the thick- 
ness of six feet in circumference ; while the total height 
of the tree is above fifty. Leaves alternate, crowded a- 



HoUgarna. pentandria digynia. 81 

bout tHe ends of the branchlets, short-petioled, narrow, 
cuneiform, entire, acute, smooth on both sides, but paler 
underneath ; length one or two feet, and the breadth from 
three to six inches. Petioles short and thick, and arm- 
ed generally with two subulate, inoffensive, incurved, 
thorn-like bodies on each side of the margin. Stipules 
no other than the last mentioned subulate bodies, on the 
petioles. 

Male. Panicles axillary, single, much shorter than 
the leaves. F/oi<;ers numerous, small, dull white. Bractes 
small, ferruginous. Calyx five-sided ; angles somewhat 
sharp. Corol flat, to the base five-parted, or it may be 
called five-petalled. Segments oblong, villous. Filaments 
five, shorter than the corol. Anthers incumbent. 

Female-Hermaphrodite on a separate tree. Pani- 
cles, hractes, calyx, and corol as in the male. Stamina as 
in the male, but much smaller, and with minute, seem- 
ingly abortive anthers. Germ inferior, a little hairy, with 
one compressed cell containing one compressed ovula, at- 
tached to one side of the top of its cell. Styles three, re- 
curved. Stigmas crescent-shaped, a little hairy. Berry 
inferior, naked, exactly ovate, a little compressed, size 
of a large olive, smooth, when ripe yellow, one-celled, e- 
valvular. Cortex rather thick, and containing between its 
soft lamina, numerous cells, filled with a black, rather 
thick, acrid fluid as in the common marking nut, or Ana- 
cardium. Seed conform to the berry. Integument single, 
membranaceous. Perisperm none. Embryo conform to 
the seed, transverse. Cotyledons equal, ovate, yellow- 
ish. Corcle lateral. Plumula hairy, acute. Radicle ob- 
long, inverse, attached to one edge of the cotyledons, 
considerably below their apex and corresponding with 
the attachment of the ovula in the germ. 

K 



8S PENTANDRiA DiGYNiA. HoUgama. 

2. H. racemosa, R. t 

Leaves alternate, linear-oblong. Flowers racemed. 

Am-jour the vernacular name in Silhet where it is 
indigenous on the hills of that province, and grows to 
be a large tree. It flowers in M arch, and the fruit ri- 
pens in May, June and July. Branches and hranchlets 
very numerous, the bark of the former ash-coloured and 
rather rough ; of the latter, smooth, and void of pubes- 
cence. Leaves alternate, petioled, lanceolar and linear, 
oblong, entire, obtusely acuminate, of a hard texture, 
glossy on the upper surface or rather glaucous underneath ; 
from four to eight inches long, from one to three broad. 
Petioles less than an inch in length, smooth, channel- 
led. 

Male flowers I have found on a separate tree by them- 
selves collected on little lateral, and terminal villous 
racemes, small, much crowded, olive-coloured. Calyx five- 
toothed. Petals live, ovate. Filaments five, alternate with 
the petals, and with them inserted on the receptacle. An. 
thers ovate. Germ none. Hermaphrodite racemes as in 
the male but less crowded with flowers. Calyx superior, 
five-parted, permanent. Corol as in the male. Filament 
short. Anthers of tw o distinct lobes. Germ inferior, oval, 
one-celled, containing a single ovula, attached to one 
side of the cell a little above the middle. Style single, 
very short. Stigma capitate. Berry, the size of a large 
olive, obliquely, and transversely oval, smooth, when 
ripe red, pulp in considerable quantity, the fibrous pores 
contain a pale coloured acrid, thick juice as in Semecar^ 
pus, one- celled, one-seeded. Seeds transversely oval. 
Perisperm none. Embryo transverse. Cotyledons con- 
form to the seed, equal. Plumula two-toothed, fringed. 
Radicle short, truncate lateral, directly within the umbi- 
licus. 



Semecarpus. pentandria digynia. 83* 



SEMECARPUS. Scherh. gen. n. 501. 

Crt/yx five-parted. CoroZ five-petalled. Germ one-cell- 
ed, one-seeded, attachment superior. Nut superior, cor- 
date, cellular, one-seeded, sittinj^ on a large, fleshy pear- 
shaped receptacle. Embryo inverse without perisperni. 

1. S. Anacardium. Corom. pi. 1. No. 12. Willd. 1. It76. 

Polygamous. Leaves cuneiform, downy underneath. 
Panicles terminal. 

Sans. Arifshkara, also Bhela. 

Beng. Bhela, Bhola-twki, or Bela-twki. 

Eng. Marking Nut. 

Teling. Nella-jedee. 

Anacardium of the Materia Medica. 

A tree, bearing male or male-hermaphrodite flowers on 
one and hermaphrodite on another ; which circumstance 
might remove it from the fifth, to the twenty-third class 
of the Linnasan system. It is a native of all the moun- 
tainous parts of India; flowering time from May to Au- 
gust. Seed ripe in January and February. 

Dr. Konig, my predecessor, who was the first that 
described this tree, had never met with the male, other- 
wise so particular a circumstance would not have been 
omitted by so accurate a describer as the Doctor was. 

Trunk straight, covered with grey, scabrous bark, the 
bark of the younger parts smooth, light ash-coloured, 
its inner substance contains in crevices, a quantity of 
white, soft, almost insipid gum. Branchlefs numerous, 
spreading, ieare.s about the extremities of thebranchlets, 
alternate, petioled, somewhat wedge-formed, or oblong- 
obovate rounded at the apex, entire, firm above, pretty 
smooth, yet harsh, whitish underneath ; from nine to 
eighteen inches long and from four to eight broad. Pe- 
Holes one and a half, or two inches long, half round. Pa- 

K 2 



84 PENTANDRiA DiGYNiA. Semecarpus, 

nicies terminal, very large, composed of many simple 
spikes ; that of the male tree much slenderer, but as 
large, or larger, and with ramouse branches. Bractes ma- 
ny, small, caducous. Flowers numerous, small, of a dull 
greenish yellow colour. 

Hermaphrodite as in the supplementum plantarum. 
Page 25 and 182. Pericarp none. Receptacles erect, 
fleshy, pear-shaped, smooth, when ripe yellow, about the 
size of the nut. Seed a single nut resting upon the recep- 
tacle, cordate, flattened on both sides, smooth, shining, 
black ; the cover or shell of the seed is composed of two la- 
mina; the inner one hard, the outer one less so, and lea- 
thery; between them are cells which contain the black cor- 
rosive resinous juice which has long made them famous. 
This juice is of a pale milk colour, till perfectly ripe 
when it becomes black. 

Male flowers on a separate tree, they are smaller 
than the hermaphrodite. 

Calyx, and Coi'ol as in the hermaphrodite. Filaments 
five, the length of the petals. Anthers much larger than 
in the hermaphrodite. Pistillum none, or small and abor- 
tive, and in form of a semi-globular, hairy, glandular 
body. 

The wood of this tree is reckoned of no use, not only 
on account ol its softness, but also on account of its con- 
taining much acrid juice, which renders it dangerous to 
cut down and work upon it. The fleshy receptacle on 
which the seed rests are roasted in the ashes, and eaten 
by the natives ; the taste is exceedingly like that of roast- 
ed apples. Before roasted they are astringent, and acrid ; 
leaving a painful sensation on the tongue for some time. 
The kernels are rarely eaten. 

The green nuts well pounded into a pulp make good 
lime. 

The pure black, acrid juice of the cells is employed by 
the natives externally to remove rheumatic pains, aches^ 



Semecarpus. pentandria digynia. 85 

and sprains. A little is well rubbed over the part affect- 
ed. But in tender constitutions it often produces infla- 
mation and swellini^, doing much more harm than good ; 
but I think where it has not this disagreeable effect, 
which is generally the case, it is an efficacious remedy. 
It is universally employed to mark, all sorts of cotton 
cloth. The colour is improved, prevented from run- 
ning, and fixed by a mixture of quick lime and water. 
The juice or resinous balsam, is not soluble in water, 
and is only difi'usable in spirits of wine, for it soon falls 
to the bottom, unless the menstruum be previously alka- 
lized ; the solution is then pretty complete, and of deep 
black colour. It sinks in but soon unites perfectly 
with expressed oils. Alkaline livixia act upon it with no 
better success than plain water. 

It is employed by the Telinga Physicians for the cure 
of almost every sort of venereal complaint, and is com- 
monly prepared as follows : 

Take of this black balsam, and expressed juice of 
garlic, each one ounce. Expressed juice of fresh Tama- 
rind-tree leaves ; cocoanut oil and sugar, of each two 
ounces ; mix and boil them for a few minutes. A table 
spoonful is given to the patient twice a day. I know 
nothing of the efficacy of this composition. 

The bark is mildly astringent, gives out in decoction 
a deep colour, which dies brown of various shades. 

From wounds made in the bark,a dirty looking, brown- 
ish soft gum is procured, which dissolves slowly in the 
mouth without much taste. 

2, S. Cassuvium. R. 

Leaves alternate, lanceolar, entire and very smooth. 
Nut resting on a depressed fleshy, broad turbinate recep- 
tacle. 

Cassuvium silvestre. Humph, amb. 1. t. 70. 

A native of the Moluccas, from thence introduced into 



86 pENTANDRiA DiGYNiA. Semecarpus. 

the Botanic Garden at Calcutta in 1798, and in August, 
3 804, they blossomed for the first time, when they were 
handsome^ small trees, about twelve feet in height, with 
many smooth ascending branches, and branchlets. 

Leaves alternate, short-petioled, lanceolate, entire 
and very smooth on both sides ; length from ten to 
eighteen inches, and from three to tive broad. Petioles 
from one to two inches long, round, and smooth. Stipules 
none. Panicles terminal, thin, long-ovate, smooth. Bractes 
minute, caducous. Flowers numerous, small, greenish- 
yellow, and inodorous. Calyx saucer-shaped, five-tooth- 
ed. Petals five, ovate, spreading. Nectary a yellow fleshy 
ring round the base of the germ, which becomes the fleshy 
receptacle of the seed. Filaments five, rather broad, 
length of ihe germ, inserted round the base of the necta- 
ry. Germ superior, roundish, one-celled, containing one 
ovula attached to the top of the cell. Styles\hxee, spread- 
ing. Stigmas two-toothed. iVi^f resting on the large smooth, 
yellow, fleshy, cup-shaped receptacle, obliquely-obverse, 
reniform, one celled, one valved, considerably compress- 
ed, longitudinally striated and wrinkled, colour a brown- 
ish black, and of a firm leathery consistence, composed 
of an exterior, and interior integument, with numerous 
small cells between. Seed single, completely filling the 
nut, covered with a single brown integument. Perisperm 
none. Embryo inverse. Cotyledons two, conform to the 
seed. Plumula two-lobed. Radicle conical, superior, 
that is, lodged between the most elevated part of the co- 
tyledons, and at the greatest distance from the umbili- 
cus, or base of the nut. 

3. S. cuneifolia. R. 

Leaves wedge-shaped, short-petioled, villous under- 
neath. 

A native of the range of mountains which bounds 
Hindoosthan on the north, from thence seeds were sent 



Bosea. pentandria digynia. 87 

to the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where the tree grows 
slowly ; the heat of Bengal being, I presume, too great lor 
this species. 

OPILIA. R. 

Calyx five-toothed. Corol five-pet ailed. Nectarial 
scales alternate with the ^fomenfs. Style none. Berry 
superior, one-seeded. 

0. amentacea. Corom. pi. 2. N. 158. 
Teling. Balee-koma. 

A. small tree, a native of the mountainous parts of the 
Circars- 

Leaves alternate, biforious, short-petioled, ovate, or 
oblong, entire, smooth, shining, sometimes very slightly 
serrulate, about three inches long, and one and a half 
broad. Stipules none. Aments axillary, small, erect, 
before the flowers open, every where closely imbricated 
with small, peltate, kidney-shaped, pointed, ciliate, cadu- 
cous three-flowered scales. Flowers small, greenish- 
white, tern. Calyx, perianth proper, very small, five- 
toothed. Petals five, spreading, oblong. Nectary, five 
short, thick, fleshy, clubbed bodies alternate with the 
stamens. Filaments five, spreading, shorter than the petals. 
Anthers oxdiie. Germ superior, oblong. Style none. Stigma 
single. Berry size of a cherry, globular, juicy, one-seeded. 

BOSEA. 
Calyx five-leaved. C'oro^none. Berry superior, one- 
seeded. 

1. B. frinervia K. 

Arboreous. Leaves oval, pointed, entire, three-nerved. 
Male flowers under the hermaphrodite ones. 

A large tree ; a native of the Circar mountains. Bark 
pretty smooth, and brown. Leaves alternate, bifarious, 



88 PENTANDRIA DiGYNiA. Hydrocotyk. 

short-petioled, ovate, pointed, three-nerved, smooth, en- 
tire ; when young a little downy, about five inches long, 
and two and a half broad. Stipules filiform, hairy, ca- 
ducous. Racemes axillary, slender, erect, sometimes 
compound, but generally simple. The hermaphrodite 
flowers always above the male. 

Hkrm APHRODITE. Calyx or corol five-leaved; leaflets 
spreading, oval. Filaments ^ve, spreading, shorter than 
the pistil. Anthers incumbent. Germ superior, ovate. 
Styles tvfo, erect. Stigmas simipile. Berry ovscte, size of 
a cherry, cne-seeded. 

M-AhE flowers on the same raceme, below the herma- 
phrodite ones. Calyx and stamina as above. Pistil, not 
the least rudiment of one. 



HYDROCOTYLE. Sckreb. gen. n. 457- 
Umbel simple. Involucre from two to four-leaved. Pe- 
fals entire, fruit compressed, gibbous, tvvo-partible. 

1. H. asiatica. Willd. 1. 1362. 

Creeping in shady places. Leaves long-petioled, reni- 
form, dentate. Umbellets from the joints, two or more to- 
gether, short-peduncled, three or four-flovvered. Involucre 
two-four leaved. 

Codagen. Rheed. mat. 10. t. 46. 

Hind. Thwl-kwra. 

It is common in moist shady places over India, and ap- 
pears with most luxuriance during the rains, when it blos- 
soms and ripens its seed. 

2. H. rotundifolia. R. 

Filiform, creeping. iea?;e5 long-petioled, round, lobate, 
crenate, smooth. Umbellets erect, from eight to ten flow- 
ered. Involucre of three, four or more minute leaflets. 

A. small creeping species, found in wet, cultivated 



Vahlia. pEntandria digynia. 89 

spots in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta during the 
rains. 



VAHLIA. Schreb. gen. n. 452. 
Calyx five.leaved. Carol five-petalled. Capsule in- 
ferior, one-celled, many seeded. 

1. V, oldenlandioides. R. 

Annual, erect, ramous. Leaves linear, lanceolate. Pe- 
duncles solitary, two-flowered. 

Oldenlandia pentandra. Willd. 1. 676. Retz. obs. 4. n. 64. 

A native of cultivated lands on the coast of Coroman- 
del ; it appears only during the cold season. 

Stem erect, annual, round, jointed, ramous, a little 
downy, about a foot high. Leaves opposite, sessile, spread- 
ing, linear, lanceolate, entire, downy ; about an inch 
long. Peduncles axillary, solitary, erect, rather shorter 
than the leaves, each bearing two small, yellow flowers. 
Petals nearly as large as the calyx. Capsule crowned 
with the calyx, one-celled, opening at the apex. Re- 
ceptacles two, affixed by the apex. Seeds numerous. 

I believe Konig called this plant Cyrilla Oldenlan- 
dioides. 

4 

2. V. viscosa. R. 

Annual, sub-erect, ramous, downy, and clammy, Leaves 
lanceolate. Peduncles two-fold, very short, one flower- 
ed. 

Oldenlandia digyna. Willd. 1. 674. Retz. obs. 4. n. 65. 

A native of the same places with the former, and ap- 
pears during the same season. 

Stem not so straight as that of the former, less branchy, 
shorter, more downy, and a little glutinous. Leaves oppo- 
site, sessile, from lanceolate to linear ; all are entire, 
pointed, and downy ; from half an inch to an inch long. 



90 PENTANDRIA DiGYNiA. Ligustieum, 

stipules none. Flowers paired, axillary, very short- 
peduncled, small, yellow. 

The rest as in the genus. 

This is, I think Kouig's Cijrilla viscosa. 



DAUCUS Schreh. gen. n. 466. 

Corollets sub-radiated, all hermaphrodite. Fruit his- 
pid with hairs. 

D. Carota. Willd. 1. 1389. 

Seeds hispid. Petioles nerved underneath. 

Sans. Gr/njana or Gargara.* 

Hind, and Beng. Gajwr. 

Persian. Zerduk. 

Arab. Istufleen or Gazir. 

It is said to be a native of Persia. In India it is only 
found in a cultivated state. 

FERRULA. Sckreb. gen. n. 475. 

Fruit oval, flat, compressed, with three strias on each 
side. 

F. Asiafoelita. Willd. 1. 1413. 

Leaves alternately sinuate, obtuse. 

Beng. Hing. 

Pers. and Arab. Unjudan. 

Native of Persia. It does not appear that this valuable 
plant has ever been found in any part of India, or to the 
east of that country. 

LIGUSTICUM. Schreb. gen. n. 478. 

Umbelliferous, with both universal, and partial invo- 
lucres. Fruit oblong, five-furrowed on both sides. Co- 
rollets, equal, all fertile, with petals involute and entire. 

* I fiud no authority for these Sungskrit names. — W. C. 



Ligusticum. pentandria digynia. 91 

1. L. Ajowan. R. Fleming in Asiat. Res. 11. 170. 

Annual, erect. Leaves supra-decompound, with liliform 
leaflets. Ridges and furrows of the seed distinct, and 
scabrous. 

Sans. Bruhmadurbha., Ywvanzka, &c. 

Hind. &) Beng. Ajouan^ Ajwan, or Jouan. 

This is one of the most useful and at the same time 
grateful of the umbelliferous tribe. It is much cultivat- 
ed in Bengal, during the cold season. I never saw it 
wild. 

Root annual. Stem erect, the whole plant from one 
to three feet high ; branches, alternate, smooth, and 
slightly striated. Leaves sparse ; those nearest the base 
of the plants supra-decompound; the superior, less so ; 
all have smooth, filiform subdivisions, or leaflets. Uin- 
hels terminal, erect, compound, universal, of from six to 
eight rays, on rather unequal peduncles, partial, of many 
rays, on unequal pedicels. Calyx ; involucres universal, 
and partial, from five to eight, linear, unequal, shorter 
than the umbels, and umbellets, permanent. Proper 
perianth superior, most minute. Corol, universal uni- 
form. Corollets pure white, all equal, hermaphrodite, 
and fertile. Proper of five equal petals, furrowed on the 
back, and keeled within, with involute apexes and broad 
waved, rather reflected margins. Stamens as long as the 
petals. Anthers reddish. Fruit didymous, or two seeds 
united, of a compressed, broad, ovate form, with five 
scabrous ridges on each side. 

I can scarcely imagine that this very famous Indian 
plant is unknown to our European Botanists ; at the 
same time I cannot find any one of the whole natural 
order hitherto described to which I can refer it unless it 
be Bunium, aromaticum. I do not find that it was known 
to Dr Konig, nor did I ever see it but in Bengal, 

The seeds, like those of caraway, have an aromatic 
smell, and warm pungent taste ; they are much used by 

L2 



92 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. ClWlinum. 

both natives and Europeans, for culinary, and medicinal 
uses ; they are among the smallest of the umbelliferous 
orders, and are to be met with in every market in India. 

2. L. diffusum. R. 

Annual, diftuse. Leaves decompound, and supra-de- 
compound. Furrows of the seeds deep, and smooth. 
Involucres, and involucles with membranous ciliate mar- 
gins. 

Beng. Jwnglee-ajouan. 

It is found wild in the vicinity of Calcutta, during the 
cold, and the beginning of the hot season ; it delights in 
shady moist places. 

Root ramous. Stems and branches diffuse, flexuose, 
striated, dichotomous, from one to two feet long, slight- 
ly hairy. Leaves alternate, long-petioled, decompound, 
and supra-decompound, divisions variously formed, 
and jagged, a few small hairs over them and the pe- 
tioles. Umbels leaf-opposed, and terminal, compound. 
Universal and partial of from twelve to twenty-four rays, 
on nearly equal peduncles, and pedicels. Calyx ; involu- 
cres universal and partial, of from six to eight, sub-mem- 
branous, linear-lanceolate, ciliated, spreading, reflect- 
ed leaflets. Perianth, corol, &c. as in L. ajowan. Fruit 
of a compressed, rounded shape, with five smooth ridges 
on each side. 

The seed is used as a medicine for cattle. 



CUMINUM. Schreh. gen. n. 483. 

Fruit ovate, striate. Umbellets and Involucres four- 
cleft. 

C. Cyminum. Will. 1. 1440. 
Hind, and Beng. Zeera or Jeera. 
Sans. Jeera, Jeeruka. 



Coriandrum, pentandria digynia. 93 

Arab. Kimoon. 

A Native of Persia, &c. and the western parts of Asia. 



. PHELLANDRUM. Schreb. gen.n.m5. 

Umbelliferous, no universal involucre ; partial one, 
many-leaved. Florets equal, all fertile. Fruit ovate, 
smooth, crowned with the calyx, and styles. 

P. stoloniferum. R. 

Stoloniferous, erect. Inferior leaves bipinnate ; supe- 
rior quinate, and ternate ; leaflets lanceolate, serrate. 

Beng. Pan-t«<rasee. 

A native of Bengal, and found flourishing in, and on 
the margins of sweet water, about the beginning of the 
hot season. 

Roots running, fistulous, jointed, emitting fibres and 
long creeping stolones from the joints. Stem erect, striat- 
ed, fistulous, winding; from two to four feet high. Leaves^ 
the inferior ones composed of one or two lateral pairs of 
ternate, and a terminal quinate portion; the superior ones, 
quinate and ternate. Xea^efs lanceolate, smooth, serrate. 
Umbels leaf-opposed, long-peduncled, convex, many-ray- 
ed. Umbellets convex, many-rayed with involucles of 
many shortish, linear leaflets. Calyx ; perianth proper 
of five, large, conspicuous toothlets. Corol proper, 
five-petalled, uniform, white, ovate, with long, inflect- 
ed points. Fruit obovate, smooth, crowned as in the ge- 
nus. 

I do not find that the natives make any use of any part 
of this plant ; its taste, both seeds and leaves is some- 
what aromatic, but not palatable. 

CORIANDRUM. Sckreb. gen. n. 488, 
Corol radiated. Petals inflex, emarginate. Universal 
involucre one-leaved ; partial ones halved. Fruit sphe- 
rical. 



94 PENTANDRIA DiGYNiA. Anethum. 

C. sativum. Willd. 1. 1448. 

Sans. Dh2myMka. 

Beng. Dhwnya. 

N. Danga. 

Cultivated over India during the cold season. 



SESELI. Schreb. gen. n. 492. 

Umbelliferous ; umbellets globular ; universal involucre 
none, partial one subulate. Fruit ovate, striated. 

S. bengalensis. R. 

Erect. Leaves bipinnate, or more ; leaflets gashed. Um- 
bels leaf-opposed. Involucrets of several, sujulate leaf- 
lets. 

Annual. It appears during the dry season upon the 
cool, moist, shady banks of ponds, &c. 

Root annual. Stem erect, winding, piped, smooth, about 
a foot high. Leaves bipinnate, or more. Leaflets smooth, 
gashed, variously formed. Umbels leaf-opposed, short- 
peduncled, rigid, naked, from six to twelve-rayed, umbels 
lets subglobular, short-pedicelled. Involucrets linear, 
longer than the umbellets. Corollets all fertile, uniform. 
Petals ovate, inflected. Fruit nearly globular, crowned. 



ANETHUM. Schreb. gen. n 496. 
Umbelliferous, with no involucre nor involucel. Carol- 
lets equal, all fertile, with entire involute petals. Fruit 
somewhat ovate, striated. 

1. A. Panmori. R. 

Annual, erect, ramous. Xe«ve5 supra-decompound. Um- 
bel of ten or twelve unequally elevated radiae. Fruit 
oblong, deeply-furrowed, but not winged. 



Anethum. pentandria digynia. 95 

Beng. Panrnwhwree. 

Sans. Mwdhoorika. 

Mayuri. See Asiat. Res. 11. 15(>. 

Like Sowa this plant is cultivated in various parts of 
Bengal during the cold season for the seed, which the 
natives eat with their betle and also use in their curries. 
Seed time the close of the rains, about the end of Octo- 
ber. Harvest in March, when the plants perish. 

Root white, nearly fusiform, and almost simple. Stem 
erect, raraous, from the base to the top, the branches 
also erect, round and smooth, with a uniform, pale, glau- 
cous tinge, and not striated as in Dill, and Sowa, the 
general height of the whole plant from two to four feet. 
Leaves alternate, scattered, supra-decompound, divisions 
round, tapering, smooth and filiform, but by no means 
so numerous as in A. FiBniculiim which this plant re- 
sembles. Umbzls terminal, rather concave, but not 
regular, the convex, from ten to thirty-flowered umbel- 
lets, of which there are generally from ten to twenty, 
standing on peduncles of very unequal lengths. Flowers 
small, bright, deep yellow. Petals long, ovate, with 
their apices rolled in. Stamens longer than the petals. 
Germ oblong. Styles scarcely any. Seeds exactly as in 
Anethum Fceniculum and with the same taste. 

The seeds of this plant, for which it is cultivated, pos- 
sess a pleasant, warmish, very sweet taste, and aromatic 
smell so much like sweet fennel that I should certainly 
have thought them at most nothing but varieties of the 
same species, if 1 had not had both growing before me 
for several 3 ears in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta where 
plants of ^ FcBniculum reared from Europe seed do not 
blossom till the second year, during which period the 
leaves are bifari;)us, infinitely larger and more divided 
than in Panmuhuree, Mhich is an annual plant of only 
four or five months duration with the leaves at all times 
scattered, fewer and more remote. 



96 PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. AnetflUm. 

From myAnethum Sowa, Panmori differs very conspicu- 
ously in many respects, bwt the best mark is in the seeds. 
In this they are longer, less flattened and without any 
membranaceous rim, or border. In that, much flattened 
with a thin margin, like that of ^1. graveolens. 



2. A. Sowa. R. 

Annual. Leaves supra-decompound. Umbel of from 
five to fifteen radii, equally elevated. Seeds flat, with a 
membranous margin and three ribs on the back. 

Sans. Mishreya. 

Beng. Sowa, shuloopa, soolpa. 

A native of Bengal, where it is cultivated for the seeds, 
which are much used for culinary and medicinal purposes. 
Time of culture the cold season. 

Root annual, in fact of only a few months duration. 
Stem winding, ramous, smooth, striated with deeper and 
lighter green, and covered with a whitish bloom ; from two 
to three feet high. Leaves alternate, petioled, decom- 
pound, and supra-decompound, leaflets filiform, as in Fefi" 
nel. Petioles, their lower half sheathing. Umbels termi- 
nal, convex, without involucres or involucels. Calyx, 
proper, scarcely any. Corol, universal, uniform. Corollets 
yellow, all fertile and equal. Proper, petals ovate-oblong, 
inflected. Stamenslongex than the petals. Germ beneath, 
obovate. Styles scarcely any. Fruit oval, compressed, 
composed of two seeds each, with three ridges on its out- 
side, and surrounded with a membranaceous margin. 

The seeds are to be met with in every market over 
India, they are much used by the natives in their curries, 
and also for medicinal uses. 

3. A. trifoliatum- R. 

Annual. Leaves ternate. Seeds reniform, slightly striat- 
ed. A native of the Circar vallies ; not cultivated. 



Apium. PENTANDRIA DIGYNIA. 97 

APIUM. Schreb. gen. n. 499. 

Involucre one or more leaved. Petals equal. Flow' 
ers all fertile. Fruit small, gibbous, ribbed. Style de- 
flexed. :•;. ., ...^ , , t^ Aj< 

-^ Annual, glaucous, villous, superior leaflets filiform both -^A^E^ 
general and partial about six-leaved, ^'^*^'^kUsm 

Betig. Chanoo, also Radliooni- '^'*' /'A'> 

Hind. Ujmood, Ujmud. ^ 

I have only met with this plant in its cultivated state « 

and it is often raised in our Gardens in India as a sub- 
stitute for parsley, A.petroselinum. It is cultivated over 
many parts of Bengal during the cold season, for the seed 
only, which the natives use in diet, and medicine ; the 
leaves they make no use of. 

Root annual, white, penetrating deeply into the soil. 
Stem erect, flexuous, glaucous, slightly villous. Branches 
numerous, and like the stem ; height of the whole plant 
about three feet, ieaves alternate, petioled, decompound 
by ternary. Leaflets, of the lower leaves broad, variously 
and deeply cut ; of the superior ones narrower, ever to li- 
near, and often simple. Umbel, universal, generally of 
about six spreading rays ; in luxuriant plants these are 
sometinles proliferous ; partial, of from twelve to twenty. 
Involucre and Involucels of about six villous subulate 
leaflets. The first shorter than the rays ; the latter of 
nearly the same length. Flowers numerous, all fertile, 
white. Perianth scarcely any. Petals ovate, with a long, 
taper, inflected apex. Seed small, ovate, villous, gib- 
bous, and three-ribbed on the back. 

M 



98 PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. Rkus. 



PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 

RHUS. Schreb. geii. n. 502. 

Ca/yx five-parted. C'oro/five-petallcd. Ggr»i superi- 
or, one-celled, one seeded, attachment, base and vertici. 
Drupe one-seeded. Embryo inverse, without perisperm. 

1. H. succedaneum. Willd. 1. 1497. 

Arboreous. Leaflets five pair, entire, oblong-lanceolate. 
Petioles simple. Berry oblique. 

Arbor vernicifera spuria, &ic. Kosmpf. Amoen.794:. f. 795. 

A small tree, in blossom, was received from Dr. Berry at 
Madras, into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta in April 
1801, which came originally from China. It had not in 
March 1809 attained a greater height than about ten feet, 
so slowly does it grow, but it blossoms annually dur- 
ing the hot season and produces an abundance of fruit. 

Trunk short, with but few, ascending branches, cover- 
ed with smooth ash-coloured bark. Leaves about the ends 
of the branches, alternate, unequally pinnate, from six 
to twelve inches long. Leaflets from four to six pair, op- 
posite, obliquely broad-lanceolate, long, taper-pointed, 
drooping, entire, perfectly smooth on both sides ; from 
three to four inches long, and about one inch broad. Pe- 
tioles round, and smooth. Panicles axillary or from the 
base of the naked branchlets of the present year's shoots, 
spreading, ovate, very ramous. Flowers small, very nu- 
merous, short- pedicelled, yellow. Bractes small, one- 
flowered. Calyx, here it may be said to consist of five- 
leaflets. Petals five, oblong, first spreading, but soon be- 
coming reflected back over the calyx. Nectary a five-lob- 
ed cup, as in the Rhanini, between the base of the germ, 
and the insertion of the petal and stamens. Filaments 
five, the length of the corol, erect, inserted, alternate with 



Rhus. PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 99 

the petals. Anthers ovate-oblong. Germ superior, coni- 
cal, one-celled, containing one ovula attached from its 
apex to the bottom of the cell. Style short. Stigma three- 
lobed. Drupe the size of a pea, obliquely-reniform. 

2. R. Bucki-amela. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets five-pair, ovate, 
serrate, villous ; exterior half of the petiole winged. Pa- 
nicle terminal. Berries orbicular, compressed, viscid. 

Bucki-amela is the name under which it was sent from 
Nepal. 

October, 1800. There are now many of the young trees 
in the Botanic Garden, in full blossom. The seeds were 
received from Nepal about two years ago. At present 
they are from six to twelve feet high, with an erect, soft, 
woody stem, and a few simple, ascending branches. 

Note, in 1812. They scarcely ever grow larger. 

Leaves alternate, pinnate, from one to two feet long. 
Leaflets from four to six pair, opposite, subsessile, ovate, 
oblong, serrate, pointed ; of a thick, firm texture ; villous 
on both sides, and whitish underneath ; from four to 
six inches long, and from two to three broad. Petioles 
round, somewhat villous, the exterior joint or two often 
winged. Panicles, a very large, expanding one termi- 
nates the branches, and single smaller onesspring from the 
exterior axills. Flowers numerous, small, pale yellowish 
green. Calyx, corol, stamina and pistillum as in the ge- 
nus ; the germ contains only a single ovula from the apex 
of which the umbillical cord proceeds to the bottom of the 
of the cell where its attachment is. Drupe the size of a pea, 
orbicular, compressed, when ripe, greenish-white, with 
a tinge of yellow near the apex and somewhat clammy. 
Nut smooth, dark brown, much compressed. 

The berries or little drupes are covered with a very 
small portion of a pulpy envelope which is of a sharp, 
acid taste, and in Nepal, I am told, is much esteemed. 

M 2 



100 PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. TamaHx. 

3. R. parviflorum. R. 

Subarboreous ; all the tender parts very downy. Leaves 
ternate ; leaflets sessile, obovate, anterior margins ser- 
rate-crenate. Panicles terminal. 

A small bushy tree, a native of Nepal from thence in- 
troduced into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta where it 
blossoms during the rainy season. 



SAMBUCUS. Schreh. gen. n. 505. 
Calyx five-parted. Corol five-cleft. Berry three-seed- 
ed. 

S. Ehiilus. Willd. 1. 1494. 

Herbaceous. Leaflets from seven to nine, sessile, lan- 
ceolate, finely serrate. Stipules quatern (four on each 
side,) leafy, unequal. Cyines from three to six-parted. 

A native of Rungpore in Bengal. It flowers during the 
rainy season. Its taste is simple herbaceous and has 
nothing of the ungrateful smell of the Europe plant. It 
may be a difl'erent species, though I cannot at present fix 
on a different character. 



TAMARIX. Schreb. gen n. 510. 

Calyx five -parted. Corol five-petalled. Germ superior, 
one-celled, many seeded, attachment parietal. Capsule 
one-celled, three-valved. Seed comose. Embryo centri- 
fugal ; no perisperm. 

1. T. indica. K'on. Mss. 

Arboreous. Panicles terminal, racemed. Style single 
and short. Anthers double, and crowned. 
T. Chinensis. Lour. Cochin Ch. 228. 
T. Articulata. Vahl. Sytnb. 2. 48. t. 32. Willd. 1. 1498. 
Sans. Jhavuka. 
Betig. Jhou^ Jhouca, Jhaoo. 



Tamarix. pentandria trigynia. 101 

This species grows to be a middling tree, is a native 
of sandy islands in large rivers or on their sandy banks, 
or in the vicinity of the sea, between Upara and Pan- 
tacota, on the coast of Coromandel. It flowers during 
the latter part of the rainy season. 

Trunk often as thick as a man's body, from six to 
twelve feet high, generally crooked. Bark scabrous. 
Branches numerous spreading in every direction ; their 
bark greenish, with brown scabrous specks. Leaves mi- 
nute, sessile, pressing close to the branchlets ; on the ex- 
tremities of the young shoots, imbricated ; on those more 
advanced in size, more remote, occasioned by the increas- 
ing size of the branchlets. Flowers small, white, exceeding- 
ly numerous, collected on many terminal racemes forming 
a very large, beautifully drooping panicle. Bractes leaf- 
like, solitary, one-flowered. Filaments twice the length 
of the petals. Anthers four-lobed, with a terminal point. 
Sfi/le short, single, more than halfway three-cleft ; divisi- 
ons or stigmas recurved, feathery. 

When it meets with a good soil, it has a very elegant 
appearance, particularly when in flower. 

2. T. dioeca. R. 

Dioecous, arboreous. Leaves short, obliquely truncat- 
ed. Panicles terminal. Miile flowers pentandrous. Fe- 
male with five abortive stamens. 

Beng. Lai Jhou. 

Picpula. Asiat. Res. 4. p. 268. 

A native of the islands in the Ganges and of its banks 
above Sook-saugor, where it blossoms during the rains, 
at which period, in some situations, little more than the 
tops of the plants are to be seen above water. In our 
gardens it is in flower the greater part of the year and is 
highly ornamental. 

Trunk short, covered with dark-coloured, cracked bark. 
Branches very numerous, spreading in every direction 



102 PENTANDRiA TRiGYNiA. PJiamaceum. 

with their extremities drooping. Leaves tubular, ob- 
liquely truncated, pointed, smooth ; in fact, they appear 
more like joints of the bark than leaves. Spikes termi- 
nal, simple, cylindric, often drooping-, and so numerous 
as to compose the most beautiful droopin^^ panicles on 
the extremities of the branches and branchlets. Flowers 
very numerous, sessile, small, rose-coloured, inodorous. 
Bractes triangular, acute, one-flowered. 

Male Flowers. Ca/i/x five-leaved. CoroZ five-pe- 
talled. Petals linear oblong, emarginate. Filaments five, 
longer than the petals. Anthers purple, two-lobed, with 
a projecting gland between them. Pistillum nothing more 
in all the flowers I examined, than a three-lobed gland in 
the centre of the flower. 

Female Hermaphrodite Flowers on a separate 
plant. 

Calyx as in the male. Petals rather broader than in 
the male. Filaments five, the length of the germ. An- 
thers sagittate, glands without the appearance of pol- 
len. Germ three-lobed. Styles three, longer than the 
corol. Stigmas clavate, recurved, retuse. Capsules co- 
nical, three-sided, one-celled, three-valved, hid in the 
withered calyx, and corol. Seeds numerous, compressed, 
seemingly imbricated. 



PHARNACEUM. Schreh.gen. n. 517. 

Calyx five-leaved. Corol none. Capsule three-celled, 
many seeded. 

1. P. Mollugo. Willd. 1. 1508. 

Annual, procumbent. Leaves verticelled, lanceolate ; 
peduncles lateral, one-flowered. Sterile filaments alter- 
nate with the stamina ; anther twin ; capsule subcylindric. 
Seeds with a reflected filament. 

Alcine erecta. Burm, Zeyl. 13. t. 7. 



Pharnaceitm. pentandria trigynia. 103 

Molluga spergularia sp. plant. 131. Burnt, flor, Ind. 3. 
t s.f. 4. 

Beng. Ghima Sag, or Shak. Sliak means a pot herb. 

Common over India, generally a weed in gardens during 
the cold season. 

2. P. pentagynum. R. 

Annual, prostrate, dichotomous, hoary with stellate 
down. Leaves opposite, round. Flowers axillary. 

Beng. Doosera-sag. 

It appears during the cold and the beginning of the hot 
season, on dry land that has lately been, or is in cultiva- 
tion. 

Root perpendicular, seems biennial. Stem none, but nu- 
merous, alternate, jointed, dichotomous branches, spread- 
ing close on the ground, they are round, covered with 
soft, stellate pubescence, and from one to two feet long. 
Leaves opposite, petioled, obovate, or roundish, with 
smaller leaves in their axills ; all entire and, like the 
branches, petioles, &c. hoary with stellate down. The floW' 
ers stand on the upper side of the branches between the 
insertions of the leaves, from two to six together, short- 
peduncled. Calyx five-leaved, the outside covered with 
stellate down, permanent. Coral none. Filaments gene- 
rally five,though sometimes more, even as far as ten, short, 
inserted round the base of the germ. Anthers two-lobed. 
Germ above, conical, five-sided, five-celled, five-valved 
opening from the apex. Seeds numerous, reniform, orna- 
mented with regular lines of elevated points, inserted by 
a large white vesiculated umbilicus to the bottom of the 
capsule which is continued in a seemingly superfluous 
white filament reflected over the seed. 

The tender shoots are used by the natives in their cur- 
ries. 

It has the habit and appearance of Glinus lotoides 
or dictamnoides, but the number of stamens and total 



104 PENTANDRIA TRlGYNIA. Basella. 

want of the nectary or corol forbid my considering it 
as even a species of that genus. I have repeatedly exa- 
mined the flowers of different plants at different periods 
and places without ever being able to discover any thing 
like a corol or nectary, so that I must consider this a 
non-descript or GUnus lotoides itself, and that the former 
descriptions thereof have been inaccurate. 



BASELLA. Schreh. gen. n. 520. 

Calyx seven-cleft, with the two opposite divisions 
broader ; at last it produces a berry. Seed one. 

B. alba. Willd. 1. 1514. 

Perennial, twining. Leaves cordate, smooth, entire, 
fleshy. 

Batsalla hura, or Matto-batsalla, are its Teliuga names 
when cultivated ; and AUa-batsalla, when wild. 

Vol, the Bengalee, and Hindoo name of the cultivated 
variety and bun-pot when wild. 

Gandola alba. Rumph. amb. 5. p. 417. 

The natives of the Coromandel coast reckon five varie- 
ties of this ; three of these are cultivated, and two wild ; 
the wild sorts are, 

1st. yerra,or Poha- batsalla, the Telinga name of the 
red wild Batsalla. 

Rifcta bun-poi of the Bengalees. 

Basella rubra. Willd. 1. 1513. 

Gandola rubra. Rumph. amb. 5. 417. 1. 154. /• 2. bad. 

Is found wild in hedges, &c. twining round other plants 
to a considerable extent, the stems, and branches smooth, 
as thick as a quill, and deeply tinged red. 

2nd. AUa-batsalla, above mentioned, grows with the 
last in hedges, and difiers from it only in the colour of the 
stems, and branches ; here they are always pale green. 



Evolvulus. PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 105 

The cultivated sorts are ; 

1st. Yerra, or red garden Batsalla. 

It differs from the wild red in being more luxuriant ; it 
is not much cultivated. 

2nd. Mattoo, or white Garden Batsalla. 

Voi, of the Hindoos and Bengalees. 

Like the last, it differs from the wild white only in being 
more luxuriant, according to the nature of Ihe soil, and is 
much cultivated. The above two are generally raised 
from the seeds. 

3d, Pedda, or large Batsalla of the Telingas. 

B. liicida, and cordifolia. Willd. 1. 1514. 

Poi-sag of the Hindoos and Bengalees. 

Basella. R/ieed. MaL 7. t. 24. 

This is much cultivated, and always from slips taken 
from the old plants ; it grows to a great size running over 
extensive, trellises, erected for the purpose, and gene- 
rally about the houses of the natives, where its numer- 
ous, large, succulent branchlets and leaves form a most 
agreeable shade to protect them from the heat of the sun. 
This variety is also more used as a pot herb by the na- 
tives, than any of the other four, though all are reckoned 
equally wholesome. 

I think the whole may be reckoned varieties of one spe- 
cies, and probably Basella Japanica Bnrm. ind. t. 39./. 4. 
is nothing more than from a stunted specimen of one of 
these varieties. 



EVOLVULUS. Schreb.gen. n. 524. 

Calyx five-leaved. Coro/ companulate, plaited. Germ. 
Capsules superior, two-celled cells, two-seeded. 

1. E. ahinoides. Willd. 1. 1517. 

Perennial, diffuse, hairy. Leaves subsessile, oblong, 



106 PENTANDRIA TRIGYNIA, Evolvulus. 

hairy. Peduncles from one to three-flowered ; fruit droop- 
ing. 

2. E. hirsufus. Willd. 1. 1517. 

Vistnu-clandi. KJieed. Mai. 11. t. G4. 

Anagallis hirsuta minor. Burnt, zeyl. t. G,/. 1. and t. 9. 
/. 1. seems also the same plant. 

Is a native of the various parts of India, and ivi blos- 
som most part of the year. 

Root perennial. Stem scarcely any, but numerous, very 
slender, cespitose, round, bifarious branches, which, while 
young, are covered with long, soft, white hairs. Leaves 
alternate, bifarious, subsessile, oblong, entire, hairy on 
both sides. Peduncles axillary, solitary, longer than the 
leaves, jointed near the middle, where two opposite, 
lanceolate bractes are inserted ; from one to three-flow- 
ered, but one is the most common number ; while in blos- 
som erect, afterwards drooping. Calyx oifive lanceolate, 
hairy leaflets. Corel rotate-campanulate margin almost 
entire, deep bright blue. Stamens crovuiing the mouth of 
the very short tube. Germ ovate. Styles two, but each 
three-fourths two-cleft. Stigmas simple. Capsule, and 
seed as in Couvolulus. 

3. E. pilosus. R. 

Perennial, diffuse, hairy. Leaves sessile, linear-lanceo- 
late. Peduncles three-flowered, and amply bracted. 
Style single, two-cleft. 

A native of Hiudoosthan. In the Botanic Garden at 
Calcutta, it is in flower most part of the year. 

Root perennial. Stem scarcely any, but several, some- 
what ligneous branches spread close on the ground ; ten- 
der parts clothed with soft, appressed hairs. Leaves al- 
ternate, remote, sessile, linear-lanceolate, hairy. Pe- 
duncles axillary, very short, hairy, three-flowered. Flow- 
ers nearly sessile on the common peduncle. Corol short- 



Aralia. pentandria pentagynia. 107 

campanulate, white ; margins crenate. Style single, two- 
cleft. 

4. E. angusfifolais, R. 

Diffuse, filiform, every part clothed with brown, serice- 
ous pubescence. Leaves sessile, linear-lanceolate. Pe- 
duncles longer than the leaves, from one to three-flower- 
ed. Styles two, each two-cleft, 

A native of the Moluccas, agreeing well with Brown's 
figure of Convolvulus herbaceous erectus, 152, t. 10. /. 2. 
except that his plant is erect, and nearly smooth ; whereas 
this spreads on the ground, and is very villous. 1 there- 
fore think it must be different. 



PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. 

ARALIA. Schreh. gen. 7i. 525. 

Involucre to the umbellet. Ca^j/.r five-toothed. Carol 
five-petalied. Germ five-celled ; cells one-seeded, at- 
tachment superior. Berry inferior, five-seeded. Embryo 
inverse and furnished with a perisperm. 

1. A. digitata. R. 

Subarboreous, unarmed. Leaves digitate. Leaflets, 
broad-lauceolate, entire. Panicles terminal. 

Unjala, Rheed. Mai. 7. t. 28. 

Hind. Dain. 

A native of the Circar mountains and lately found by Dr. 
Buchanan about Lukshmeepoor. Flowering time the rainy 
season. Young trees are in the Botanic Garden at Cal- 
cutta, where they grow luxuriantly, but always continue 
bushy, somewhat scaudent, and irom the lower branches, 
many roots continually descend into the ground or em- 
brace other trees. The bark is smooth, and on the young 
shoots of a bright deep green colour. 

Leaves round the ends of the young shoots digitate. 

N 2 



108 PENTANDRIA PENTAGYNIA.. Aralia. 

Leaflets ^ei\o\diiedi, generally five or six, and of dififerent 
sizes, oblong, pointed, entire, smooth on both sides, the 
shortest about the length of the common petiole. Petioles 
stem-clasping, round, smooth. Petiolets the largest 
about an inch round, and smooth. Utnbellets globular, 
numerous, inserted alternately on many long, terminal, 
leafless ramifications the whole forming a large open pa- 
nicle. Floivers \ery numerous, small. Calyx ; involucre 
of the globular umbellet, scarcely any. Perianth a five- 
sided marginal elevation round the germ. Corol ; petals 
five, inserted on the five marginal sides of the perianth. 
Stamens five. Germ inferior, five-celled, with a single ovu- 
la in each attached to the top of the cell, &c. exactly as in 
the ripe state. Berry round, size of a small pea, smooth, 
yellow, five-celled. Seed solitary, attached to the top 
of the cell immediately under the remains of its stigma, 
straight and sharp on the inner edge, convex and 
broad in the interior. Integument single, white. Peris- 
perm conform to the seed, entire, pure white, of a firm 
and rather tough consistence. Embryo inverse, scarcely 
half the length of the perisperra. Cotyledons two, linear. 
Radicle cylindric:, superior, immediately within the um- 
bilicus. 

In Hedera terebinthacea which this species most 
resembles, the style which is single, is as long as the fi- 
lament, and cuds in a single acute stigma ; consequently 
they cannot be the same, though in the Banksian herbari- 
um I believe my plant is there marked H. terebinthi- 
ana. 

2. A. umbraculifera. R. 

Arboreous, unarmed. Z.ea?;es pinnate ; leaflets numer- 
ous; inflorescence terminal. 

Papaja silvestris. Rumph. Amb. 1. p. 149. t. 53./. 1. 

A native of the Molucca Islands, from thence introduc- 
ed into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta in 1798 ; where 



Linum. pentandria pentagynia. 109 

it blossoms in April, but has never ripened its fruit in 
Bengal. 

Trunk straig^ht, perfectly simple, about twelve feet high, 
and eighteen inches in circumference, towards the top 
marked with the large cicatrices of the fallen leaves, 
otherwise perfectly smooth, and ash-coloured. Leaves 
round the top of the plant, below the inflorescence, une- 
qually pinnate, drooping, about six feet long. Leaflets 
about twenty pair, opposite, subsessile, drooping, ovate- 
lanceolate, margins waved and slightly serrate, very 
smooth on both sides, upper surface shining ; length 
from four to eiuht inches, and from two to three broad. 
Petioles smooth, sharp on the upper edge, jointed at the 
insertion of the leaves, and then much swelled. Inflo- 
rescence, I will call it an immense terminal pannicle is- 
suing as in Corypha umhracuUfera, from the apex 
of the simple Papaya-\\ke stem and composed of nu- 
ous, primary, diverging, compound branches, of from 
three to four feet in length, while the numerous di- 
verging branchlets thereof are from six to nine inches 
long, and support numerous alternate diverging pedun- 
cles of small, globular heads, of from, six to twelve small, 
sessile, greenish, stellate flowers. Bractes minute. In- 
volucres also very minute. Calyx superior, obscurely 
five-toothed. Petals five, broad-lanceolate, spreading. 
Filaments shorter than the petals, spreading. Anthers 
ovate. Germ inferior, crowned within the insertion of 
the petals and stamina, with a convex, grooved, coloured 
gland ; from its centre rise the five styles, which are in 
some degree coalesced, and shorter than the corol. Stig- 
mas five, distinct, and simple. 

LINUM. Schreb. gen. n. 528. 

Ca/yx five-leaved. Coro^ five-petalled. Capsule su- 
perior, from five to six-valved, from ten to twelve-celied, 
with one seed in each cell. 



110 PENTANDRIA PENTAGVNIA. Linum. 

1, L. usisatissimum. Willd. 1. 1533. 

Annual, ramous. Calyx and capsules mucronate. Pe- 
tals crenate. Leaves alternate, lanceolate. 

Sans. Utusee. 

Hind. Tisi. 

Beng. Mushina. 

Much cultivated over the Northern parts of India for 
the seed, from which the Hindoos extract the oil. They 
make no use of any other part of the plant. 

2. L. trigynum. R. 

Shrubbv. Leave-i alternate, oval. Filaments united at 
the base with alternate sterile bristles. Styles three. Cap' 
sules six-valved, twelve-celled. 

Hind. Gool ashruf. 

This beautitul plant I have only met with in the gar- 
den of the curious about Calcutta, though it is indigenous 
in Hindoosthan, and the eastern parts of Bengal. Flow- 
ering time, the cold season. It grows readily from 
bits of the root; consequently, is easily propagated ; it is 
indeed, a troublesome, though beautiful weed. 

Stem or rather branches numerous, sub-erect, the whole 
shrub about two or three feet high. Bark ash-coloured. 
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, ovate-oblong, with a 
bristle-like point, the larger are most minutely serrate 
toward the apex ; both sides smooth, size very various. 
Stijndes minute. F/oaers solitary, peduncled, large, of 
a bright, deep, rich yellow colour, inodorous. Bractes 
none, unless some small floral leaves ^hich surround the 
peduncles near the base may be so called. Calyx five- 
leaved ; leaflets lanceolate, acute, smooth, erect, perma- 
nent. Petals five, claws the length of the calyx, forming 
as it were a tube. Border flat, round, entire, inserted 
below the bristles, into the ring formed round the germ by 
the union of the base of the filaments, on the outside of 
the neck of each petal are two small toothlets. Filaments 



Aegelatis. pentandria. pentagynia. HI 

five, as long as the calyx, becoming broad towards the 
base, and then united with five, small, intermediate bris- 
tles placed between them. Anthers sagittate. Germ su- 
perior, globular, six-celled, with one ovula in each, attach- 
ed to the top of the axis. Styles three, considerably long- 
er than the stamens. ^f/^wi« headed, undivided. Cap- 
sule globular, smooth, size of a large pea, six-celled, six- 
valved. Seeds solitary, reniform. 

This plant is highly ornamental. Miller's iwofigures in 
plate 268, are not unlike it in any respect ; yet I think 
it is evident they cannot be the same ; it seems more 
nearly allied to Linum, for in all respects the characters 
agree perfectly, except in the three styles and capsule. I 
have therefore called it Linum trigjnum. 



AEGELATIS. Brown. 
Calyx cylindric sulcated, five-toothed. Petals five and 
with the five filaments, united at the base. Germ supe- 
rior, one-celled, one-seeded, attachment from the base of 
the cell to the apex of the ovula. 

A. rotundifolia. R. 

Leaves alternate, orbicular ; petioles long, sheathing 
and winged. 

A small ramous shrub found with RJiizophora, &)C. 
growing on the banks of the salt-water creeks which 
intersect the lower part of the delta of the Ganges. 
Flowering time December. 

Stem scarcely any, but many ascending, smooth, di- 
chotomous branches and branchlets. Leaves alternate, 
petioled, orbicular, entire, glossy, most finely veined, 
from two to three inches each way. Petioles as lonir as 
the leaves, sheathing, broad-winged, smooth ; when they 
drop, annular, permanent marks are left in the branches. 
Racemes axillary and terminal, the latter dichotomous 



112 PENTANDRIA PRNTAGYNiA. Aldrovanda. 

or even subpanicled, round, and smooth. Flowers nu- 
merous, pretty large, pale yellow, short-pedicelled. 
Bractes three to each flower, oval, sheathing, clammy. 
Calyx cylindric, sulcated, clammy, mouth five-toothed. 
Corol, it may be called one-petalled, with filaments insert- 
ed on the mouth of the tube ; or five-petalled, and those 
inserted on the tube, formed by the base of the filaments, 
lamina oblong, recurved over the mouth olthe calyx. Fi- 
laments five, shorter than the corol. Anthers linear-ob- 
long. Germ superior, oblong, five-grooved, closely em- 
braced by the tube, formed by the stamina and petals, 
one-celled, containing a single ovula, pendulous at the 
end of a long umbilical cord which rises from the bot- 
tom of the cell. Styles five, rather longer than the Sta • 
mina. Stigmas large. 



ALDROVANDA. Schreb. gen. n. 529. 

C'«/7/x five-parted. Coro/ five-petalled. Capsule sn- 
perior, five-valved, one-celled. Seeds longitudinally af. 
fixed to the inside of the valves of the pericarp. 

A. verticillata. R, 

Twining. Leaves verticelled, wedge-shaped. 

Beng- Malacca-jhanjee. 

Found .swimming on ponds of water over Bengal dur- 
ing the cold and hot season. 

I have never seen it in any other form than that of 
detached pieces from one to three inches long, sometimes 
ramoiis, sometimes simple. The stems are round and 
smooth with verticells of six or eight leaves at every 
quarter of an inch or less. 

Leaves sessile, verticelled, wedge-shaped, ending in 
four or five bristly horns of nearly the same length ; over 
the insertion of the middle pair is inserted a crescent-shap- 
ed, winged utricle, the body of which is inflated, and 



Drosera. pentandria pentagynia. 113 

serves to keep the plant suspended on the water. Pedun- 
cles axillary, solitary, about the length of the leaves and 
their horns, one-flowered. Calyx, corol, &c. as in the ge- 
nus except that here the seeds are numerous. 



DROSERA. Schreh. gen. n. 531. 

Calyx five-cleft. Corol five-petalled. Capsule supe- 
rior, one-celled opening into five valves at the top. Seeds 
numerous. 

D. Burmanni. Willd. 1. 544. 

Scapes axillary. Leaves radical, cuneate, spatulate, 
ciliate, pressing close on the ground in a circle. Stipules 
petiolary, varicose, from three to six-cleft. 

Ros solis zeylanica, &c. Burm. zeyl. f. 94./. 2. 

Native of Coromandel, Ceylon, &c. 

D. indica. Willd. 1. 1546. 

Stems raraous, leaf-bearing. Leaves linear, ciliate. 

Ros solis ramosa. Burm. zeyl. t. 94./. 1. 

Araka puda. RUeed. Mai. 10. t. 20. 

A native of Coromandel, &c. Flowering time the cold 

season. 

o 



CLASS Vl. 



HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

URANIA. Schreh. gen. n. 539. 

Calyx a common spathe. Corol six-pctalled. Germ 
three-celled. Ovula numerous ; attachment septal. Cap- 
sule inferior, three- celled, three-valved. Seeds in two rows, 
axilled. Embryo centripetal, and furnished ^vith a peris- 
perm. 

U. speciosa. Willd. 2. p. 7. 

Ravenalia madagascariensis. Sonner. it. bid. 223. t. 
124-5 and 6. 

In 1802 three plants of this elegant tree were brought 
from the Island of Mauritius by Capt. Tennant to the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta. They were planted in dif- 
ferent soils, and situations. That which was in a very 
moist place, and in a rich brownish black soil, throve 
more luxuriantly than the other two, though in a soil 
equally rich but lighter coloured, much higher and drier; 
the former flowered for the first time about the close of 
1806 and again in September, 1807, when the accompany- 
ing and following description was made. The seeds 
of the first crop of flowers ripened in November, 1807. 

Tn^iArof the tree now in flower, simple, and straight, 
eighteen inches to the leaves, and thirty-six in circum- 
ference, round, and marked with the circular impressions 



Urania. hexandria monogynia. 115 

of the leaves that have fallen off. Leaves cauline, bifa- 
rious, alternate approximating;, petioled, erect when 
they first appear, and in all directions from that to di- 
verging when about to decay, like the ribs of a semicir- 
cular fan, linear, oblong, nearly truncate at both ends, 
very smooth on both sides, veins simple, diverging in a 
waving line, length about six feet and the breadth from 
two to three. Petioles about eight feet long, sheathing, a 
deep groove runs along the upper edge, except for two or 
three inches at the apex ; under side round, and smooth. 
Spadix axillary, solitary, much shorter than the peti- 
oles ; in our young trees many leaves intervene ; bifarious, 
branches simple. Spaihes, common, three or four, alter- 
nate, embracing the stalks of the spadix, which are most- 
ly hid in the groove of the next petiole below. Partial 
spathes about twelve, cuneiform, from twelve to twenty- 
four inches long, the inferior being about twice the length 
of the uppermost, each enclosing about ten flowers in 
each side, every one of these flowers is also embraced by 
its own proper spathe. Flowers large, white, sessile, al- 
ternate in two rows on the upper side of the branches of 
the spadix, before expansion, imbricated in a horizontal 
line ; when expanded, erect, inodorous; while in blossom 
the spathes are all completely filled with a super-abun- 
dance of clear, gelatinous matter. Calyx no other than 
the spathes already described. Coral six-petalled, three 
inner and three outer, all nearly ensiform, straight, 
and of a firm rigid texture, five of them are nearly equal 
in size ; the sixth (one of the inner three) much small- 
er, the other two of this series adhere lengthways 
by their margins, overlapping each other, which may 
have occasioned the corol to have been called five* 
petalled, but their distinct insertions, and separation 
both above and below, readily point to very distinct 
petals. Stamina six, the length of the corol. Anthers 
linear, slightly recurvate, twice as long as their thicker 

o 2 



116 HEXANDRIA. MONOGYNiA. Bromelia. 

filament. Germ inferior, obliquely linear, three-celled 
with two vertical rows of ovula in each cell attached 
• to the partition. Style rather longer than the sta- 
mina, straight and very stiff. Stigma clavate, perforat- 
ed, three-lobed, lobes bidentate, and acute. Capsule 
inferior, linear, oblong, less convex on one side, and the 
separation marked by two opposite, longitudinal, sharp 
ridges ; size of a small cucumber, smooth, dark brown, 
of a hard, tough fibrous texture, three-celled, three-valv- 
ed, opening from the apex. 6^eeds many, reniforra, in 
two rows, attached to the inner edge of the partition, each 
enveloped in its proper, beautiful azure-coloured axil (the 
robe of Urania.) Perisperm conform to the seed, white, 
friable. Embryo pointing immediately to the umbilicus 
of the seed, pure white ; varying its shape from that of a 
common flask to that of a retort. 

BROMELIA. Schreb.gen. n. 540. 

Calyx three-parted. Petah three, with a nectarial 
scale at the base of each. Berry superior, three-celled. 

1. B. ananas. Willd. 2. 7. 

Leaves ciliate with spinous points. Spike tufted. 

Kapa-tsjakka. Rheed. Mai. 11. t. 1. and 2. 

Beng. Ananas. 

I do not know that it has been found indigenous in any 
part of India. Its not being a native of India is supported 
by the various vernacular names, evidently derived from 
ananas, as well as by their being no Sanscrit name for so 
remarkable a plant, A thing which could scarcely have 
happened if it had been a native of the East Indies. The 
general flowering time in India is about the beginning of 
the hot season. 

There is a very beautiful striped-leaved variety of this 
species found at Malacca. 



Burmannia. hexandria monogynia. 117 



BURMANNIA. Schrcb. gen. n. 542. 
Calyx gibbous, mouth six-toothed ; the alternate one 
very small, (or they may be called petals.) Corol 
none. Stamina in pairs. Capsule inferior, three-celled. 
Seeds numerous. 

1. B. distkha. Willd, 2. 16. 

Leaves sword-shaped. Spike double. 

Burmannia spica gemina. Burm.zeyl. p. 50. t. 20. f. 1. 

It is a native of Ceylon. 

Root of numerous capillary fibres, annual. Leaves tslAI- 
cal, sword-shaped. Scape erect, from twelve to twenty 
inches high, round, pointed, with a sword-shaped sheath 
at each joint. Spikes double, spreading in opposite di- 
rections. Bractes lanceolate, one-flowered. Flowers e- 
rect, subsessile on the upper side of the spikes, pale blue. 
Calyx gibbous, one-leaved ; mouth six-parted, divisions 
alternate, larger permanent, and keeled on the back. 
Corol none, unless the three smaller divisions of the calyx 
be so called. Filaments none. Anthers three, joined 
to the sides of three large, ox-head-shaped glands, aflSx- 
ed to the calyx just below the smaller divisions thereof. 
Germ inferior, three-sided, three-winged, the wings a 
continuation of those of the calyx. Style erect. Stigmas 
three, large, emarginate. Capsule three-winged, three- 
cornered, three-celled, three-valved. Seeds numerous. 

2. B. iriflora. /?. 

Floivers about three in a terminal head. Leaves ensi- 
form. Found by Mr. W. Roxburgh on Prince of Wales' 
Island. Root annual, consisting of a few small fibres. 
Leaves, few round the base, those of the scape ensiform, 
smooth. Scape filiform, erect, generally simple, invested 
in a few remote leaflike scales ; height about six inches. 
Floivers from two to four, terminal, short-pedicelled, large. 



118 HKXANDEiA. MONOGVNiA. Tradescautia, 

and beautil'ul. Bractes ensiform, one at the base of each 
pedicell. Calyx superior, subcyliadric, amply three- 
winded, mouth six-toothed, the three alternate, {Corol 
of Linna?iis,) very small, and ensiform. Filaments short 
in the mouth of the calyx. Anthers three-pair. Germ 
inferior. Style rather shorter than the calyx. Stigma 
three-cleft. Segments emarginate. adhering to the stami- 
na. Capsule three-celled. Seeds numerous, minute, 
attached to the inner angle of the c€lJs. 



TRADESCJXTIA. Schreb. gen. n. 543. 

Calyx three-leaved, or three-parted. Filaments beard- 
ed, or naked. Germ three-celled. Cells few-.seeded. at- 
tachment inferior. Capsule superior, three-celled, three- 
valved. Seeds few. Embryo in the back of the ample 
perisperm, centrifugal. 

1. T. axillaris. Willd. 2. 20. 

Annual, creeping. Flowers axillary. Calyx one-leav- 
ed. Corol one-petalled. Filaments bearded, and club- 
bed. 

Nir pulla. Rheed. Mai. lU. p. 2.j. 1. 13. 

Hind. Baga nella. 

Tclitig. Gola gandee. 

Annual, a native of moist pasture ground, borders 
of rice fields, ficc. appearing and flowering during the 
wet and cold season. 

Root fibrous. Stem, there is in young plants an erect 
one, but in old ones it is depressed, and appears like one 
of the many long creeping branches that issue from its 
base, all are round, smooth, jointed and often coloured. 
Leaves alternate, sheathing, lanceolate, spreading, striat- 
ed ; mouths of the sheaths ciliate. Flowers axillary two or 
three, but in succession, so that there is never more than 
one expanded at a lime, they are pretty large ; colour a 



Trackscantia. hexandria monogynia. 119 

deep, beautiful, blue purple. Calyx membranaceous, 
three-parted. Corol oue-petalled, funnel-formed ; tube 
cylindric. twice as long as the calyx. Segments three, cor- 
date. Filaments six, the length of the corol. and inserted 
into its tube near the base; toward the apex swelled 
into an oblong pellucid body, and a little below sur- 
rounded with beautiful, jointed hairs. Anthers incum- 
bent. Germ superior, three-sided. Styk the length of 
the stamens, and near the apex swelled bke the tilameuts. 
Cattle are vcr}' fond of this plant. 

'2. T. tiiberosa. Coram, pi. '2. u. 100. 

Perennial, creeping ; radical leaves ensifonn. cauline. 
lanceolate, and downy. Spikts crested. Corol one pe- 
talled. Filaments bearded and chibbed. 

A native of moist vallies. 

Boot tuberous, perennial. Stems several, creeping', 
round, jointed, from six to thirty inches long: there 
is a tuft of three or four, liliaceous, sword-shaped leaves, 
issuing immediately from the heads of the tuberous 
roots or rather their sheaths, forming a head from 
■whence the roots and procumbent stems issue. Leaves 
of the stems linear-lanceolate, sheathing, striated, under 
side tinged with purple and downy. Spikes terminal, or 
from the interior axills. one or two together ; peduncled. 
beautiful, imbricated as in F. crisfata. -with tAvo rows of 
falcate, ciliate bractes. Flowers one in the axiU of each 
bracte, small, blue purple. Coro/ one-petalled, ^cc. as in 
the last described. Stamens and pistil as in T, axillaris. 

3. T. paniculata. R. 

Annual, partly erect. i>ar€s lanceolate. Panicles ta~ 
miual. Coro/i' three-petalled. Filaments naked. 
Tiling. K/mda amadikada. 
A native of moist vallies. 
iioof librous, annual. Stems creeping, Tvith their ex- 



120 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Tradescaiitia, 

tremities erect, jointed, smooth. Leaves lanceolate, 
sheathing. Mouth of the sheaths woolly. Panicles ter- 
minal, globular, many-flowered, hairy. Flowers small, 
blue. Ca/?/a- three-leaved, hairy. CoroZ three-petalled, 
the superior two, large, and ovate, the third lanceolate. 
Filaments simple, inserted round the germ, as long as the 
petals, without hairs or swelling. 

4. T. imhricata. Corom. pi. 2. N. 108. 

Creeping. Leaves lanceolate-cordate, stem-clasping 
and sheathing. Spikes secured, imbricated with two 
rows of bractes. Coroh one-petalled, funnel-shaped. 

Veetla caitu. Rheed. Mai. 7. t. 58. 

Common on wet ground over most parts of India during 
the latter part of the wet season. 

Root annual. Stems or ftrawcAes creeping, jointed, round, 
pretty smooth, a small woolly ridge runs from joint to 
joint, being a continuation of the fissure of the base of 
the leaf next above ; length from one to two feet. Leaves 
stem-clasping, sheathing, lanceolate-cordate, entire, 
somewhat fleshy, beautifully striated ; margins woolly, 
otherwise smooth, from two to three inches long, and 
about one broad. Spikes terminal, solitary, sessile, re- 
curved over the base of the last leaf, which may be call- 
ed a common spathe, secund, imbricated with two pairs 
of lunulate, sessile bractes, each row generally consisting 
of from six to sixteen pair. Flowers sessile, one to 
each bracte, opening in succession, pale blue. Calyx 
three-parted, ciliate on the back and margins. Carol one- 
petalled, funnel-shaped ; border of three equal divisions. 
Filaments inserted round the base of the germ, spirally 
twisted, and hairy. Style spirally twisted, naked. Stigma 
pitcher-shaped. Seeds two in each cell, pitted on the back. 

Note. The corol being of one petal precludes the idea 
of its being T. cristata. 
There is a variety with dark blue flowers. 



Pontederia. hexandria monogynia. 121 

PONTEDERIA. Schreh. gen. n. 545. 

Calyx, spathe common. Corol six-petalled or parted. 
Stamina and style ascending. Capsule superior, three- 
celled, three- valved. 

1. P. vaginalis. Willd. 2. 23. Coroni. pi n. 110. 

Leaves cordate, acute, from five to seven-nerved ; ra- 
cemes peduncled, after the flowers decay, recurved. 

Carimgala. Rheed. Mai. 11 t. 44. 

Sans. Neelotpala. 

Beng. Nouka. 

Teling. Nirocancha. 

A native of the borders of sweet water lakes or marshy 
places. It flowers during the rains. 

Root perennial, creeping. Leaves radical, narrow-cor- 
date, pointed, entire, smooth, glossy ; from two to four 
inches long, and from one to two broad. Petioles sub- 
erect, tapering, fistulous, smooth, from six to twelve 
inches long ; those that bear a raceme are swelled a lit- 
tle about the middle, and there open like a spathe length- 
^"ways near the base, those that do not bear flowers are 
enlarged into a sheath, which embraces the exterior 
leaves. Raceme short-peduncled, after flowering time, 
drooping, from six to twelve flowered. Pedicels about 
three quarters of an inch long. Flowers blue and pretty. 
Calyx no other than the common spathe of the raceme. 
Petals six, the three exterior are the smallest, and oblong, 
the three interior obovate. Filaments ascending, in- 
serted round the base of the germ, the lowermost one is 
generally broad, and two-cleft, its lower division bears a 
blue anther, the otlier nothing ; the rest are yellow. GennL 
superior. Style single. Stigma gladular. 

2. P. hastata. Willd. 2. 24. Corom. pL 2. N. 111. 
Leaves triangular, or hastate, pointed, many -nerved- 
Racemes subsessile, erect. 



122 HEXANDRiA. MONOGYNiA. PontedeHa. 

Teling. Neroo-Taraara. 

A native of marshy places, or shallow standing sweet 
water. It flowers during the rainy and cold season. 

Root perennial, thick, spongy, creeping when long, a 
little flexuose with many fibres issuing from every part. 
Leaves radical ; those that bear the flowers a little more 
elevated, but difi'ering in no other respect from the rest ; 
broad-sagittate, or triangular, very entire, pointed, very 
smooth and glossy, from six to seven inches long, 
and from five to six inches broad, posterior angles gene- 
rally obtuse. Petioles the flower bearing longest and 
grooved a little, swelled near the apex, and there on the 
fore part, split like a sheath for the passage of the ra- 
ceme ; the other petioles are increased near the base into 
a large sheath, which embraces those within ; they are ta- 
pering, sometimes spotted with small purple dots, from 
eighteen to twenty-four inches long, and not grooved like 
the flower-bearing petioles, or scapes. /?aceme« subsessile, 
erect, while they are in flower, while young, globular, but 
lengthening as the flowers expand. Spathes ovate. Flowers 
numerous, pedicelled, closely surrounding every part of 
the raceme ; those nearest the apex begin to expand first, 
and continue in succession down ; they are large, and of 
a beautiful bright blue, violet colour. Pedicels round, 
smooth, about an inch long. Petals six, withering, the 
three interior largest, and obovate; the three exterior ob- 
long. Filaments six, short, the lower rather longer, and 
as in the last bifid or broad and undivided with a double 
anther. Anthers linear, erect, the lowermost one is 
much larger and blue, the rest are yellow. Germ superior, 
ovate, with three cells, each containing numerous ovula 
attached to a vertical thickened line, or a receptacle on 
each side of the partition. Style single, ascending, rather 
longer than the stamens. Stigma downy. 



Pontederia. hexandria monogynia. 123 

3. P. Plantaginea. R. 

Diffuse. Leaves narrow, cordate. Racemes peduncled, 
three-flowered. 

PIantao;inis stellatae foliae. Pluck, t. 2215. f. 4. agrees 
much better with this, than with P. vaginalis. 

A native of marshy, or watery places over Bengal. 
It flowers during the rains. Stems annual, and very tri- 
fling, but spreading on the ground for a few inches so 
that the radical fibres issue through the sheathes of the 
leaves and strike into the earth. Leaves petioled, nar- 
row-cordate, entire, taper, obtuse-pointed, smooth ; lobes 
semicircular; nerves about five, and faintly visible on the 
under-side only; the largest of the leaves is about two 
inches long and one broad. Petioles from three to four in- 
ches lon^, round, variously curved, with an opening about 
the middle on the inside for the raceme ; from the mouth 
of the stem-clasping base, a very large tapering ligule, or 
bracte rises. Racemes peduncled, from two to four-flow- 
ered, and erect till they decay, then recurved. Flowers 
large for the size of the plant, short-pedicelled, bright, 
deep blue. Calyx the spathe of the raceme, inserted 
near its base. Coral one-petalled, to the base six-cleft ; 
divisions \diiiceo\?de, the interior three narrower. Fila- 
ments five smaller, and one large, with a hornlet as in 
P. vaginalis and hasfafa. Anthers on the small filaments, 
small and roundish; on the large, sagittate, oblong. Germ 
oval, three-celled, each containing numerous ovula at- 
tached to septal receptacles not far removed from the 
axis. Style shorter than the stamina. Capsule oblong, 
three-celled, three-valved. Seeds numerous, round. 

4. P. dHatata. Syme's embasy to Ava. 

Leaves cordate-sagittate. Umbel peduncled, drooping ; 
flowers numerous, long-pedicelled. 

Hinds Cacheree. 

A Native of Bengal, &c. It flowers during the rainy 
season. 

P2 



124 HEXANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Paticratium. 

5. p. sagittata. R. 

Leaves sagittate ; umbel sessile ; flowers long-pediccl- 
led. 

A Native of low wet places near Chittagong. 

PANCRATIUM. Schreb. gen. n. 551. 
Corol superior, infundibuliform, crowned with a cam- 
paniilate, staminiferous nectary. 

1. P. zeylankum. Willd. 2. 41. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate. Spathe one-flowered. Seg- 
ments of the corol longer than the tube. Stamens incur- 
ved. Nectary twelve-toothed. Lilium Indicum, Rumph. 
Amb. 6 t. 70 f. 2. and a tolerably good figure, but Cat- 
' tidi Pola, Rheed Mai. 11 f. 40 must certainly be excluded. 

A native of the Molucca Islands and of Ceylon, from 
both places the roots have been received into this Gard- 
en, where they blossom about the beginning of the rains. 

Root a round, smooth, truncated bulb, about an inch 
and a half in diameter. Leaves radical, bifarious as far 
as ten or twelve from the same bulb ; slightly recurved, 
linear-lanceolate, pointed, smooth, from six to twelve in- 
ches long. Scape axillary, shorter than the leaves, a lit- 
tle compressed, smooth, supporting a single, large, pure 
white, faintly fragrant flower, which expands about sun- 
set, and fades next morning. Spathes membranaceous, 
length of the tube of the corol. Corol superior ; tube 
cylindric ; segments of the border linear-revolute, longer 
than the tube. Nectary or crown of the corol spreading 
wide in the shape ofa shallow bowl. The twelve divi- 
sions of its border acute. Filaments scarcely so long as 
the segments of the border of the corol, incurved. 

2. P. longlflorum. B. H. 

Leaves nixrYow lanceolate. ^ Spathe one-lowered. Seg- 
ments of the corol linear-lanceolate, half the length of 



Pancratium. hkxandria monogynia. 125 

the tube. Stamens incurved, scarcely longer than the 
divisions of the gibbous campanulate- twelve-toothed nec- 
tary. 

A native of the Moluccas, from whence the roots 
were brought to the Botanic Garden at Calcutta in 
1798. It is in blossom about the beginning of the rains. 

Leaves radical, narrow-lanceolate, deep green, and 
smooth on both sides ; length about twelve inches, and 
less than one in breadth. 

Scapes much shorter than the leaves, and even short- 
er than the tube of the corol, compressed, one-flowered. 

Flowers large, pure white, fragrant. Corol; tube pale 
green, cylindric, a little furrowed, about six inches long. 
Filaments incurved, and very little longer than the divisi- 
ons of the nectary. Anthers large. 

3. P. bifloriim. R. 

Leaves linear-cuneate. Spathe from three to four-leav- 
ed, two or three flowered. Corol with a long, slender, three- 
sided tube and linear segments of the same length. Sinu- 
ses of the nectary erose. Filaments length of the nectary. 

A native of India, but scarce. Flowering time in the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta, the rainy season. 

Leaves from four to eight, bifarious, erect, flat, linearly 
wedge-shaped, rather obtuse, smooth on both sides, slight- 
ly reticulated with transverse green veins ; length about 
twelve inches, by one broad. Scape shorter than the 
leaves, erect, smooth, a little compressed, supporting two 
or three, large, pure white, faintly fragrant flowers. 
Spathe three or four-leaved, two-flowered ; leaflets of va- 
rious sizes and linear. Corol ; tube pale whitish green, 
three- sided, slender, from three to four inches long, divi- 
sions of the border linear, first expanding, then recurved, 
about as long as the tube. Nectary broad funnel-shaped, 
scarcely one third the length of the lacinias of the corol. 
Sinuses betw^een the filaments erose. Filaments about as 



1S6 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Crinum. 

long as the nectary, spreading. Anthers first yellow, 
afterwards brown. Style longer than the stamens. Stig- 
ma three-lobed. 



4. P. triflorum. R. 

Spathes three-flowered. Leaves linear acute ; Segments 
of the corol shorter than the tube ; fissures of the nectary 
alternately deeper, in which the incurvate stamens are 
inserted. 

Beng. Sada-kanoor. 

An elegant species, with large fragrant flowers. 
Since writing the above, I have seen in the 'Und. Vol, 
of the Linncean Society's Transactions, Mr. Salisburij's des- 
cription of P. verecundum, which he thinks is P. maritimum 
of LinncBus, and from his acurate figures and description, 
find that my plant differs from his in the following res- 
pects. 

1st. Here the leaves are more numerous, acute-point- 
ed and not bifarious. 

2nd. Here there are only from two to four flowers in the 
fascicle as also the ten divisions of the mouth of the nec- 
tary, are longer, waved, much more pointed than in his, 
and the filaments are at least two or three times longer 
than those divisions, whereas in his they are about the 
same length ; so that I conceive this must be another 
species. 



CRINUM. Schreh. gen. n. 553. 

Calyx ; Involucre spathaceous. Corol infundibuliform, 
six-parted. Filaments inserted on the mouth of the tube. 
Germ inferior three-celled ; ovula few ; attachment lateral. 
Berry inferior, somewhat fleshy, evalvular, containing 
two or three bulbiform seeds. 



Crinum. hexandria monogynia. 127 

Sec. 1st. Flowers Regular. 

1. C. amoenum. R. 

Bulbs spherical. Leaves linearly taperin*, smooth, 
margined, lenjjth of the inflorescence ; umbels from four to 
six-flowered, regular, sessile. 

An elegant small species ; a native of Silhet where it 
is called Gocinda by the natives. It flowers in April 
and May, as well as now and then during the rains. 

Bulbs small, and nearly round. Stemless. Leaves from 
six to twelve from each bulb, sparse, linear, toward the 
apex tapering, straight, more or less channelled, particu- 
larly toward the bise ; margins slightly scabrous ; from 
one to two feet long and about an inch and a half broad. 
Scape from the axills of the old leaves, solitary, about a 
foot long, round, and smooth. Umbels from four to six- 
flowered with some filamentaceous bodies mixed amongst 
them. Spatlie two leaved. Flowers large, white, sessile. 
Tube of the corol from three to four inches long, three- 
cornered ; border of six equal, regularly disposed, linear- 
lanceolar, recurved segments, which are about as long as 
the tube ; apices acute, and alternately uncinate. Fila-^ 
ments nearly as long as the border of the corol, ascend- 
ing, red. Anthers linear. Germ inferior, sessile, oblong, 
polished, seemingly three-celled ; ovula many, attached 
to the two margins of the three-receptacles, which are 
substantially attached to the walls of the ovarium and 
only meet in the centre ; for on drying a transverse sec- 
tion, they separate spontaneously from the margins to the 
centre, and again each of the three has a fissure from the 
inner angle toward the insertion. Style above the tube, 
incurved, coloured like the filaments, and rather longer 
than they. Stigma three-lobed. 

2. C. asiaticum. Willd. 2. 45. 

Root an oblong bulb with a fusiform crown. Stemless. 



128 HEXA.NDRIA MONOGYNiA. Crinum. 

Leaves sparse, rigidly linear, chanelled, obtuse, jointed ; 
margins smooth. Umbels from ten to twelve flowered ; 
flowers subsessile. Style as long as the stamens. 

Beng. Sookh-dursun. 

Belutta pola taly. Rheed. Mai Vol. 11 . t. 38. 

This plant, which I now consider to be Crinum asia^ 
ticum ofLinnoius, may have been the only asiatic species 
known to him when he wrote his Flora Zeylanica, grows 
on the moist muddy or swampy banks of rivers and is in 
blossom the greater part of the year, and is no doubt 
Rumph. second species of Radixioxicaria. Herb. Am. 6. p. 
156. which like ours delights in swampy banks of creeks, 
&c. where mud abounds. 

J?oo^ bulbous, with a terminal, stoloniferous, fusiform 
portion issuing from the crown of the bulb, descending 
deep into the mud or earth ; from the last mentioned por- 
tion issue the ramous fibrous roots. Stem none. Leaves 
radical, equally disposed on every side, linear, concave, 
(so much so that a section forms nearly a perfect semicir- 
cle,) no keel ; margins smooths ; length from one to three 
feet, and where broadest little more than three-fourths of 
an inch. Scapes generally shorter than the longer leaves, 
a little compressed, smooth, often coloured. Umbels with 
from six to sixteen flowers. Spatlie two-leaved, with fi- 
liform bract'es amongst the flowers. Flowers large, white, 
subsessile, fragrant during the night. Corol ; tube cyXm' 
dric, from four to six inches long, coloured, or pale-green, 
according to exposure, smooth. Divisions of the border 
linear-lanceolate equally disposed; margins waved alittle, 
a recurved process at the apex of each. Filaments e- 
qually disposed, ascending, upper half coloured. Anthers 
linear, incumbent. Germ beneath. Style as long as the 
stamina, declined. Stigma simiple. ^erri/ membranace- 
ous, subglobose, containing in one cell, one or two rugose, 
bulb-like seeds and although the flowers are subsessile, 
tfee capsules are short-peduncled. 



Crinum. hexandria monogynia. 129 

Note. I suspect that two or more, very distinct spe- 
cies have hitherto been included under one specific name ; 
which I have now assigned to the above described, by 
far the smallest of the two, and no doubt Van Rheede's 
Beluta pola tali. The other, Rumphius's first species 
oi Radix Toxicaria, which is the one he has figured, and 
now called by me Crinum Toxicarium, was, I believe, con- 
sidered by Konig to be C latifolium of Linn, and was for- 
merly described and figured by me as such. 

3. C. ensifolium. R. 

Bulb ovate. Leaves sparse, straight, ensiform. 

A native of Pegu from thence introduced by Dr. W". 
Carey into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta but has not yet 
blossomed there. In habit it most resembles Asiaticum 
but difiers from that species in the shape of the bulb. 
The leaves also difier, for here they are less channelled, 
taper more toward the apex which is much shorter ; other 
difierences will, no doubt, be found when the flowers ap, 
pear. 

4. C. brevifolium. R. 

Bulb stemless. Leaves rigid, straight, lanceolate, broad, 
obtuse-pointed, waved, margins smooth. Umbels from 
ten to twelve flowered \ flowers regular, short-pedicelled. 
Segments of the border equalling the trigonal tube- 

This elegant, rather small, very well marked species, 
has been introduced from the Mauritius into the Botanic 
Garden at Calcutta where it blossoms during the hot and 
rainy season. 

Leaves six or eight from each bulb, sparse, straight, 
spreading a little, lanceolar, broad, obtuse, pointed, mar- 
gins smooth, from twelve to eighteen inches long, and 
two and a half or three inches broad. Scapes from 
the axills of the old withered leaves, much compress^ 
ed, about twelve inches high. Lwolucre two-leaved, 
from ten to twelve flowered. Flowers large, white and 

Q 



130 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. CHnum. 

faintly fragrant, short-pedicelled. Tube slender, about 
three inches long, trigonal. Segments of the border six, 
linear, recurved, length of the tube. Filaments equal, 
and equally disposed, shorter than the segments of the 
border. Anthers linear, incumbent. Germ, style, and 
stigma as in the other species. 

5. C. longifolium. R. 

Bulb spherical, stemless. Leaves linear, long, droop- 
ing, channelled, margins slightly scabrous. Umbel from 
ten to twelve flowered ; flowers subsessile. 

A native of the interior parts of Bengal w^here it was 
found in single plants among grass, and on low inundated 
ground, by Dr. Carey, and by him introduced into the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where it flowers and rip3ns 
its seed during the rainy season. It comes nearest C. 
asiaticum, but diflfers much in appearance, and in the size 
and shape of the bulb. This being a much better looking 
plant, the bulbous root has not the long spindle-shaped 
crown of that species, which penetrates deep into the mud 
on the borders of creeks, where that plant is naturally 
found. 

Root many strong, fleshy libres, from the crown of a 
round, tunicated bulb, which penetrate deep into the 
soil. Leaves many, equally disposed in all sides, de- 
clinate, tapering regularly from the base to a fine point ; 
general length from two to three feet, including their 
withered apices, concave, but no keel, margins cartilagi- 
nous, and hispid, striated, breadth about two inches at 
the base. <Stcf/)es axillary, length various ; in low inun- 
dated places, sufliciently long to raise the flowers above 
the water ; in the Botanic Garden, on dry ground, always 
much shorter than the leaves, variously bent, a little 
compressed, smooth. Umbel, w ith from eight to twelve 
sessile, large white, fragrant flowers, intermixed with 
filiform bractes. tSpaiAe two-leaved. Calyx none. Coral 



Cnniim. hrxandria monogynia. 131 

and tube subcylindric, inside rugose, about four inches 
long. Segments of the border linear lanceolate, rather 
shorter than tl:e tube. Filaments ascending, coloured, 
nearly as long as the segments of the corol. Anthers 
incumbent, brown. Germ oblong, three-celled, each con- 
taining many (from ei«;ht to sixteen) ovula attached, or ra- 
ther immersed in the margin of their vertically oblong pa- 
rietal receptacles. Style as long as the stamina, above 
the tube coloured. Stigma small, three-lobed. Pericarp 
pium (Berry) subrotund, from one to two inches in dia- 
meter according to the number of seeds, swelled out 
where the seeds are lodged, crumbling away, or other- 
wise decaying. Seeds from one to eight or ten, shape and 
size varying according to the number. 

6. C. lorifolium. R. 

Bulb cylindrically-ovate. Leaves very long, thong- 
shaped, margins scarcely scabrous. Umbels with about 
twenty pedicelled regular flowers. 

A native of Pegu, from thence introduced by the Rev. 
F. Carey, into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta where it 
flowers about the close of the rains. It has immenselylong, 
weak, recuQibentleaves, the breadth of which at the base, 
the broadest part, is rather under two inches, and the 
length five feet. The bulbs thrive well, and produce 
abundance of suckers, by which it is very readily multi- 
plied. 

7. C. Sumatranum. R. 

Stemless. Xgaues linear-lanceolate, straight, stiff, chan- 
nelled, margins hispid. Umbel from ten to twenty-llow- 
ered, flowers subsessile, regular. 

A native of the interior parts of Sumatra, from thence 
Dr. Charles Campbell sent the plants to the Botanic Gar- 
den at Calcutta in 1801, where they thrive well, and blos- 
som at diflerent periods of the year. 

Q2 , 



132 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA, Criuum. 

i2oo^ perennial, ovate, with many thick, fleshy, fibres, 
descending from its crown. Stem none, at least scarcely 
any thing that can be so called has yet appeared after 
ten years culture. Leaves radical, straight, rigid, linear- 
lanceolate, rather obtusely pointed, concave on the upper 
surface ; smooth on both sides, with their margins whit- 
ish, callous and hispid, held between the light and the 
eye, beautifully striated with double lines, and tessellated 
with transverse green veins, from three to six feet long, 
and from three to six inches broad. Scapes axillary, so- 
litary, much shorter than the leaves, smooth, a little 
compressed. Umbel from ten to twenty-flowered. In- 
volucre two-leaved, with filaraentaceous fibres mixed 
amongst the pedicells. Flowers large, white, pedicelled. 
Carol ; tube cylindric, about four inches long, divisions of 
the border linear, as long as the tube, having their 
apices alternately hooked. Filaments ascending, colour- 
ed, shorter than the segments of the corol . Anthers li- 
near, incumbent. Germ inferior, subsessile, scarcely 
thicker than the tube of the corol, three-celled, in the in- 
ner angle of each is a fleshy succulent receptacle in which 
one, two, or three seeds are found immersed. Style 
shorter than the stamina. Fruit the size of a man's fist ; 
cells uncertain, the partitions being obliterated, but the 
whole contains one, two, or three large, bulbiform seeds, 
covered with a tender, somewhat fleshy envelope, which 
does not open in any regular form, but soon decays. 

8. C canaliculatum. R. 

Stemkss Leaves linearly tapering, smooth-margined, 
twice the length of the inflorescence. Umbels, from 
thirty to fift} -flowered ;/oit;ers pedicelled, regular. Seg- 
ments of the border linear, channelled, obtuse, longer 
than the tube. Leaves from eight to fourteen, sparse, li- 
near, tapering near the apex channelled, margins quite 
smooth ; from three to five feet long, and from three to four 



Crinum. hexandria monogynia. 133 

inches broad. Scapes from the exterior axills, solitary, 
about two feet long, surface smooth, inside flattened, about 
as thick as a man's thumb. Umbels composed of about 
forty middliiio^-sized, pure white, long-pedicelled, sweetly 
fragrant flowers, lube of the corol sub-semicylindric, 
two and a half inches long ; border of six linear chan- 
nelled, obtuse, alternately uncinate, recurved segments, 
which are larj^er than the tube. Filaments scarcely more 
than half the length of the segments of the border of the 
corol, ascending towards the point, coloured. Anthers li- 
near. Germ elevated on pretty long, thick pedicells, and 
as in the other species, only apparently three-celled, the 
receptacles being in fact parietal, and only meeting in the 
centre ; ovula several, in two vertical rows, attached to the 
double margin of the receptacle. Style above the mouth 
of the tube, three-cornered, and about as long as the fila- 
ments, ^fz^ma of minute lobes. 

9. C su'perbum. R. 

Caulescent. Leaves lanceolate, smooth, margined. Um- 
bel of from twenty to thirty, pedicelled flowers ; tube of 
the corol equalling the regular border. 

A native of the interior forests of Sumatra from thence 
sent by Dr. Charles Campbell to the Botanic Garden at 
Calcutta where it thrives luxuriantly, and blossoms at 
various periods through the year. This is the largest and 
by far the most beautiful species of Crinum I have yet 
met with, and if the fragrance of its numerous large flow- 
ers is taken into the account, it is probably the most de- 
sirable of all the liliaceous tribe. 

Root of many fleshy, ranious fibres from the rounded 
base of the stem, for there is scarcely any ap'pearance of 
a bulb. Stem short, in six or seven year-old plants from 
twelve to eighteen inches high, as thick as a man's Ic;;, or 
more, invested with the withered sheathes of the leaves, 
from its base and low^er part shoots spring, in such abun- 



134 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Criuiim. 

dance as to render it readily multiplied. Leaves sparse, 
sheathing, lanceolate, straight and smooth, margins also 
smooth ; points blunt, deeply concave on the upper sur- 
face ; held between the eye and the light they are beau- 
tifully striated with numerous, simple, straight, longitudi- 
nal lines, and between these, tessellated with transverse, 
green veins; from three to six feet long, and from three to 
six inches broad about the middle, which is the broadest 
part. Scape from the stem immediately below the leaves 
about three or four feet long, much compressed, particu- 
larly on the inside, and about as thick as a man's 
thumb. Umbel from twenty to thirty-flowered. Involu- 
cre of two large, long, cordate, reflexed, coloured exterior 
leaves ; with numerous filaments mixed among the flow- 
ers. Flowers very large, pedicelled, rose-coloured, de- 
lightfully fragrant ; tube obscurely three-sided, about five 
or six inches long, deeply coloured ; segments of the bor- 
der equally disposed, linear-lanceolate,revolute,as long as, 
or longer than the tube, deep rose colour on the outside, 
pale pinii. within, apices alternately uncinate. Germ in- 
ferior, oblong, three-celled, with a few ovula in each, at- 
tached to a fleshy receptacle, which appear to originate 
in the centre, from the axis, but their real insertion is in- 
to the walls of the Germ. Style declinate, the length of 
the deeply coloured, equally incurved, slender filaments. 
Stigma small, perforated, and obscurely three-lobed. 

The ripe seed vessel has not yet been found ; they 
have continued abortive in Bengal. 

9. C. foxicarium. R. 

Caulescent. Leaves sparse, lanceolar. Flowers pedi- 
celled, numerous, even as far as sixty in a hemispheric 
umbel. Capsules with one or more bulbiform seeds. 

Crinum asiaticum. Bot. Mag. N. 1073, has the exact 
leaf of this species. 

Radix toxicaria. RumpJi. Amb. 6. var.lst.p. 155. t. 69. 



Crinum. mexandria monogynia. 135 

Beng. Bura-kanoor. 

Cing. Tolabo. 

I have only found it in gardens; where it is indiji^enous 
I cannot say, in Ceylon I believe. Floivering time the 
wet season, though more or less the whole year. 

Sleiii short, but distinct, and stout. Leaves linear-lan- 
ceolar, very smooth ; mar^iws most entire ; under side ele- 
gantly striated length-ways with deeper and lighter 
green; from three to four feet long, and from five to se- 
ven inches broad. Scapes axillary, shorter than the 
leaves, smooth, a little compressed, as thick as a man's 
thumb. Flowers numerous, often fifty, growing in a he- 
mispherical umbel, white, almost inodorous. Spatlie 
two-valved, with filiform bractes mixed among the 
flowers. Stigma small, entire, three-sided. Berries round- 
ish, the size of a large pigeon's egg, smooth, crowned with 
the lower part of the remaining tube of the corol, seldom 
more than one-celled, without any natural opening, and 
containing one or more large, bulb-like, rugose, firm 
fleshy seeds ; though in the germ there are the rudiments 
of three cells with many seeds in each. 

Its immense large, beautiful, smooth, deep green 
leaves, make it conspicuous and desirable in the Flow- 
er Garden. 

This plant has hitherto been blended with Crinum asi- 
aticum, though no two species of liliaceous plants, of the 
same genus, can be more strongly marked, not only by 
the size, shape of the leaves, and number, &c. of the flow- 
ers in the umbel, but still more strongly by Tuxicaria, 
being caulescent ; and the other most perfectly desti- 
tute of every appearance of a. stem. It ought to be com- 
pared with Willdcnow's Crinum hracteatum. 

10. C. nervosum. Willd. 2- 47. i 

Leaves reniform-cordate, many-nerved- Spathes many 
flowered. 



136 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Crhium. 

Cepa sylvestris. Rumph. Amb. 6. p. 160. t. 70./. 1. 

Pancratium amboinense. Willd 2. 45. 

Introduced from Amboyna into the Company's Botanic 
Garden at Calcutta, where it blossoms in May and June, 
but rarely ripens its seeds. 

Root bulbous, perennial. Leaves radical, petioled, re- 
niform-cordate, many-nerved, entire, smooth on both 
sides ; length and breadth nearly the same, and in healthy 
luxuriant plants about ten or twelve inches each way. 
Petioles smooth, deeply channelled. Scape erect. Spathes 
three, many (from thirty to fifty) flowered. Flowers 
pedicelled, large, pure white, and fragrant. Bractes 
chaffy, intermixed amongst the pedicells of the flowers. 
Corol infundibuliform. Tube slender, straight ; divisi- 
ons of the border shorter than the tube, alternately lan- 
ceolate and cuneiform. Filaments inserted by broad, lo- 
bate, sometimes united, fleshy bases, into the mouth of 
the tube of the corol, rather shorter than its divisions. 
Anthers incumbent. Germ beneath, three-celled, with 
two seeds in each, attached to the inner angle of the cell. 
Style rather longer than the stamens. Stigma simple, 
acute. Berry as in the other species but smaller, and 
with rarely more than one bulbiform seed. 

Sect. I. Flowers declinate, 

11. C. augustum. R. 

Bulb columnar, mostly above ground. Leaves sparse, 
lanceolate, channelled, smooth-margined. Scapes lateral, 
the length of the leaves ; umbels of from twenty to thirty, 
pedicelled, declinate flowers. 

From the Mauritius this magnificent plant has been 
introduced into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where it 
blossoms at various times throughout the year, but with 
the greatest luxuriance during the rains ; the scapes are 
as thick as a child's wrist, above three feet long, and of 
a dark, reddish purple colour, the umbels have then about 



Crinum. hexandria monogynia. 137 

thirty sweetly fragrant, rosy flowers, on pedicells from 
one to two inches long ; and coloured like the scape ; 
tube of the corol from four to five inches long, colour a 
lighter purple; segments of the border lanceolar, six inches 
long ; filaments and style purple, declinate, with the in- 
cumbent anthers yellow. This is the only species 
known to me with any thing like a stem, and declinate 
flowers, nor can I reconcile it with any one of the many 
species of Crinum or Amaryllis hitherto described in any 
book that I have met with. 



12. C. latifoUum. Sp. pi 419. 

Bulb spherical, stemless. Spathes many, from ten to 
twenty-flowered. Flowers sessile, declinate, with an ob. 
liquely campanulate border. Leaves lanceolate, margins 
scabrous. 

Amaryllis latifolia, Willd. 2. 57. 

Sjovanna-pola-tali. Rheed. Mai. 11. t. 39. 

Amaryllis ornata. Bot. Mag. N. 923, agrees so well 
with this as to induce me to think they are the same, or 
only varieties of one species. 

A native of Bengal where it begins to blossom with 
the first showers in April, and continues to do so during 
the early part of the rainy season. 

I long considered this most stately plant, a variety of 
C. Zexjlanicum, but on taking up some of the bulbs of 
both sorts to send to England, I observed a greater 
diflerence in their appearance, than can be traced iH 
the parts above ground, though even their disagree- 
ments are sufiiciently conspicuous to justify the separa- 
tion. The following description will be found more com- 
parative than usual with me, on account of their resem- 
blance and no doubt both belong to Crinum, at least to 
the same genus, with our East India Crina. I do not 
therefore think L. Heritier, and after him Willdenow, 

R 



13.8 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Ct'inum. 

have rendered Botany any service by changing the place 
of C. Zeylanicum and lattfoHum. 

Root a spherical, tunicated bulb, often two feet in cir- 
cumference and rather more flattened at the base, than 
on the opposite end. In C. Zeylanicum it is ovate, never 
so large and abounds more in cobweb-like fibres. Leaves 
numerous, radical, disposed equally on all sides, lanceo- 
late, waved, smooth, tapering slowly from within a few 
inches of the base to rather a broad and obtuse point ; 
margins scabrous, with minute, cartilaginous deniiculi, 
length from one to three feet, and from three to five in- 
ches broad ; in Zeylanicum, they are much narrower, the 
rib much more prominent, the length as much as three feet, 
the margins much more waved, and perfectly smooth; this 
mark alone is sufficient to distinguish the two plants. 
Scapes from the axills of the decayed leaves, somewhat 
compressed, as thick as a man's tliumb and from twelve 
to twenty-four inches long ; in Zeylanicum it ishmger, and 
coloured. Umbels with from ten to twenty flow ers ; in Zey- 
lanicum rarely so many ; spathes (in both) two, of an ovate, 
conic form, with many soft filaments mixed amongst the 
flowers. Flowers sessile, large, tube green ; border very 
pale rose, almost white, faintly fragrant, particularly when 
theyfirst expand soon after sunset. In Zeylanicum they 
are scarcely so large, and the colours are much more bright, 
almost like Amaryllis vittata. Corol ; tube declinate, cy- 
lindric,obscurely three-sided, about four inches long. Bor- 
der campanulate, horizontal ; segments lanceolar, w ith ra- 
ther soft, subulate points ; length between three and 
four inches. Filaments six, shorter than the segments of 
the border of the corol, inserted on the mouth of the tube, 
declinate, with apices sharp, and always erect. Anthers 
falcate, incumbent and tremulous, pale yellowish grey. 
In Zeylanicum they are brown. Germ inferior, oblong, 
three-celled, with several ovula in each, attached in two 
vertical rows, to the two lobes of the thick fleshy recep- 



Crlnum. hexandria monogynia. 139 

tacles, which are substantially united to the wall of the 
germ, and only seemingly so to each other in the centre. 
C. Zeylanicuni and our other Indian Crinums have exact- 
ly the same gerin, and all produce large bulbous seeds. 
Style filiform, declinate, projecting- beyond the stamina. 
Stigma small, three-toothed. Pericarpium ; berry, as in 
the plants quoted in the last paragraph, a soft some- 
what fleshy perishable envelope which covers one, two, 
or three, rarely more large, fleshy, bulbiforra seeds ; no 
trace of either partitions or stutures to be found. 

13. C. zeylanicum. sp. pL 321. Syst. veg. Miirr. 318, ^c. 

Bulbs ovate, stemless. Spathes many, from ten to twelve 
flowered. Flowers sessile, declinate with a long recurved 
tube, and oblique, campanulate border. ierti;es linear- 
lanceolate, keeled, much waved, drooping ; margins 
smooth. 

Beng. Sookh durshun. 

Tulipa Javanica. Rump. Amb. 5. t. 105. 

Amaryllis lineata. Lamarck Eiicycl. 1. 123. 

A, zeylanica. WillcL 2. 56. 

A. ornata. Bot. Mag. 1171. 

Grows wild on low, rich, uncultivated ground, and ge- 
nerally on the banks of rivers and water courses. Flow- 
ers first in May, and continues doing so during the rainy 
season. 

Spathes two-leaved with linear membranaceous brac- 
tes amongst the flowers. Corol ; tube very long, recurv- 
ed. Berries and seeds exactly as in the other species. 

Note. When the plant is suffered to remain some years 
in the same place, it multiplies so much, as to throw the 
bulbs nearly even with the surface of the earth, and then 
they appear to have stems, which are formed by the con- 
centric sheathes of the leaves, as in the more perfect cau- 
lescent species. 

Crinum giganteum, Andrew's Bot. Rep. 169, has lately 

R 2 



140 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA.. Amaryllis. 

been introduced from the Mauritius, into the Botanic Gar- 
den at Calcutta, where it grows luxuriantly, and blossoms 
with the other species, in May, and during the rains. It 
has almost the exact flowers of my C. latifolium, with 
nearly the leaves of this species, only rather longer, and 
narrower, margins more waved as in Amaryllis spectahilis, 
N. 390. of the same work, curled, and scabrous; in Zeyla- 
nicum they are smooth. 

14. C. moluccanum. R. 

Bulbs spherical ; stemless. Spathes from four to six- 
flowered ; flowers sessile, declinate ; tube recurved, 
equalling the lanceolar segments of the border. Leaves 
linear-lanceolate, waved, reclinate ; margins scabrous. 

This most elegant, rather small species, was introduc- 
ed from Amboyna, into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta 
in 1798, where it blossoms during the rainy season, ge- 
nerally in July and August. 

AMARYLLIS. Schreh. gen. n. 554. 
Coral hexapetala, irregular. Filaments from the 
mouth of the tube, declinate, unequal in proportion, or 
direction. 

1. A. radiata. Willd. 2. 60. 

Spathe two-parted, many-flowered. Flowers pedicel- 
led ; tube short ; divisions of the border unilateral, linear, 
waved, revolute. Stamina and style ascending, longer 
than the corol. 

Chin. Yuk-lan. 

A native of China, blossoming during the rainy season 
in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta. 

2. A. aurea, Willd. 2. 57. Bot. Mag. 409. 

Spathe from six to eight flowered ; flowers short-pedi- 



Allium. HEXANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 141 

celled, declinate ; segments of the border linear, revolutc, 
and waved. Leaves linear. 

A native of China ; from thence introduced into the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where it blossoms about the 
close of the rainy season. 

ALLIUM. Schreh. gen. n. 557- 

SpatJie many-flowered. Umbels collected. Corol six- 
petalled, expanding. Capsules superior, three-celled. 

^1. tuberosum. R. 

Root tuberous. Scape naked, nearly round, having 
only a ridge on one side. Leaves linear, flat. Umbels fas- 
tigiate ; capsule-bearing, 

Beng. Bunga-gundeena. 

This plant I find cultivated about Calcutta by the Hin- 
doos, yet I cannot well reconcile it with any species hi- 
therto described. It grows in large tufts, like A. schoeno- 
prasum, or cives. 

Root tuberous, perennial, with numerous long, white, 
fleshy fibres. Leaves radical, united for an inch or two, by 
means of their sheathes, into something like a short stem, 
above the sheathes they are linear, somewhat twisted, a lit- 
tle concave on the upper side, and convex underneath, 
smooth, about half the length of the scapes. Scapes naked, 
rising amongst the leaves, suberect, round, with a pretty 
sharp ridge on one side, tapering from the base. Umbel 
fastigiate, crowded. Spatlie single, membranaceous, wi- 
thering. Petals oblong, acute. Stamens equal, simple, 
shorter than the petals. 

The Hindoos use it as an article of diet as leeks are 
used in Europe, and other countries. 

2. A. Porrum. Willd. 2. 64. 

Stem flat-leaved. Umbel bearing. Stamens three-point- 
ed. JRoo^ coated. 



142 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA., Allium. 

Beng. Gimdeena. 
Pers. Gundana. 
Arab. Koomass. 

3. A. sativum. Willd. 2. 68. 

Stem flat-leaved. Umbel bulbiferous. Bulb compound. 
Stamens three-pointed. 
Sans. Lwsoona, Mahousliwdha, &c. 
Beng- Lwsooo, but generally pronounced Rusoon. 
Pers. Seer. 

4. A. cepa. Willd. 2. 80. 

Scape naked, gibbous near the base, longer than the 
colunimar leaves. 
Arab. Besel, or Bassul. 

5. A. ascalonicum. Willd. 2. 75. 

Biennial. Scape naked, round, a little swelled below, 
and longer than the sub-columnar leaves. Umbels round, 
many-flowered. Stamens alternately swelled at the base. 
Petals equal, expanding, shorter than the stamens. 

Beng. Peeaj. 

Sans. Pwlandoo. 

This very useful onion, is much cultivated in India 
during the latter part of the rains, and the cool, dry 
months of October, November, December, January, and 
February, by planting the smaller bulbs, and offsets, or 
by the seed. The dry roots are universally sold in every 
market over India, and form a very considerable part of 
the diet of the natives. The general price in Calcutta is 
about two shillings the hundred weight. 

i?oof biennial, or more, consisting of a fascicle of seve- 
ral ovate oblong bulbs, generally (as found in the markets,) 
about as large as the first joint of the middle finger. Leaves 
somewhat bifarious, fistulous, more than semicylindrical, 
tapering, pointed, compressed toward the apex, smooth 



Curculigo. iiexanuria monogynia. 143 

and shorter than the scapes. Scapes rising from the cen- 
tre of the short stem formed by the united sheathes of 
the leaves, naked, round, smooth, slightly swelled towards 
the base and from thence tapering to the umbel, from 
one to two feet long. Sheathes shorter than the umbel, 
irregularly bursting into two or three subovate segments. 
C/>«6eZA- globular, as much as two hundred-flowered. Flow- 
ers like those of the common onion, (Cepa.) Petals 
equal, expanding, shorter than the stamens, white, with 
a green keel. Filaments erect, alternately dilated at the 
base. Anthers ovate, green. 



GLORIOSA. Sckreb. gen. n. 561. 

Calyx none. Corol six-petalled reflex. Germ supe- 
rior, three-celled. Cells many-seeded, attachment cen- 
tral. Style oblique. Capsule three-celled, three- valved. 
Seeds several. Embryo double, furnished with a peris- 
perm. 

1. G.superha. Willd.2.95. 

Root bulbous, biennial. Stem herbaceous. Leaves lan- 
ceolate, ending in a tendril. 

Mendoni. Rheed. Mai. 7. t. 57. 

Hind. Cariari. 

Beng. Ulat-chandal. Eesha langula. 

Native of forests of India ; it appears during the rainy 
season in Bengal, and is one of the most ornamental plants 
any country can boast of; the root is said to be a violent 
poison. 

CURCULIGO. Gori. 

Calyx none. Corol superior, pedicelled or sessile ; 
border six-parted. Germ three-celled. Cells many-seeded ; 
attachment central. Capsule veined, one-thrce-celled. 



344 HKXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Cwculigo. 

Seeds few. Embryo cylindrical, radicle centripetal ; perw- 
perm ample. 

1. C. orchioides, Gcert. Sem, 1. 63. Willd. 2. 105. Corom. 
pi 1. n. 13. 

Polygamous. Leaves linear-lanceolar, plaited ; apices 
Tiviparoiis. Corol long-pedicelled. 

Nela pana kelangu. Rheed. Mai. 12, t. 59. good. Or- 
chis amboinica major, Rumph. Amb. 6. t. 54./. 1. 

Teling. Nanla, Tadee. 

A native of shady, uncultivated places about Samul- 
cota, though by no means common ; in my garden it 
flowers all the year round. 

Root perennial, tuberous, with many fleshy, vermicu- 
lar, fibres spreading in all directions. Stem none. Leaves 
numerous, radical, petioled, narrow-lanceolar, nerved, 
slender, when young there are a very few soft white hairs 
on them ; from six to eighteen inches long, and from half 
an inch to an inch broad, their apices are viviparous, 
whenever they rest on the ground for any length of time. 
Petiols channelled, below sheathing, so as to embrace 
those within. Racemes solitary, axillary, two-ranked, 
with their apices just appearing above the earth. Pedun- 
cles compressed, clavate, about an inch long. Bractes 
one-flowered, below remote, above nearer, spathiform 
pointed, decreasing in length towards the top, so that the 
apices of the whole are nearly horizontal, (corymbiforra). 
Flowers pretty large, yellow, the one or two lowermost 
are Hermaphrodite, above, all are male. 

Hermaphrodite. Calyx none. Coro/ one-petalled, 
the border elevated above the soil on a long, slender, vil- 
lous imperforated pedicel ; segments of the border six, lan- 
ceolate, spreading, hairy on the outside. Filaments six, 
very short, inserted on the base of the segments of the bor- 
der of the corol. Anthers linear, erect. Germ inferior, ses- 
sile, lanceolate, three-celled, with several ovula in each, 



Curculigo. hexandria monogynia. 145 

attached to the axis. Style very short. Stigma large, 
tapering, apex more or less three- cleft. Capsule, when 
a germ, it shows three-cells, with the rudiments of six or 
eight seeds in each, but when the seeds are ripe, the num. 
ber is only from one to four in the whole, and they seem 
as if in a transparent, fleshy, one-celled capsule, separat- 
ed by a spongy substance. Seeds from one to four, shin- 
ing black, beaked. Male peduncle, corol, and stamens 
as in the hermaphrodite ; no germ, style, or stigitia. 

Note. It is a plant of no great beauty, nor are its flow- 
ers fragrant ; variety alone must recommend it to a place 
in the Flower Garden. 

2. C recurvata. R. 

Leaves lanceolar, plaited. Raceme globular, recurved. 
Corol sessile, rotate. Capsule bacciform, round, many- 
seeded. 

It is a native of the eastern frontier of Bengal, from 
thence received into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where 
it blossoms, and ripens its seed the whole year round. 

i?oof perennial, consisting of many fleshy fibres proceed- 
ing from a tuberous, stoloniferous body. Stem none. Leaves 
radical, petioled, lanceolar, recurved, plaited, entire, 
smooth on both sides, from one to three feet long, and 
Trom two to six inches broad. Petioles deeply channelled, 
one- third, or one-fourth the length of the leaves. Scapes 
axillary, about as long as the petioles, compressed, 
villous, apex recurved. Racemes solitary, strobiliform 
drooping. Bractes spathiform, solitary, singly one-flower- 
ed, villous, tapering, about as long as the pedicells and 
flowers taken together. Flowers hermaphrodite, yellow, 
expanding three quarters of an inch. Calyx none. Corol 
superior, sessile, rotate, six-parted. Segments lanceolate, 
spreading, villous on the outside, smooth and yellow, 
on the inner persistent. Filament short, inserted on the 



X46 HEXAMDRIA MONOGYNIA. CurCuUgO. 

short tube of the corol. Anthers linear, erect, adhering 
to each other as in the syngenesious tribe. Germ obo- 
vate, hairy, three-celled, with many ovula in each, at- 
tached to the axis. *Sfi/Ze longer than the stamens. Stigma 
dilated, subtrilobate. Capsule berried, inferior, ovate, 
the size of a large pea, soft, and clothed with hairs, not 
opening, three-celled with several seeds in each, arranged 
in two or three vertical rows, and attached to the axis. 
Seeds round, the size of a small grain of black pepper, and 
like it black, and wrinkled. Integuments two ; exterior 
hard, thick, red, and brittle ; inner, a brown membranace- 
ous crust. Perisperm conform to the seed, cartilaginous, 
pale blue. Embryo simple, cylindric, straight, penetrat- 
ing from the umbilicus more than half through the peris- 
perm, (centripetal.) 

3. C sumatrana. R. 

ieaiJCs broad-lanceolar, plaited. ^Sp/Are half hid in the 
earth. Coro^ pedicelled. . Stigma three-lobed. 

Involucrum. Rumph. Anib. (j. 114. t. 53. 

A native of the mountains of Sumatra, and from thence 
sent by Dr. Campbell to this Garden in 1800, where it 
blossoms in March and April. 

Root stoloniferous, perennial. Stem none. Leaves radi- 
cal, few, petioled, lanceolar, recurved, plaited, above 
smooth, somewhat woody underneath, entire, about 
nine inches long, and about three broad. Petioles deep- 
ly channelled, from three to four inches long, smooth. 
Spikes strobiliforra, mostly hid in the earth, the points of 
the bractes, and flowers only are visible- Bractes ovate- 
lanceolate, hairy, one-flowered, shorter than the pedicels 
of the corols. Flowers yellow, the lower hermaphrodite, 
while those that occupy the crown of the spike, and of 
course expand last, are generally male. Calyx none. 
Corol flat, elevated above the germ, on an erect, hairy 
columnar pedicel j segments six, lanceolate, united at the 



Scilla. HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 147 

base, withering. Filaments six, short, inserted on the unit- 
ed segments of the corol. Anthers erect. Germ flask- 
shaped, villous, three-celled, with many ovula in each, at- 
tached to the axis. Style crooked, shorter than the petals. 
Stigma enlarged with three small lobes. 

SCILLA. Schreb. gen. n 567. 
Calyx none. Corol six-petalled, spreading, deciduous. 
Filaments filiform. 

1. S. indica. R. 

Bulb tunicated. Leaves narrow and taper from the 
base. Racemes simple, longer than the leaves. Flowers 
remote, solitary, long-pedicelled, drooping. 

A native of the sandy shores of various parts of India. 
Flowering time the month of March and April. 

Root a round, white, perennial, tunicated bulb, about 
the size of a large apple. Leaves numerous, radical, sub- 
bifarious, ensiforra, nearly flat, smooth, on both sides, 
from six to eighteen inches long. When in blossom the 
plant is perfectly destitute of leaves. Scape erect, round, 
smooth, naked ; including the raceme from two to three 
feet long. Raceme very long, erect. Flowers remote, 
long-pedicelled, drooping. 

The taste of the root is fully as nauseous, and bitter as 
that of Scilla maritima, and may be possessed of the 
same qualities. 

2. S. coromandeliana, R. 

ieaves linear, rather acute, deeply channelled. i?a- 
cemes erect, longer than the leaves, bearing from four to 
eight, remote, long-pedicelled, drooping flowers. Inner 
petals straight, and bearded at top. 

A native of the sand hills of the Coast of Coromandel. 
In the Botanic Garden at Calcutta it blossoms in May, 

S 2 



148 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA, AsphodeluS. 

at which period the plant is perfectly destitute of leaves, 
nothin,^ but the straight very slender scape, and raceme 
is to be seen. 

Root a round, tunicated, perennial, greenish-white 
bulb, of about an inch and a half in diameter. Intasteitis 
exceedingly nauseous, and bitter, and is in India some- 
times used as a substitute for the officinal squill. Scilla 
maritima. Xeayes linear, rather acute, smooth, deeply 
channeled ; generally six or eight inches long, and less 
than half an inch broad, even when spread flat. Scape 
straight, erect, naked, smooth, and slender ; whole height, 
raceme included, from twelve to eighteen inches; and not 
thicker than a crow quill. Flowers from four to eight, re- 
mote, long-pedicelled, drooping, colour a mixture of dull 
green, and still duller white, with a slight purple tinge. 
Bractes small, caducous. Petal oblong, and nearly of 
the same size, the inner three with bearded apices. Fi- 
laments six, equal, inserted on the base of the petals, 
clavate. Germ ovate- oblong. Style a three-sided, in- 
verted cone with a triangular opening at top, for the stig, 
ma. 



ASPHODELUS. Schreb. gen. n. 569. 

Corol six-parted. Nectary six-valves covering the ge- 
nitals- 

1. A- clavatus. R. 

Annual. Stem naked, ramous. Leaves erect, straight, 
cylindric, fistulous. Filaments clavate above their nec- 
tarial ciliate base. 

A native of the interior parts of Bengal, where it ap- 
pears to blossom, and ripen its seed during the cold sea- 
son. 

It seems, from the descriptions and figures in my pos- 
session of A. fiUulosus to be very nearly allied to it. In 



Anthericum. hexandria monogynia. 149 

this Ibe leaves are perfectly straight, and upright, taper- 
ing to a long fine point, and as completely fistulous as 
in the Onion. The filaments are nearly of equal lengths, 
and as much contracted immediately above their ex- 
panded ciliate base, and swell much toward the apex. 
^he petals are white, with a brown line along the centre. 

ANTHERICUM. Schreb gen. n. 570. 

Calyx none. Corol beneath, six-petalled, expanding. 
Capsule ovate. 

1. A. unijioruin. R. 

Bulb ovate. Scape simple, straight, one-flowered. 
Leaves linear, channelled ; stamina smooth. Style scarcely 
any. Stigma three-cleft. 

A native of Rohilkhuud, from thence introduced into 
the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, by Mr. A. Gott, where 
it blossoms during the cold season. 

Bulb ovate, from its base spring many fleshy fibres, 
some of which support a pendulous oval tuber. Leaves 
two, from the crown of the bulb, and generally two, remote 
from each other, on the lower half of the scape ; all are 
linear, channelled, equalling in height the scape itself. 
Scape erect, round, smooth, about a foot high, supporting 
on its apex one, large, pure white flow^er. Petals broad- 
lanceolate, spreading. Filaments short, broad, and smooth. 
Anthers linear, erect. Germ oblong, obtusely three-sided. 
Style scarcely any. Stigma three-cleft ; lobes recurved. 

2. A. tuberosum. R, 

Roof tuberous. Leaves radical, waved. Scape ending 
in an oblong panicle. All the stamens subulate. 

Sans. Chitra, also Vrishna. 

Teling. Kushellee. 

A native of the moist vallies up amongst the Circar 
mountains. Flowering time the rainy season. 



150 HEXANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Asparagus. 

Root perennial, consisting of many, fleshy, round 
fibres ending in small, oblong tubers. Leaves radical, ma- 
ny, ensiform, margins waved, smooth, from one to two 
feet long ; and from two to four inches broad. Scapes 
round, smooth, naked, from one to three feet long. Pani- 
cles oblong, erect. Floivers numerous, sub-erect, pure 
white, about the size and appearance of the snow-drop. 
Filaments equal, simple, short, ascending. Anthers linear, 
erect. Style ascending, projecting rather beyond the an- 
thers. Stigma lobed. Capsule three-sided. 

1 have had many of the plants in my garden for seve- 
ral years ; they are very beautiful when in blossom, and 
have a long succession of flowers. 



ASPARAGUS. Schreh. gen. n. 573. 

Calyx none. Corol beneath, six-petalled. Germ supe- 
rior, three-celled ; celh few-seeded ; attachment interior. 
Berry three-celled, one or two-seeded. Embryo ser- 
pentine, transverse, on the exterior side of an ample p4' 
risperm, opposite to the umbilicus. 

1. A. officinalis. Willd. 2. 150. 

Stems herbaceous, columnar, erect. Leaves bristly. 
Stipules in pairs. 

Pers. and Hind. Nak-doun. 

Beng. Hilyoon. 

Arab. Hulyoon. 

Found as in Europe, in a cultivated state only. 

2. A. acerosus. R. 

Herbaceous, erect. Thorns solitary, recurved. Leaves 
three-fold, three-sided, acute, polished, permanent. Ra- 
cemes lateral. 

A native of the interior parts of Bengal. Flowering 



Asparagus. hexandria monogynia. 151 

time the close of the rains, and the beginning of the cold 
season ; seed ripe in December. 

Root perennial, composed of many, fusiform, succulent 
tubers. Stems erect, flexuous, round. Branches numer- 
ous, alternate, expanding, when old round, while young 
angular. Bark smooth, and green on the young parts ; 
on the old, a little ferruginous. Thorns solitary, under 
the branches ; branchlets and leaves, recurved, strong,and 
sharp. Leaves three-fold, acerose, three-sided, polished, 
acute. Stipules solitary, between the three leaves, branch, 
orbranchlet and thorn triangular, scariose, permanent. Ra- 
cemes lateral, generally solitary, simple, and short. Flow- 
ers pure white, delightfully fragrant. Petals equal, at first 
expanding, afterwards recurvate. Filaments five, in- 
curved, inserted on the petals considerably above their 
insertion, and shorter than them. Germ three-lobed. Style 
short. Stigma three-cleft, with lobes recurved. Berry 
nearly round, about the size of a pea, rarely more than 
oneof the lobes of the germ comes to maturity, and in that 
case it is enlarged a little on one side, with the two abor- 
tive lobes, smooth, when ripe red, one-celled. Seed sin- 
gle, spherical, attached to the axis, which is now on one 
side by the abortion of two of the lobes of the germ. In- 
tegument, a single lucid, somewhat dotted, black crust, 
adhering firmly to the perisperm. Perisperm conform 
to the seed, horny, greenish-white. Embryo slender, e- 
qually thick on every part, white, arched in a large semi- 
circle round the circumference of the seed most remote 
from the umbilicus. 

A charming shrub, and easily distinguished by its ace- 
rose three-fold, ihree-sided, polished, acute, permanent 
leaves. 



3. A. racemosus. Ed. sp. Willd. 2. 152. 

Shrubby, scandent. Thorns solitary, recurved. Leaves 



152 HEXANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Asparogits. 

fascicled, incnrved, channelled on the back. Racemes 
thorn-axillary over the ligneous branchlets. 

Sans. S«ta-moolee. 

Hind. Sada bori. 

Beng. Sut-mooli. 

A native of various parts of India. Flowering: time 
the cold season, >\hen it perfumes the air to a consider- 
able distance with the delightful fragrance of its flowers ; 
seeds ripe in March. 

Root consisting of many, fusiform, smooth, perennial 
tubers. Stems scandent, slender, woody smooth ; young 
shoots striated. Thorns solitary, recurved, short, strung 
and sharp. Leaves fascicled, filiform, incurved, three- 
sided. Racemes generally simple, often crowded together 
in the axills of the thorns, over the slender woody 
branchlets. Bractes cordate, and scariose, several 
abcmt the base of the raceme, they are one-flowered. 
Pedicells diverging, jointed at the middle, one-flower- 
ed. Flowers very numerous, small, pure white. Petals 
oblong, reflexed. Filaments incurved, rather shorter 
than the petals. Anthers purple. Germ superior, three- 
lobed, three-celled, each containing about four ovula, at- 
tached to the axis. Style short. Stigma three-cleft. 
Berry three-lobed, two are generally small, and abortive ; 
when ripe red, and covered with a small portion of pulp. 
Seeds solitary, black. Embryo transverse, and cur\'ed in 
a serpentine manner in the back of an ample, hard peris- 
perm, nearly opposite to the umbilicus. 

4. A. curillus. Buch. 

Herbaceous, leaning. Thorns solitary, recurved. 
Leaves tern, three-sided, acute, incurved. Racemes la- 
teral, few-flowered. Flowers long-pedicelled. Petals 
cuneifonu, expanding, 

A native of Xepal, from whence Dr. Buchanan sent 
seeds thereof to the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where it 



Asparagus. iiexandria moxogy>ia. 153 

about two years, the plants blossomed in July for the 
first time, and continue so to do, and to ripen their seeds 
in January. 

Root perennial. Stems weak, diffuse, leaning much, 
or scandent in a favorable soil and supported ; flexuose, 
round and smooth, very ramous. Branches expanding, 
angular. Thorns solitary, recurved, acute. Leaves tern, 
three-sided, incurvate, acute, smooth, tapering toward 
both sides. Racemes lateral, and generally one on each 
side of a small branchlet, short, bearing a few, remote, 
long-pedicelled, small white flowers. Pedicels jointed, 
swelled, and bracted at the middle. Bracfes tapering, 
membranaceous, two at the base of each pedicel, and 
one at or near the middle. Filaments inserted on the pe- 
tals above the base, incurved. Germ turbinate. Style, 
short. Stigma of three, recurved lobes. Berry, size of a 
pea, three-lobed, when ripe red. 

5. A. adscendens. R. 

Herbaceous, erect. Thorns solitary, straight. Leaves 
fascicled, cylindric, straight. Racemes lateral, simple or 
compound. Berries pendulous. 

This very elegant species, is a native of Rohilkhund ; 
from thence Mr. A. Gott sent seeds to the Botanic Gar- 
den at Calcutta in 1804, and in November 1807, the 
plants began to blossom, and ripened their seeds in Fe- 
bruary. 

Root perennial. Stems round, and .slender, yet in ge- 
neral nearly straight and erect. Bark smooth, ash-co- 
loured. Branches round, diverging, with their extremi- 
ties ascending. Thorns solitary, straight, slender, and 
acute. Leaves numerous, fascicled, cylindric, filiform, 
smooth, permanent. Racemes lateral, at the insertions of 
the branches and brauchlets, solitary, or one on each 
side, the former, often compound. Flowers saiall, pure 
white, supported on diverging, slender, jointed pedicells. 



154 HEXANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Flagellavia. 

Petals six, distinct at the base, oblong, first expanding, 
afterwards reflexed. Germ turbinate, three-lobed, three- 
celled, with about six seeds in each, in two vertical rows. 
Style three-grooved. Stigma three-cleft. Berry pendulous, 
size of a pea, three-lobed ; and as I have constantly remark- 
ed that two of the lobes are abortive, its shape is oblique- 
ly obovate, smooth, when ripe red, and succulent. Seed 
single, round, attached to the axis, which is now much 
to one side, by the abortion of two of the lobes of the 
germ. Integument single, lucid, black, Perisperm con- 
form to the seed, pure white, cartilaginous. Embryo ser- 
pentine, lateral. 



FLAGELLARIA. Sckreb. gen. n. 614. 
Calyx three-leaved. Corol three-petalled. Germ su- 
perior, three-celled. Cells one-seeded, attachment su- 
perior. Berry superior, one-seeded. Embryo in the 
base of the perisperm. 

F. indica. Willd. 2. 263. 

Teling. Poindee-pootee. 

Beng. Bun-chunda. 

Hind. Harcharrul. 

Panambu-valli. Rheed. Mai. 7. t. 53. 

Sirioides. Rumph. Amb. 5. t. 29./. 1. 

A long, straggling, scandent, perennial plant ; a na- 
tive of forests. Flowers during the beginning of the rains 
in June. 

Calyx three-leaved ; leaflets unequal, one or two be- 
ing broader, and emarginate. Petals three, oblong, al- 
ternate with the leaflets of the calyx, and of nearly the 
same size. Anthers linear, cleft at each end. Germ su- 
perior, three-celled, one ovula in each, attached to the 
top of the axis. Styles three, shorter than the stamens. 
Stigma simple. Berry globular, size of a large pea. 



Drac(Bna. hexandria monogynia. 155 

smooth, red, pulpy, generally one-seeded, though there 
is always the rudiments of three. 



BRACMNA. Shreh. gen. n. 574. 
Calyx none. Corol six-parted, erect. Filaments some- 
what thicker in the middle. Germ superior, three-celled, 
cells one- seeded ; attachment interior. Berry three-lobed, 
Tfith one seed in each (generally one or two of the lobes 
abortive.) Embryo near the base of the perisperm on the 
outside. 

1. D. angustifolia. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves stem-clasping, linear,, acute, droop- 
ing, waved, smooth. Panicle terminal, flowers fasci- 
cled. 

Terminalis angustifolia. RumpJi. Amb. 4. t. 35. 

A native of Amboyna, and from thence introduced in- 
to the Botanic Garden at Calcutta in 1798, Flowering 
time in Bengal, the hot season ; seed ripe in September 
and October. 

Root ramous. Stem erect, as thick as a stout walking 
cane ; ramous, marked with the oblique cicatrices of the 
fallen leaves ; whole height, when in blossom, eight or 
ten feet. Leaves crowded about the top of the plant, 
stem-clasping, linear, acute, drooping ; margins waved, 
entire, smooth on both sides ; from twelve to eighteen 
inches long, and under tw o in breadth. Panicles termi- 
nal, ovate, composed of many somewhat ascending, 
compound branches. Flowers numerous, fascicled, pe- 
dicelled, greenish white. Bractes small, from one to four- 
flowered. Calyx none, Corol one-petalled, permanent, 
subcylindric, half six-parted, divisions linear, on the day 
of expansion revolute. Filaments six, rather shorter than 
the corol, inserted on the middle of the base of its divi- 
sions. J nf/«6rs incumbent. Germ superior, three-sided. 

T 2 



156 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. DracCBUa. 

Style length of the corol. Stigma three-lobed. Berry 
from one to three-lobed, pulpy, deep orange colour, 
each lobe the size of a marrow-fat pea, containing 
one, large, round, horny seed. 

?. D. ferrea. Willd. 2- p. 157. 

Perennial, caulescent, erect. Leaves petioled, lanceo- 
late, cuspidate, ferruginous- Petioles stem-clasping, and 
channelled. Panicle terminal. 

Terminalis rubra. Rumph. Amb. 4. p. 80. t, 34./. 2. 

A native of China. In Bengal it blossoms from De- 
cember until March, but never produces seed. 

Stem erect, often as thick as a man's wrist, with few, 
erect, perennial, round branches marked with the cica- 
trices of the fallen leaves, height of the plants in Bengal, 
when eight or ten years old, from six to ten feet. Leaves 
sub-bifarious, petioled, lanceolate, cuspidate, entire, 
smooth on both sides ; while young a lively pink, chang- 
ing to a deep ferruginous colour, particularly on the up- 
per surface ; from one to two feet long. Petioles stem- 
clasping, deeply channelled, from three to six inches 
long. Panicle terminal, composed of several, generally 
simple, diverging racemes. Bractes three-fold, triangu- 
lar, acute. Flowers numerous, short-pedicelled, diverg- 
ing, pale purple. Calyx none. Coi'ol one-petalled. Tube 
short, and somewhat gibbous. Border of six, oblong, 
spreading segments ; the exterior three deeper coloured. 
Filaments rather shorter than the segments of the corol, 
and inserted on their base, at the mouth of the tube. 
Germ three celled, in each many ovula in two vertical 
rows, attached to the axis. Style as long as the sta- 
mens. Stigma three-cleft. 

Note. In Bengal this has not ripened its fruit. 

3. D. terminalis. Willd. 2. 157. 

Perennial, caulescent, erect. Leaves lanceolate. 

Terminalis alba. Rumph. Amb, 4. p. 80. t. 34./. ;* . 



Draccena. hexandria monogynia. 157 

A native of the Moluccas. Flowers about the beginning 
of the hot season in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta. 

4 D. spicata. R. 

Caulescent. Leaves lanceolate, drooping. Spikes ter- 
minal, bractes many-flowered. Corol cylindric, at last 
becoming twisted. Stigma three-lobed. 

A native of Chittagong,.and from thence introduced 
into this Garden by Dr. Buchanan, where it blossoms in 
April. 

Root fibrous. Stem erect, toward the top succulent, 
perennial, marked with the cicatrices of the fallen leaves, 
as in the other Dracana- Leaves crowded about the 
extremity of the plant, sheathing, lanceolate, drooping, 
entire, pointed ; smooth on both sides 4 from six to 
twelve inches long, and two or three broad. Spikes 
terminal, bent a little to one side ; numerous pointed, re- 
curved bractes surround the base, and a few shorter, ap- 
pressed ones from thence to the flower-bearing position. 
Flowers numerous, sessile, collected in small fascicles, 
each fascicle having a small, cordate, pointed bracte 
immediately under it. Calyx none. Co7-ol oue-petalled, 
cylindric, divided halfway down into three exterior, and 
three interior slender, linear, equal, straight segments ; 
colour pale greenish yellow, as they advance in age the 
tube becomes twisted. Filaments inserted on the base of 
the segments of the corol, and of their length. Stigma 
three-lobed. Berrij with from one to three, distinct, 
round, and smooth lobes ; while immature, a deep olive 
green, when ripe, deep reddish orange ; each lobe contain- 
ing a single, large, round, smooth, white, horny seed. 

5. D. maculata. R. 

Caulescent, shrubby, weak. Leaves oblong, broad- 
lanceolar, spotted. Panicles, terminal, lax ; flowers so- 
litary. 



158 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. DvaCCBna, 

A slender, leaning, shrubby species, from three to 
four feet in height, a native of Sumatra, from thence in- 
troduced, by the late Dr. C Campbell into the Botanic 
Garden at Calcutta, where it flowers during the hot 
months of March and April. The variegation of the co- 
lour of the leaves makes it interesting and ornamental. 

Stems tending to be erect, but from their weak texture, 
leaning much to one side. Branches few, and like the 
stems ; general height of five year old plants, from three 
to four feet. Leaves alternate, approximate, sheathing, 
from lanceolar to oblong, entire, smooth, strongly mark- 
ed with circular spots of a deeper, or lighter yellow ; 
from four to eight inches long, and from one to three 
broad. Panicles (in stunted plants racemes) terminal ; 
thin, smooth, variously bent. Flowers scattered, pedi- 
celled, pretty large, pale greenish yellow. Bractes soli- 
tary, ensiform, one, rarely two-flowered. Corol ; tube 
gibbous ; border six-parted ; segments linear, length of 
the tube. Filaments six, inserted on the base of the seg- 
ments of the border of the corol and of their length. An- 
thers incumbent. Germ superior, obovate, three-celled, 
with one ovula in each, attached to the axis below its 
middle. Style length of the corol. Stigma composed of 
three, roundish, beautiful granulated lobes. 

6. D. cernua. Willd. 2. 157. 

Subarboreous. Leaves crowded, sessile, narrow-Ian- 
ceolar, fine-pointed. Panicles terminal, drooping, bran- 
ches few, divaricate. Flowers solitary. 

Found by Colonel Hardwicke on the Island of Mau- 
ritius, in flower in August and September. 

7. D. umhraculifera. Willd. 2. 156. 

Subarboreous. Leaves cuneiform-lanceolar (that is,^ ta- 
per most toward the base,) acute. Panicles terminal, 
sessile, short, with the ramifications and flowers diverg- 
ing:. 



Dracaena. hexandria monogynia. 159 

Found by Colonel Hardwicke at the Mauritius ; in 
flower in July and August. 

8. D. terniflora. R. 

Shrubby, erect. Zearcslanceolar, petiolcd. Raceme 
terminal, often panicled ; flowers tern, pedicelled. 

Bunamtol, the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is 
indigenous amongst the hills which bound that province 
to the north ; there it grows to the height of about eight 
feet, flowering in February. The seeds take nearly one 
year to ripen. 

Stems slender, nearly erect. Branches few and weak. 
Leaves about the extremities of the branches, alternate, 
approximate, petioled, lanceolar, acuminate, perfectly 
smooth on both sides, and of a fine texture, slightly 
marked with many, very fine, scarcely conspicuous, pa- 
rallel veins, from six to twelve inches Jong, and, the petiole 
included, two or three broad. Petioles from one to 
three inches long, stem-clasping, &c. as in the genus. 
Racemes terminal, solitary, rising, curved, often more 
or less compound, sometimes panicled, nearly as long 
as the leaves, every part smooth. Flowers always 
in threes, pedicelled, delicately slender, colour pale green- 
ish-white. Pedicels slender, jointed near the middle, the 
part below the joint more permanent, and longer than 
the bractes. Bractes an exterior, three-flowered, ovate 
one, and a smaller within it, to each pedicel ; all de- 
licately thin, membranaceous and white. Calyx none. 
Coral funnel-shaped ; segments of the border six, linear, 
longer than the tube, withering, and becoming spiral. 
Filaments six, from the mouth of the tube, length of the 
segments. Anthers incumbent. Germ superior, oval, 
three-lobed, three-celled, with one ovula in each, at- 
tached to the lower end of the axis. Style longer than 
the corol. Stigma three-lobed. Berries rarely more than 
one of the three lobes of the germ comes to maturity 



160 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. SaUSeviCYa. 

when it is about the size, and appearance of a fine red 
cherry. Seed solitary, conform to the berry, perisperm 
conform to the seed, horny, as in the palms. Embryo sim- 
ple, lodged in the base of the perisperm on the outside. 

9. D. airopurpiirea. R. 

Shrubby, erect. Leaves lanceolar, acuminate, (highly 
coloured.) Panicles terminal ; branches few, long, simple, 
and diverging -, flowers solitary. 

Lall Bun-amtol, the vernacular name in Silhet, where 
it is found wild in the forests, growing to be a tall, scan- 
tily branched, caulescent species, with dark purple leaves 
and inflorescence of from six to eight feet in height ; flow- 
ering in March and April, and the berries ripening the 
January following. 

Leaves about the ends of the branchlets, short-petioled, 
lanceolar, acuminate, polished, striated lengthways with 
innumerable, fine, parallel veins, colour an enchanting, 
rather dark ferruginous purple ; from six to eight inches 
long, by one to two broad. Panicles terminal, solitary, 
composed of a few, long, diverging branches toward the 
base, length of the leaves, colour purple, and particular- 
ly dark when young. Flowers solitary, on jointed pedi- 
cels ; the part below the joint permanent, and shorter 
than the bractes. Bractes two to each pedicel ; one ex- 
terior and larger than the other, inserted on the base of 
the pedicel laterally, and smaller. Corol, stamina, pistil" 
lum, and berries, as in the genus. 



SANSEVIERA. Thunh.prod. 

Calyx none. Corol six-parted, with. the stamina insert, 
ed on their base. Germ superior, three-celled. Cells one- 
seeded ; attachment interior. Berries from one to three, 
united, one- seeded. 



Sanseviera. hexandria monogynia. 161 

S. zeylanica. Willd. 2. 159. Corom. pi 2. N. 184. 

Stemless. Leaves linear, fleshy, concave, cuspidate. 
Racemes as long as the leaves ; flowers fascicled. Ber- 
ries drooping, their lobes globular, and slightly united. 

Sung. Moorva. See Asiatick Researches 4. 271. 

Beng. Moorba, Murahara, Murgalie. 

Aletris liyacintlioides zeylanica. Linn. 

We may call it in English Bow-string Hemp. 

Teling. Ishama-coda nar. 

Aloe zeylanica pumila, of Plukenef. t. 256. Fig. 5. is no 
doubt this plant as is also Katu-kapel of Rheed Mahi' 
baricus, vol. 11. pageSS. table 42, so that I conclude the 
plant in the King's garden at Kew "Aletris acaulisfoliis 
lanceolatis carnosis, florihus geminatis" to be theGuineen- 
sis, the fruit of which has lately been so well described, 
and figured by Gaertner, as to enable me with the more 
certainty to say that our Indian plant is perfectly dis- 
tinct. It grows very commonly under bushes, in thin 
jungle (forests,) in almost every soil. Flowering time 
the cold and the beginning of the hot season, that is, 
from the beginning of January till May. 

Root perennial, stoloniferous. Stolones as thick as the 
little finger, running under the ground, inserted in sheath-, 
ing scales. Stem none. Leaves radical, from four to eight, 
the exterior ones shortest, spreading most, and considera- 
bly broader, the interior ones nearly erect, from one to four 
feet long, semi-cylindric, grooved on the upper side, each 
ending in a round, tapering, sharp point, they are all co- 
loured with deeper and lighter green, and somewhat 
striated, but otherwise are smooth. Scapes issuing 
from the centre of the leaves, from one to two feet long, 
including the raceme, or flower bearing part, erect, 
round, smooth, about as thick as a small ratan, between 
the raceme and the base there are at regular distances, 
four or five pointed, alternate sheaths. Racemes erect, 
about as long as, or longer than, the scape below the flow- 

u 



162 HEXANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Sanseviera. 

ers, striated, smooth. Flowers middle-sized, greenish 
white, erect, collected in fascicles of from four to six, on 
little, regularly distant, tuberosities of the rachis . Bractes 
small, membranaceous. Pedicles clubbed, short, ascend- 
ing, one-flowered. Calyx none. Corol one-petalled, 
not in the least wrinkled, funnel-shaped, half six-cleft ; 
divisions nearly linear. Filaments length of the divisions 
of the corol, and inserted into the base. Anthers linear- 
oblong incumbent, half two-cleft. Germ three-lobed, 
three celled, each containing a single ovula, attached to 
the axis. Style length of the stamens. Stigma three- 
sided, clubbed, entire. Berries one, two or three, slight- 
ly united ; when single, globular, fleshy, orange- coloured, 
smooth, the size of a pea, one-seeded. Seed globular. 
Embryo simple, lodged near the base of the perisperm on 
the outside. 



Observations. 
In a good soil, when the plants are regularly and mo- 
derately watered, the leaves grow to be from three to four 
feet long, and contain a number of fine, remarkably 
strong, white fibres, which run their whole length. The 
natives make their best bow strings of these fibres. 
To separate them from the pulpy parts, they lay a single 
fleshy leaf, on a smooth bit of board, on one end of which 
(leaf,) they place one of their great toes, and with a thin 
bit of hard stick held between the two hands, they scrape 
the leaf from them, and very quickly remove every part 
of the pulp. It can also be removed by steeping the 
leaves in water, till the pulpy parts rot, &c. as is practis- 
ed with flax, and hemp in Europe, but with me this dis- 
coloured the fibres much. • 

About eighty pounds of the fresh leaves, yielded one 
pound of the clean dry fibres. These were gathered at 



Sanseviera. hexandria monogynia. 163 

once from a small bed of the plants which I planted a- 
bout twelve months before in my own garden. The bed 
was scarcely three yards square, and the leaves upon an 
average less than two feet long-, owing to my having ga- 
thered them before they were at their full size. Full grown 
leaves of three or three and a half feet long yielded in the 
proportion of one pound of the clean fibres (flax,) for 
every forty pounds of fresh leaves, for eight pounds of 
such leaves, yielded me three ounces of clean fibre; hence I 
conclude that this plant might be cultivated to advantage. 
For even according to the first mentioned rate, of one 
pound of the fibres, from a bed of three square yards of the 
plants, one acre would yield one thousand six hundred 
and thirteen pounds of the clean flax at a gathering, two 
of which may be reckoned on yearly, in a good soil, and 
a favorable season after the plants are of a proper age, 
mine being only as yet about twelve months old, which I 
imagine is too short a time for them to have acquired 
sufficient size, and strength, to yield the best and largest 
proportion of fibre. 

There are certainly a great variety of uses to which 
these fibres may be applied better than any other sub- 
stance yet known. I am inclined to think that the fine 
line, called China grass, which is employed for fishing 
lines, fiddle strings, b^c. is made of these fibres. 

It grow s readily from the slips, which issue in great a- 
bundance from the roots, requires little or no care, and as 
they are perennial, would not require renewing often, if 
at all ; indeed the bed in my garden requires thinning. 

Some years ago, 1 remember to have seen a bed or 
two of these plants in Dr. Russell's garden at Vizagapa- 
tam, which grew most luxuriantly, more so than mine 
has done ; which gives reason to think that a rich sandy 
soil may suit this plant better than our stiffer soil about 
Samulcota. Should it ever become an object of cul- 
ture, a less expensive and more expeditious method of 

U2 



164 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Dianellu, 

clearing the fibres from the pulpy parts of the leaves,thaii 
that of the natives above mentioned, must be contrived ; 
for as they now do it, that alone would involve a greater 
expence than every other charge. 



DIANELLA. Lamarck. 

Calyx none. Corol six-petalled, the three inner re- 
fracted. Filaments with glandular apices. Anthers per- 
forated at top. Germ superior, three-celled ; cells few- 
seeded ; attachment subsuperior. Berry three-celled. 
Seeds few (from one to two, in each cell.) Embryo in the 
apex of an ample perisperra. 

D. nemorosa. Lamarck. Encyclop. 2. 273. 

Perennial. Leaves cauline, bifarious, ensiform. 

Dracaena ensifolia. Willd. 2. 158. 

Gladiolus odoratus Indicus. Rumph Amh. 5. t. 37. 

In 1800 the roots were sent from Sumatra, where I am 
told it is indigenous, to the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, 
by Dr. Campbell, where the plants thrive well, and con- 
tinue in blossom and seed most part of the year. 

Root fibrous. Stems perennial, several from the same 
root, erect, or nearly so, smooth, jointed at the insertion 
of the leaves, somewhat compressed. In our plants 
the naked part of the largest is only as thick as a ratan, 
and two or three inches high, and the height of the 
whole, about three feet. Leaves cauline, bifarious, 
alternate, sheathing, spreading, or a little recurved, 
sword-shaped, keeled on the back, smooth on both sides ; 
edges most minutely serrulate. Sheathes compressed, 
embracing the stem edge- ways, as in the Iridece. Scapes 
from the centre of the leaves, round, smooth, with two 
or three very short leaves at nearly equal distances. 
Panicles terminal, with ramifications ending in small 



Tela. HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 165 

umbellets of pedicelled, pale, whitish green, small, ino- 
dorous, naked flowers. Involucres cordate, spathiform. 
Calyx none. Petals six, ovate-oblong, exterior three 
broader, expanding ; inner three refracted, or rigidly 
bent back. Filaments six, inserted between the petals and 
germ, broad, and rather short, with their apices incurved, 
each augmented at the apex with a large yellow gland. 
Anthers issuing from the forementioned glands, erect, ta- 
pering, with two small round perforations on the top, 
lor the pollen to escape. Germ superior, nearly round. 
Style straight, about as long as the stamens. Stigma 
small, somewhat three-dentate. Berry three-celled, 
succulent, size of a large marrow fat pea, smooth, and 
when ripe, very dark purple. Seeds from one to three 
in each cell, smooth, black, ovate pointed. 

I was long inclined to think this a species of Dracaena, 
but the corol, and stamens differ so widely from any 
other Indian species of that genus I have yet met with, 
that I thought it would be better to adopt Lamarck's 
name. 



TETA. (R.) 

Calyx none. Corol six-petalled, spreading. Nectary 
turbinate ; jr?€fa?-bearing. Anthers sessile, in the mouth 
of the nectary. Berries from one to three, one-seeded. 

T. viridifiora. R. (*.) 

Found by Dr. Buchanan at Chittagong, and on the 
eastern border of the Delta of the Ganges, and introduc- 
ed by that gentleman into the Botanic Garden at Cal- 
cutta, where it blossoms in the months of March and 
April ; the seeds ripen in July and August. 

Root perennial ; from the crown or united bases of the 
leaves issue many, long fleshy fibres. Stem none. Leaves 

* Probably it may belong to Jussien's natural order Asparagi. 



166 HEXANDRiA MONOGYNiA. PolyantJies, 

radical, petioled, erect, lanceolate, plaited, entire, 
smooth on both sides, about one foot long. Scapes so- 
litary, rising from the centre of the leaves, and about 
the same length ; lower half destitute of flowers and with 
here and there a long, curved, pointed scale. Flowers nu- 
merous, collected in fascicles over the upper half of the 
raceme, short-pedicelled, small, deep green, inodorous. 
Bract es one, two, or three, to each fascicle of flowers ; 
ovate, pointed, concave. Petals six, nearly equal, 
cordate, expanding in a double series, inserted on the 
outside of the nectary. Nectary one-petalled, turbi- 
nate, quickly contracting into a small, hexangonal mouth 
through which the stigma, and part of the anthers are 
seen. Filaments scarcely any. Anthers six, sessile, dis- 
tinctly two-lobed, inserted round the inside of the mouth 
of the nectary. Germ superior, ovate, somewhat three- 
lobed, three celled, with two orj^/a in each, attached to 
the lower part of the axis. Style short. Stigma large, 
three-sided, rather within the mouth of the nectary. Ber- 
ries from one to three come to maturity, obovate, smooth, 
succulent, dark-bluish-olive colour, the size of a pea. 
Seeds solitary. 

The plant is elegant in its foliage, even when destitute 
of flowers, but much more so when in blossom. 'Ihe ve- 
ry uncommon deep green colour of the flowers, makes it 
particularly interesting. 



POLYANTHES. Schreb. gen. n. 576. 

Calyx none, Corol funnel-shaped, recurved, equal. 
Filaments inserted into the mouth of the tube. Germ in the 
bottom of the corol. 

■ P. tuberosa. Willd. 2. 164. 
Leaves linear, shorter than the scape. 



Agave. hexanuria monogynia. 167 

Arnica nocturna. Rumph. Amb. 5. p. 285. t. 98. 

Hind. Gool shubbo. 

Beng. Ru]unee-gui\(\ha, 

In Gardens only, where both the single and double 
varieties blossom all the year, but chietly dLiring the 
rains. 



ALOE. Schreb. gen. n. 581. 
Calyx none. Corol erect, with the mouth expanded ; 
bottom nectar-bearing. Filaments inserted on the recep- 
tacle. 

A. perfoliata. Willd. 2. 185. 

Leaves ensiform, dentate, erect. Flowers racemed, re- 
flected, cylindric. 

Kadenaku, vel catevala. Rheed. Mai. 11. t. 3. 

Taruni. Asiatick Researches. 4. 272. 

Sans. Ghrita-koomaree. 

Beng. Ghrita-koomaree. 

Hind. Gheekoomar. The gum Elwa. 

It is common in gardens throughout India. 

AGAVE. Schreb. gen. n. 582. 

Calyx none. Corol erect, superior. Filaments longer 
than the corol, erect. 

A. Cantula. R. 

Stemless. Leaves spino-dentate. Scape ramous. Tube 
of the corol contracted at the middle. Stamina much 
longer than the corol. Style about the same length. 

Aloe Americana. Rumph. Amb. 5. t. 94. 

Sans. Kantula, which induces me to think it indigenous. 
Bilatee-ananas, (i. e. Europe Pine apple) is the Hindoo 
name, which seems to imply that this plant is not a native 



168 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNiA. HemerocalUs. 

of India. Be that as it may, it is now common every 
where. In Bengal the plants blossom in May and June, 
when from ten to fifteen years old, and are then from 
twenty to thirty feet high. 



HEMEROCALLIS. Schreb. gen. n. 58 
Calyx none. Corol campanulate ; tube cylindric. Sta-i 
mina declinate. 

1. H.fulva. Willd.2.197. 

Leaves bifarious, linear, acute, keeled, smooth. Scape 
twice the length of the leaves. Stamina ascending, the 
length of the revolute divisions of the corol. 

It is only, as far as I know, found in our gardens ; it 
may not therefore be a native of India, though known to 
the native gardeners by the Hindoo name Gool nurgus 
(Narcissus). It was introduced by Dr. W. Carey into the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta from Dinagpoor, where if not 
indigenous, it may have been carried thither from China, 
its native country through Bootan. 

2. H. cordaia. Thunh. 

Leaves round-ovate-cordate, many-nerved, acuminate ; 
petioles deeply channelled, with winged margins. 

From China this elegant plant has been introduced by 
Mr. W. Kerr, into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, 
where it thrives luxuriantly, and blossoms during the 
latter part of the rains . The leaves are about eight in- 
ches long by six broad ; the petioles rather longer than 
the leaves. The racemes about two feet high, bearing 
about twenty, alternate, large, six inches long, pure 
white, fragrant flowers, which expand about sun set, and 
droop in the morning. 



Tacca. hexandria monogynia. 169 



ACORUS. Schreb. gen. n. 586. 
Spadix cylindric, covered with florets. Corol six-pe- 
tailed, naked. Style none. Capsule three-celled. 

A. calamus. Willd. 2. 199. 

The point of the scape very long and leafy. 

Vaenibu, Rheed. Mai. 11. t. 48. 

Sans. Vucha. 

Beng. Buch, or shwet-bwch. Gora-b?^ch. 

Sweet flag, or Calamus aroraaticus. Mat. Med, 

It is common in gardens throughout India* 



TACCA. Schreb. gen. n. 588. 

Calyx six-parted, staminiferous. Corol none. Stamina 
vaulted. Germ inferior, one-celled ; ovula numerous, at- 
tached to three equidistant parietal receptacles. Berry 
one-celled. Seeds many. Embryo subcentrifugal ; and 
furnished with a perisperm. 

1. T. aspera. R. 

Leaves oblong, entire ; petioles and scapes scabrous. 

Found by Mr. J. R. indigenous in the vallies amongst 
the hill behind Chittagong; from thence it was Intro, 
duced into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta where it blos- 
soms during the hot and rainy season, and the seeds ri- 
pen three or four months after. 

Root an oblong, curved tuber, of a middling size, with 
wiry fibres from its sides ; inward colour pale yellow ; pe- 
rennial. 5fem none, or very trifling, ieav^s radical, peti- 
oled recurvate, oblong, entire, acuminate, smooth, strong- 
ly marked with parallel veins, and somewhat bulla te; 
from eight to sixteen inches long, and from four to eight 

V 



170 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA, Tucca. 

broad. Petioles shorter than the leaves, sheathing at the 
base, and above that having a groove down the inside, the 
whole considerably rough,with small visible sharp points. 
Scapes axillary, solitary, about as long as the petioles, 
and rough like them, cylindric, direction from erect to di- 
verging, and often variously bent. Involucre four-leaved, 
besides many filiform filaments,which are mixed amongst 
the pedicels. Exterior two leaves of the involucre 
stem-clasping, reflexed, broad ovate-lanceolate, finely 
acuminate, many-nerved, two or three inches long, and one 
and a half broad. The interior pair much longer, broad- 
petioled, ascending in the form of a vault over the flowers, 
oval-ventricose, many-nerved, smooth and coloured ; 
length, petioles included, about five inches, and three 
broad. Flowers from four to eight, long-pedicelled, large, 
at first nearly erect, but on the second day of expansioa 
drooping, colour, a mixture of greenish purple and yellow ; 
about the same number of very long, filiform, smooth 
pendulous bodies are found interspersed among the pedi- 
cels. Calyx superior, one-leaved ; base bowl-shaped ; 
border consisting of six large coloured segments ; exterior 
three, rather narrow, more pointed, and less deaply co- 
loured ; inner three, oblong, obtuse, or emarginate, soon 
after expansion becoming completely reflex. Corol no 
other than the segments of the border of the calyx, which 
very much resembles one. Filaments (petals of Forster) 
six, inserted about the middle of the tube of the calyx, 
resembling little conic vaults. Anthers on the inside 
of the exterior wall of the vaults. Germ inferior, clavate, 
six-ribbed, one-celled, containing numerous ovula, at- 
tached to three bifid, parietal receptacles. Style short. 
Stigma three-lobed; lobes large, coloured, emarginate 
on the exterior edge. Berry oblong, fleshy, an inch and 
a half long, and one broad, six sharp-ribbed, crowned 
with three semilunar marks, the remains of part of the 
calyx, one -celled. Seeds numerous, attached to three 



Tacca. riEXANDRiA monogynia. 171 

divided parietal receptacles, reniforin, ribbed. Integu- 
merit single, tough, dark brown. 

2. T. Icevis. R. 

Leaves oblong, entire ; petioles and scapes smooth. 

Mote munda, the vernacular name in Silhet, where it 
is indigenous, and from whence it was introduced into 
the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where it blossoms dur- 
ing the hot, and rainy season. 

Root a subcylindric, perennial tuberous body furnishing 
numerous dark brown fibres, which penetrate the soil ia 
every direction. Stem none. Leaves radical, petioled, 
oblong, acuminate, entire, smooth on both sides ; general 
length about twelve inches, and the breadth five or six. 
Petioles about as long as the leaves, base sheathing, 
above the sheathing part cylindric, and slightly grooved 
on the inside, every part perfectly smooth. Scapes axil- 
lary, solitary, shorter than the petioles, round, smooth, of 
a dark green purple colour ; direction more or less re- 
curved. Involucre four-leaved ; leaflets equal, and equally 
disposed crosswise in opposite pairs, sessile, ovate, finely 
acuminate, smooth, many-nerved, about two inches long, 
and one broad. Flowers from six to twelve in the umbel, 
intermixed with many long, filiform filaments, pretty 
long pedicelled, large, of a dark greenish grey violet co- 
lour. Calyx one-leaved ; tube or base bowl-shaped, and per- 
manent ; border six-parted ; three exterior segments ra- 
ther longer, narrower, and more pointed than the inner 
three, which are broader, all deciduous. Filaments six, 
inserted into the tube of the calyx near its base, vaulted, 
with the linear, two-lobed Anthers attached to the inner 
side of the vault. Germ inferior, clavate, turbinate, three- 
sided, six-keeled, one-celled, and containing numerous. 
ovula, attached to three bifid parietal receptacles. Style 
short. Stigma of three rather recurved double lobes, al- 
ternate with the stamina. 

S 2 



172 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. TaCCU, 

3. T. pinnatifida. Willd. 2. 200. Forst. gen. N. 35. 

Leaves pinnatifid. Involucre many-leaved. 

Tacca littorea. Rumph. Amb. vol 5. 1. 114, table 112 of 
the same, though quoted for a variety of this by Forster, 
is an Arum figured and described by me under the 
name A, campanulatum. 

Lekin of the inhabitants of the town of Malacca. 

Tacca pinnatifolia. Gcert. sent. 1. p. 43. t. 14./. 2. 

A native of the Moluccas, and Malay countries, and 
from the latter introduced by Dr. Harris, of Madras 
into the Company's Botanic Garden at Calcutta in 1800, 
where it blossoms iu June and July. Seeds ripen in Oc- 
tol)er. 

Root tuberous, perennial, often as large as a child's 
head, round, and pretty smooth ; with but few slender 
fibres from its surface, intensely bitter when raw, but 
yielding a great quantity of beautifully white starch, of 
which the best flour for confectionary, puddings, &c. is 
made. Leaves radical, petioled, three-parted ; divisions 
bi'tri-partite and ultimately pinnatifid, with waved mar- 
gins, smooth on both sides, length and breath almost 
equal, and often two or three feet each way. Petioles 
columnar, slightly grooved, from one to three feet long. 
Scapes radical, round, tapering, smooth, naked, near- 
ly twice the length of the petioles, slightly grooved, 
and striped with darker and paler green. Umbel simple, 
composed of from ten to forty long-pedicelled, drooping, 
greenish flowers, intermixed with about as many long, 
slender, smooth, simple, drooping filaments or bractes. 
Involucre from six to twelve leaved ; leaflets lanceolate, 
recurvate, beautifully marked with pale purple veins. 
Calyx superior, one-leaved, globose, fleshy, permanent, 
six-parted ; segments obtuse, incurved, alternately broad- 
er, green, with the margins somewhat purple. Corol 
none, as I consider what Forster so calls to be the sta- 
mina. Filaments six, short, with broad, coloured mar- 



Canarina. hexandria monogynia. 173 

gins, inserted on the segments of the calyx ; apices 
while, vaulted inwards over the stigma. Anthers linear, 
two-lobed, attached to the middle of the vault, with their 
apices outwards. Germ beneath, turbinate, six-sided, 
crowned with three large, hairy, convex, purple glands, 
one-celled. Seeds many, attached to three equidistant, pa- 
rietal receptacles. Style short, rising from the centre of 
the three purple glands, and evidently composed of 
three united into one. Stigma broad, peltate, composed 
of three, two-lobed divisions. Pericarp ; berry nearly 
round, size of a pigeon's e%%, crowned with the withered 
calyx, and marked with six, protuberant, equidistant, 
vertical ribs, smooth, when ripe yellow, one-celled. 
Receptacles as in the germ. Seeds numerous, attached 
to the three parietal receptacles, as in the germ, oval, 
or ovate, longitudinally furrowed, light brown, each en- 
veloped in a small portion of colourless, succulent pulp, 
which may be termed a complete aril. Integuments two, 
exterior spongy ; interior a thin, reticulate, white mem- 
brane. Perisperm conform to the seed, rather succulent 
while fresh. Embryo minute, and lodged in the end of 
the perisperm next to the (umbilicus,) subcentrifugal. 



CANARINA. Schreb. gen. n. 603. 

Calyx six-leaved. Corol companulate. Stigmas six. 
iJapsule inferior, six-celled, many-seeded. 

C moluccana. R. 

Erect, smooth. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, ovate 
oblong, serrate, smooth. Floivers terminal, and axillary. 
Calyx subpinnatifid. 

A native of the Moluccas. The specimens seen are her- 
baceous. The number six prevails throughout the flow- 
ers. 



174 HEXA.NDRIA MONOGYNIA. Conjplia. 

CORYPHA. Schreh. gen. n. 1694. 

Spathes many Spadix (terminal) supra-decompound. 
Preianth three-toothed. CoroZ three petalled. Germ su- 
perior, three-celled ; cells one-seeded ; attachment inferior. 
Berries from one to three, conjoined, globose, one-seeded. 
Embryo in, or near the apex of the perisperm. Gaertner 
says he found it in the base of the perisperm in umbracu- 
lifera. 

1. C. Talliera. R. 

Leaves subrotund, palmate-pinnatifid, plaited ; seg~ 
merits forty pair, margins of the channel of the petioles 
armed. Lijlorescence pyramidal, the length of the trunk 
of the tree. 

Sans. Tali. 

Beng, Tara, Tallier. Tareet. 

This elegant, stately Palm, is a native of Bengal, 
though scarce in the vicinity of Calcutta. Flowering 
time the beginning of the hot season. The seeds ripen 
about nine, or ten months afterwards. 

Trunk perfectly straight, about thirty feet high, and as 
near as the eye can judge equally thick throughout, of a 
dark brown colour, and somewhat rough with the marks 
left by the impression of the fallen leaves. Leaves pal- 
mate-pinnatifid, plaited, subrotund. Leaflets or divisions 
of the frond united rather more than half way, numer- 
ous, generally about eighty, or forty pairs, linear-lan- 
ceolate, pointed until broken by the wind, or otherwise, 
polished on both sides, with a strong somewhat four-sided 
rib running their whole length ; generally about six feet 
long, greatest breadth about four inches. The thread which 
forms part of the Linnman specific character of corypha 
umbraculifera is sometimes present, sometimes wanting, 
at best such perishable marks deserve no notice. Petioles 
from five to ten feet long, remarkably strong, upper side 



Corypha. hexandria monogynia. 1^ 

deeply channelled, the sharp margins armed with nu- 
merous, short, stronjif, dark-coloured polished, com- 
pressed spines. Spathes jiist as numerous as the prima- 
ry and secondary ramifications in tiie spadix, all 
smooth, and obtuse. Spadix supra-decompound, issuing 
in the month of February from the apex of the tree, 
and centre of the leaves, forming an immense, difluse, 
ovate panicle, of about twenty or more feet in height, 
so that the height of the whole tree, form the ground to 
the top of tho spadix is now about fifty feet. Primary 
branches alternate, round, spreading nearly horizontal, 
with their apices ascending. Secondary ramifications 
alternate, bifarious, compressed, drooping, recurved, 
soon dividing into numerous, variously curved, smaller, 
subcylindric, branchlets, covered with innumerable, small 
white, odorous, sub sessile flowers. Calyx; perianth 
inferior, minute, obscurely three-toothed. Petals three, 
oblong, concave, fleshy, smooth, expanding, many times 
larger than the perianth. No nectary. Filaments six, 
nearly of the length of the petals, at the base broad, and 
in some measure united. Anthers ovate. Germ above, 
three-lobed, three-celled with the embryo of a distinct seed 
in each, attached to the bottom of its cell. Style shorter 
than the stamina. Stigma simple. Berries from one to 
three conjoined, though one is the most common, and 
then the rudiments of the other two are present, they are 
singly quite round, about the size of a crab-apple, when 
ripe, wrinkled, and of a dark olive, or greenish yellow 
colour. The pulp is but in small proportion, and yellow 
when the fruit is ripe. 6'get/ solitary, round, attached to 
the base of the berry, of a white colour, and horny sub- 
stance, with a small vacuum in the centre. Embryo 
lodged in the apex, which circumstance alone, is suflicient 
to distinguish it from Gcertners Crypha umhraculifera. 

The leaves of this tree are employed by the natives, 
to write on with their pointed steel bodkins, and also to 



176 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Cori/pJia. 

lie the rafters of their houses^, for they are said to be 
strong and durable. I do not find that the wood is ap- 
plied to any useful purpose. 

2. C. elata. R. 

Xertfes lunate-cordate, palmate-pinnatifid, plaited; seg- 
ments from forty to fifty pair; stipes armed. Tnflores- 
cence globular, one-fourth the length of the trunk of the 
tree. 

Berig, Biyoor, or B^«jur-batool. 

This stately palm is a native of Bengal, where it flow- 
ers in March and April ; the seeds require about twelve 
months to ripen. 

Trunk straight, but often varying in thickness. I have 
two trees, which were pretty well ascertained to be about 
thirty years old when in flower ; one was seventy feet to 
the base of the inflorescence, the other about sixty ; cir- 
cumference near the root eight feet, and about the middle 
of the trees five and a half or six ; their whole length 
strongly marked with rough, dark coloured, spiral ridges, 
and furrows, which plainly point out the spiral arrange- 
ment of the leaves. The ligneous fibres, as in the order, 
are on the outside, forming a tube for the soft spongy 
substance within, of a dark chocolate colour, tough and 
hard, but by no means equal, in either quantity or qua- 
lity, to the very serviceable wood of Borassus flabeUi- 
formis. 

Leaves (fronds ) round the top of the trunk, immedi- 
ately under the base of the inflorescence, numerous, 
palmate pinnatifid, plaited from eight to ten feet each 
way ; segments generally from forty to fifty pair, united 
about half their length, ensiform, apices rather obtuse and 
bifid, texture hard, smooth on both sides. When the tree 
begins to blossom, the leaves wither and soon fall ofl^, 
leaving the fructiferous part naked. Petioles (stipes) 
from six to twelve feet long, concave above, with the 



Conjpha. hexadria monogynia. 177 

thin, hard, black margins thereof cut into mumerous, very 
short, curved spines. Spathes numerous, there being one 
at each joint of the various ramifications of the spadix, 
all smooth and when recent, of a pale yellowish green. 
Inflorescence, (spadix) terminal ; it may be called an 
immense, more than supra-decompound, round pani- 
cle ; in this species it is of a much smaller span than 
the leaves, and only about one fourth or one fifth part of 
the whole height of the tree ; the various and innumerable 
ramifications are always alternate, smooth and of a pale 
yellow colour. Flowers small, sessile, collected in little 
bundles over the ultimate divisions of the panicle, pale 
yellow, small, rather ofiensive. Ca/yx small, three-tooth- 
ed. Petals three, oblong, reflexed, shorter than the sta- 
mina. Filaments six, broad at the base, and there uni- 
ted, toward the apex, slender and incurved. Anthers 
ovate. Germ superior, round-ovate, three-lobed, three, 
celled, with one ovula in each, attached to the bottom 
of its cell. Style short, three-grooved. Stigma three-lob- 
ed. Berry globular, the size of a musket ball, olive-co- 
loured, smooth when fresh, but it soon becomes dry and 
wrinkled, one-celled ; the two abortive lobes of the germ 
are always to be found at the base. Seed solitary, sub- 
globular. Integuments, apparently two, but they are firin- 
ly united, and of a friable texture ; the exterior one pale 
yellowish brown, and veined ; the interior one brown, and 
adhering firmly to the perisperm. Perisperm conform to 
the seed, of a hard, horny texture, and pale gray colour. 
Embryo simple, short, cylindric, lodged near the apex of 
the perisperm, 

3. C. umhraculifera.Willd. 2. 201. G^Brt. sem. 1.18 t. 7. 

Leaves sublunate, palmate-pinnatifid, plaited. 6'^^- 
»ie«^s from forty to fifty pair ; pefio/es armed. Inflores- 
cence pyramidal, equalling the trunk of the tree, (Eni^ 
bryo in the base of the seed. Gsert.) 

w 



178 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Coryphtt. 

Codda-pana. Rheed Mai. 3. t. 1-12. 

Talipat. Knox. hist, of Ceylon. 

Cing. Tala, or Talagas. 

Tam. Conda-paiii. 

This is an intermediate species, (with regard to size,) 
between Ta/iera stud Elata. From ( e}lon it has been 
introduced about nine years into the Botanic Garden at 
Calcutta. The seedj ^^ere fully as large as those of Ta- 
liera, consequently much larger than in Elata. This 
alone is a sufficient mark in a tree of this nature to dis- 
tinguish it from Elata ; infoitunately I did not exa- 
mine the situation of the embryo, we must therefore take 
it for granted that Gaertner was correct in placing it in the 
base of the seeds ; our young trees, are only now, when 
nine years old, beginning to exhibit the first appearance 
of a trunk. 

In the same Garden are plants of Taliera, of the same 
age ; their appearance at this period is so very different as 
to announce their being distinct species. 

4. C. Utan. Lamarck. Encydop. 2. 1?1. 

Leaves semicircular, palmate^ pinnatifid, plaited ; seg- 
ments from twenty -five to thirty pair ; petioles very long, 
and much armed. 

Lontarus silvestris. Rumph. Amb. 1. 56 t. 11. 

A native of the Moluccas. One young tree of this 
species is in the Botanic garden at Calcutta ; it was 
brought from Amboyna ; though now about twelve years 
old, it only begins to form the appearance of a trunk, 
which, at present promises to be longer than in umbra- 
culifera. The stipes or petioles are much longer than 
in any of the other species, and the leaves expand liitie 
more than half a circle, as in Rumph's figure, and have 
only about half the number of segments the others have. 



Licuala. hexandria monogynia. 179 

Lieu ALA. Schreh. gen. n. 1691. 

Calyx three-toothed. Cord three cleft. Germ supe- 
perior, three-lobed, three-celled. Cells one-seeded; attach- 
ment inferior. Style single. Stamina simple. Drupe one- 
celled, one-seeded. Embryo a little above the base on 
the inside. 

] . L. peliata. R. 

Fronds palmate, orbicular, peltate. Stipes armed. 
Drupe turbinate ; no nectary. 

This small prt/m is a native of the woody mountainous 
parts near Chittagong, which separate that province from 
the Burma dominions ; it was broui^ht from thence to the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta by Mr, William Roxburgh, 
where it blossoms in November ami ripens its seed in 
May. 

Trunk, in our young trees, short, and entirely em- 
braced by the base of the petioles, and a web of coarse, 
light brown fibres, down to the ground ; in that state 
it is about as thick as a man's thigh. Leaves (fronds,) 
alternate, long-petioled, orbicular, peltate, smooth, di- 
vided to the base into from twenty to twenty-five 
wedge-shaped, dentate-truncate, plaited portions ; the 
superior two, or more, are much broader and longer, 
being composed of from ten to fifteen ribs, while the la- 
teral, and inferior ones are composed of from three to 
five only ; the apices of these ribs taper off conically, and 
have their points bifid, the breadth or length of the 
whole leaf, for they are nearly the same size, from three 
to four feet. Petioles or stipes spreading, three or 
four feet long, nearly triangular, having the two lateral 
edges armed with numerou.s, dreadful, strong, variously 
curved, smooth, dark brown, sharp spines of different 
sizes ; toward the base channelled, stem-clasping, and 
firmly tied over each other, and round the tmnk, by a 

W 2 



180 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LlCUala. 

web of strong, coarse, light brown fibres, wliich issue fiom 
the margins, and begin where the spines end. Spadices 
axillary, solitary, rising several feet above the leaves, 
their whole length being from ten to fifteen feet, of one 
uniform thickness, which is that of a man's fore-finger ; 
from the upper part, at the distance of about a foot from 
each other, issue pendulous, cylindric spikes of about a 
foot and a half long beyond the spathe; these are whol- 
ly covered by numerous, sessile, diverging, pretty large, 
greenish white, inodorous flowers. Spathes seven or eight, 
tubular,embraciiig the whole of the spadix; from the mouths 
of the last four or five, the pendulous spikes issue ; all 
the tender parts are covered with a large portion of fe- 
ruginous dust. Calyx inferior, one-leaved, campanulate ; 
mouth obscurely three-toothed ; outside sericeous, per- 
manent. Corol one-petalled, outside sericeous, perma- 
nent. Tube campanulate, the length of the calyx. Borders 
three-cleft ; divisions expanding and tapering to rather 
obtuse points. No nectarium. Filaments six, short, broad 
at the base, and inserted round the inside of the mouth 
of the tube of the corol. Anthers sagittate. Germs three, 
forming a short, turbinate, truncate body, like a single 
germ, but perfectly distinct, except the base of the style, 
which is about as long as the stamina, and rises equally 
from the three, and keeps them together. Stigma simple. 
Drupe obovate, the size of a field bean ; a little to the in- 
side of the vertex a three-cornered, three-toothed tubercle 
marks where the style joins this fertile lobe of the germ to 
the two abortive ones ; when ripe orange-red, and smooth, 
one celled. Pulp in considerable quantity, orange-colour- 
ed. Nut conform to the drupe, much pointed below ; above 
are three slight elevations running from a point under 
the tubercle of the drupe, hard, dark brown, one-celled- 
S<:,ed sinj^le, conform to the nut. Integuments a single, 
very thin, brown membrane. Perisperm conform to the 
seed, horny, from the back a ferruginous spongy body 



Berberis. hexandria monogynia. 181 

penetrates to, or beyond the centre, and there enlarging, it 
occupies a considerable space. Embryo lodged in a co- 
nic pit, a little above the base on the inside. 

2. L. spino^a. Willd. 2. p. 201. 

Leaves digitate-palmate- Spadix shorter than the arm- 
ed petioles. 

Licuala arbor. Rumph. Amb. 1. t. 9. 

Corypha licuala, frondibus palmatis foUolis linearibus 
nervosis apice prcemorsis. Petiolis basi spinosis, spadice 
erecio striclo. Lamarck. Eiicyclop. 2. 131. 



ACHRAS. Schreb. gen. n. 593. 
Calyx six-leaved. Corol six-cleft, with scales on the 
inside. Germ superior, from eight to ten celled ; cells one- 
seeded ; attachment interior. Berry from eight to ten cel- 
led. Seed solitary. Embryo erect, and furnished with a 
perisperm. 

A. Sapota. Willd. 2. 224. 

F/oit;ers solitary. Leaves IsmceolsLT, lucid. 

A native of China, from thence introduced into the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where growing in the same 
place with the West India tree they are not to be distin- 
guished from it. The China trees have not yet blossom- 
ed, but those from the West Indies flower in the hot sea- 
son, and the fruit ripens in the rains. 



BERBERIS Shreh. gen. n. 595. 
Calyx six or more, leaved. Coro/ six-petalled ; at the 
base are two glands. Germ superior, one-celled two or 
more-seeded ; attachment sub-inferior. Berry from two to 
three-seeded. Embryo erect and iuraished with a peris- 
perm. 



182 HEXANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Berberis, 

1. B, asiatica. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves obovate-oblong, hard, spinous-tooth- 
ed. iS^ewes triple. i?«ce/Mes axillary. Pedicels, and flowers 
erect. Nectarial glands subcylindric. Germs from five 
to six-seeded. 

Berberis ilicifolia. Asiaf. Researches. 6. p. 357. 

A native of the mountainous countries north of Hindoo- 
sthau, where it was first observed by Captain Hardwicke, 
on his journy to Shreenagur, and afterwards found by Dr. 
Buchanan in Napal, from whence the latter sent seed 
to the Botanic Garden at Calcutta in 1802 ; in April 1808 
the plants therefrom blossomed for the first time. In ap- 
pearance it resembles the common Berbery bush of Eu- 
rope. 

Stems several from the same root, bending much to one 
side. Branches slender, after the first year spreading 
and drooping ; youncj shoots angular, and furrowed. Bark 
of the old ligneous parts of a light ash colour, and yellow 
within ; and so is the wood ; the height of our shrubs now 
when seven years old, is from four to eight feet. Spines 
three, rarely five-fold from one base, straight, strong, and 
sharp. Leaves iu fascicles in the axills of the spines, sub- 
sessile, obovate, and oblong ; margins spinous, with cir- 
cular sinuses between, texture hard, smooth on both sides, 
but reticulate with veins ; from one to two inches long. 
Stipules small, subulate, patiolary, having some small 
scales intermixed with the insertions of the leaves. Ra- 
cemes solitary, from the centre of the fascicles of leaves, 
many-flowered. Pedicels often as long as the racemes, 
straight, one-flowered ; sometimes there is no raceme, and 
then several, long-pedicelled flowers occupy its place. 
Flowers rather large, pure yellow. Bractes at the base 
of the pedicels triple, one-flowered, ovate, acute. Calyx 
about nine-leaved, imbricate. Leaflets unequal, yellow, 
smooth. The exterior three minute, and may be called 
bractes ; the next three larger ; the inner three still larg- 



Berberis, hexandria monogynia. 183 

er, and nearly as long as the petals. Petals six, in two 
series, round-obovate ; exterior margins a little notched 
and curled in over the anthers. Nectarial glands subcy- 
liiidric. Filaments shorter than the petals, and opposite 
to them, thick at top. Anthers a polleniferous, oblong, 
operculated pit on each side near the apex.. Germ oblong, 
one-celled, on the inside is a ridge ; four, five, or six seeds 
are attached to its base. Style scarcely any. Stigma 
large, peltate, ^\ith a pit in the centre. Berries ovate, 
rather larger than the common berbery of Europe, 
smooth, with red, succulent, acid pulp ; colour a dark 
purple, with a bloom over it, like that of the common 
plum, one-celled. Seeds two or three, attached as in the 
germ, oblong, somewhat rugose. Integuments two ; iheex" 
terior one thick, spongy, and brown ; the inner one mem- 
branaceous. Perisperm conform to the seed, yellow. Cha- 
laza large and conspicuous on its apex. Embryo nearly 
as long as the perisperm, straw-coloured, erect. Cotyled- 
ons oblong. Radicle subcylindric, iuferiar. 

2. B. angusttfolia. R. 

Shrubby. Racemes simple; pedicels one-flowered. Spines 
single. Leaves laiUcco\a.r. Gerwi two-seeded. 

Found by Francis Pie'rard, Esq. on the mountains north 
of Rohilkhund, and Hurdwar. 

Spines oftener single than triple, straight, diverging. 
Leaves fascicled in the axills of the spines, sessile, lanceo- 
lar, rather rounded at the apex, \^ith a minute spinous 
point, some of them have a small spinous tootlilet on one 
or both margins, but are otherwise entire, tapering most 
toward the base ; smooth, veined, texture hard, the length 
from one to two inches, and generally less than half an inch 
in breadth. Racemes axillary, the length of the leaves, so- 
litary. Flowers solitary, long-pedicelled, small. Bractes 
oblong, concave, acute, solitary at the base of each pedi- 
cel, and sometimes one or two smaller ones near the top./w 



184 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LorauthuS. 

B. asiatica, they are triple at the base of the pedicels. Ca- 
lyx nine-leaved ; leaflets in three series ; the exterior three 
minute ; the inner three nearly as long as the petals. Pe- 
tals six-obovate, entire. Nectarial glands oblong. Fila- 
ments inserted into the base of the petals. Anthers a long 
operculated pit in each side of the filaments, just under 
the apex. Germ oblong, one-celled, containing two seeds, 
attached to the bottom of the cell. Style short. Stigma 
peltate, glandular. 

3. B. pinnata. R. 

Leaves unequally pinnate ; leaflets grossly spinous, 
dentate. Racemes terminal. 

Candingne young more, is the vernacular name in the 
MMni'poor Country, where it is indigenous- It flowers in 
November. 

Thunberg's figure of his Ilex Japonica is so very like 
this plant, as to induce me to think they may be the same. 



NANDINA. Schreb. gen n. 596. 

Calyx many-leaved, imbricated. Carol six-petalled. 
JBerr?/ one-celled, two seeded. £rti6ri/o inverse, and fur- 
nished with a perisperm. 

N. domestica. Willd. 2. 230. Thunb. Jap, 147. G(Ert. 
sem. 2. 69. Bot. Mag. 1109. 

Said to be a native of Japan ; it was introduced from 
Canton in China into the Botanic Garden at Calcutta by 
Mr. William Kerr. 

LORANTHUS. Schreb. gen. n. 600. 

Calyx uncertain. Corol generally one-petalled and of- 
ten irregular. Germ inferior, one-celled, one-seeded ; at- 
tachment superior. Berry one-seeded. Embryo inverse, 
and furnished with a perisperm. 



Loranthus. hexandria monogynia. 185 

1. L. hicolor. Coram, pi. 2. N. 139. 

Leaves opposite, oblong, smooth. Racemes axillary. 
Coroh irregular, five-clel't. Stamens live. Berries oblong. 

Beng. Bura-manda. 

Vaiida is the Sanscrit name. Sir William Jones 
thought this the general term for all Parasitic plants. 

Compare with Loranthus lonyijlorus, and also with 
falcatus. Willd. 

Teling. Yellinga-wodinaka (wodinaka means parasi- 
tical.) 

It is always found growing upon the branches of vari- 
ous kinds of trees, and is very ramous. It flowers during 
the greatest part of the year, and is highly ornamental. 

Trunk scarcely any. Branches numerous, ascending, 
woody, bark grey. Leaves nearly opposite, sessile, or 
very short-petioled, from oval to linear-lanceolate, waved, 
entire, reclined ; veins scarcely any ; from three to five 
inches long, and from one to one and a half broad. Ra- 
cemes axillary, single, simple, sub-erect, many-flowered. 
Flowers in size and appearance muchlike those of the ho- 
ney suckle. Bractes a small, concave, cordate one, press- 
es on the base of the germs on one side. Calyx there is no 
other perianth of the fruit, than the above mentioned 
bracte ; that of the flower, cup-shaped, entire, permanent. 
Corol one-petalled. Tube long, a little curved, swell- 
ing from the bottom to within a third of the mouth, it then 
contracts a little; border five-parted, the upper fissure 
much the deepest ; segments linear, reflexed towards one 
side. Filaments five, from the base of the segments of the 
corol, short. Anthers linear. Germ superior, naked. Style 
the length of the corol. Stigma clubbed. Berry inferior, 
crowned with the remaining calyx, oblong, smooth, pul- 
py, one-celled. Seed single. 

This is a handsome looking parasite, bearing a great 
number of very beautiful flowers ; its foliage also looks 

X 



{86 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNiA. LorantJius. 

very well ; all that part of the branch of the tree above 
where it grows, becomes sickly, and soon perishes. 

This species differs from Gcertner's Lonicera zeylanica, 
in being without the calyx of the fruit, and having only 
five parts in the corol, &c. but in the raceme they agree. 
Nor can I reconcile it to be L.fatcatus of the supplemen. 
turn, nor L. loniceroicles of Linnaeus, for here the inflores- 
cence bears no resemblance to an involucred umbel. Nei- 
ther can it be L. pentandra, as there the leaves are alter- 
nate, with petioles nearly as long as the racemes, in 
short I cannot well reconcile it to any of the hitherto des- 
cribed species. It unites the two genera of Loranthus 
and Lonicera. 

In Bengal I have found it with leaves from five to six 
inches long, and from four to five broad. 

2. L. scurrula. Willd. 2. 232. Corom. pi. 2. N. 140. 

Leaves opposite, ovate, underneath downy. Flowers 
axillary, fascicled. Coro/ irregular, four-cleft. Stamens 
four. Berries turbinate. 

The natives have no other name for this than Wodi- 
nika. 

It is a parasiatical shrub, but smaller considerably 
than the last, and much scarcer ; it grows upon branches 
of trees in the same manner, and flowers during the hot 
season. 

Leaves opposite, petioled, cordate, scolloped, covered 
with soft white down underneath ; about two inches long, 
and one and a half broad. Peduncles numerous, collected 
in the axills, one or more flowered. Flowers considerably 
smaller than in the last, a rusty grey colour, and cover- 
ed with grey, farinaceous dust, Bractes one, pressing on 
the germ, as in the last species. Calyx of the fruit no other 
than the bracte of the flower, as in the former. Coro/one- 
petalled. Tube swelled towards the base. Border four- 
parted ; upper fissure deepest ; divisions linear, reflexed. 



Loranthus. hexandria monogynia. 187 

Stamens four ; the pistillum as in the last. Berry top- 
shaped, one-seeded. 

3. L. globosus. R. 

Leaves opposite, oblong, smooth. Spikes axillary. Co' 
rols regular, six-cleft. Berries round-oval. 

Kanneli itti-kanni. Rheed. Mai. 10. t. 5. 

Beng. Chota-manda. 

A ramous, shrubby parasite, like the two species al- 
ready described ; it is common on trees all over Bengal 
and flowers all the year. 

Leaves generally opposite, though sometimes alternate, 
and also three-fold, short-petioled, oblong, smooth, en- 
tire, of a thick leathery texture, almost veinless ; from 
tv^^o to three inches long. Racemes, (or rather spikes,) 
axillary, or between the leaves, or from the old axills ; 
generally solitary, though sometimes there are two, or 
even three together, much shorter than the leaves. Flow- 
ers opposite, from three to six pair in the spike, sessile, 
small, of a greenish-orange colour. Bractes no other than 
the perianth of the fruit. Calyx ; perianth of the fruit 
inferior, two-leaved, the under and exterior cordate ; the 
in7ier two-toothed ; that of the flower is no other than the 
circular margin of the pit, which receives the flower. Co- 
re/ one-petalled ; <?(&e gibbous, six-sided. Border six- 
parted ; divisions alike, and cut equally deep, reflected. 
Filaments six, erect, inserted into the base of the divisi- 
ons of the corol. Germ ovate. Style length of the sta- 
mens. Stigma large, glandular, naveled. Berry inferior, 
round, oval, the size of a pea, smooth ; when ripe the pulp 
is yellow, clammy, and elastic, which makes it adhere 
to the branches of trees where it terminates, resting on 
three permanent calyciform bractes and crowned with a 
ring where the corol stood, round the permanent base of 
the style, one-celled. Seed solitary, conform to the berry. 
Integument single, white, tough, and clammy, marked 

xa 



188 HEXANDRIA MONOGYNiA. Loranthus. 

with twelve whitish striae. Perisperm conform to the seed, 
six-grooved, green. Embryo central, inverse, straight, 
pale green, nearly as long as the perisperm. Cotyledons 
two, linear-oblong. Plumula minute. Radicle subcylin- 
dric, the length of the cotyledons, superior. Birds are 
fond of the berries. 

4. Jj. ferruginosus. R. 

Young shoots, as well as the under side of the oval 
leaves, long, slender, tetrandrous, regular ; flowers, fruit, 
and pedicels, all clothed with much ferruginous pubes- 
cence. 

Found by Mr. William Roxburgh, growing on trees in 
the forests of Pulo Pinang. 

5. L. involucratus. R. 

Leaves opposite, ovate-cordate, smooth. Umbellets 
axillary ; involucres four-leaved, four-flowered ; flowers 
regular, pentandrous. 

A stout, parasitical shrub, found on trees in the forests 
of Chittagong, Silhet, &c. where it blossoms the greater 
part of the year. 

Branches while young clothed with smooth, shining, 
dark brown bark. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, ovate, 
and ovate-cordate, sides often unequal, as in most of 
the plants of this genus, entire, smooth on both sides ; 
from three to four inches long. Umbellets axillary, 
crowded, subsessile, much shorter than the leaves. Li- 
volucres four-leaved, four-flowered ; leaflets ovate-lanceo- 
late, smooth, entire. Flowers sessile, pretty large, e- 
qualling the involucre. Calyx superior, short, five-tooth- 
ed, villous. Corol ; tube widening toward the mouth, 
villous. Border regular, five-parted. Segments linear, 
revolute. Filaments equalling the segments of the corol, 
and inserted on them below their middle. Anthers oval. 
Germ oval, sericeous. Style rather longer than the corol. 
Stigma two-lobed. 



Loranthus. hexandria monogynia. 189 

6. L. ampullacens. R. 

leaves opposite, obloiif:^, polished. Racemes axillary, 
simple. Flowers calycled, regular, liexaiidrous ; tube of 
the corol gibbous. Berries long-oval. 

Found on trees in the forests of Silhet, but seeming to 
prefer the mango trees to all others. Flowering time the 
dry season, probably the whole year round. 

Stem as in our other Indian parasites, the size and 
shape very uncertain, but numerous from two to four- 
cleft ; smooth branches and branchlets spread in all di- 
rections. Leaves opposite, short petioled, oblong, entire, 
smooth, from three to four inches long, and generally less 
than two in breadth. Racemes axillary, solitary, or in 
pairs, much shorter than the leaves. Flowers opposite, 
short-pedicelled, pretty large, of a greenish yellow colour. 
Bractes oval, one at the base of each pedicel, and two 
pressing the base of the germ, like an inferior bilabiate ca- 
lyx. Calyx superior, entire, rotate. Corol regular ; tube 
gibbous ; border six-cleft ; divisions revolute, somewhat 
spatulate. Filaments six, from the mouth of the tube 
of the corol, the length of its segments. Anthers ovate. 
Gei'm inferior, one-celled, containing one ovula attach- 
ed to the top of the cell. Style longer than the corol. 
Stigma large. Berry inferior, long-oval, smooth, yellow, 
the size of a currant, one-celled- Pulp pale yellow, and 
very clammy. 6'eec? solitary, ovate. Integuments two ; the 
exterior one marked with six longitudinal iSbres ,- the in- 
ner one membranaceous. Peiisperm conform to the seed, 
six-grooved, green. Embryo cylindric, inverse. Cotyle- 
dons short, semicylindric. Radicle cylindric, with a turbi- 
nate apex, rising above the perisperm, inverse. 

7. L, clavatus. R. 

Leaves opposite, broad-lanceolate. Flowers axillary, 
few together, tetrandrous. Corals irregular, ibur-cleft ; 
berries clavate. 



J90 HEXANDRIA, MONOGYNIA. Batubusa, 

A delicate, shrubby parasite, found in the Silhet dis- 
trict, growing on Averrhoa Carambola. 

8. L, penfapetalus. R. 

Leaves opposite, from lanceolate, to ovate-cordate, 
and obliquely alternate, smooth. Racemes axillary. 
Flowers pentandrous. Petals five, with an enlarged 
three-sided base. 

A large, very raraous, shrubby plant, found growing on 
various trees in the forests of Silhet. Floivers red, ap- 
pearing about the beginning of the rains in June, 

Branches and branchlets columnar, and quite smooth. 
Leaves opposite, petioled, from lanceolate to ovate-cor- 
date, obliquely alternate, from the middle to the apex, en- 
tire, smooth ; from three to four inches long, and about two 
broad. Racemes axillary, solitary, or paired, straight, sim- 
ple, often as long as the leaves, smooth. Flowers very nu- 
merous, short-pedicelled, smooth, scattered, red. Bractes, 
an obliquely-ovate one embraces the base of the germ on 
the outside. Calyx superior, rather small, sub-entire, 
smooth. Petals five, the base of each swelled out into a 
fleshy (hree-sided body, giving to the bottom of the corol, a 
globular form, and meeting in the centre, leaving only a 
small aperture for the style ; above tongue-shaped, and 
recurved. Fikmewfs five, inserted in the petals. Anthers 
ovate. Germ oblong, one-celled, containing one ovular 
pendulous from the top of the cell. Style four-sided, joint- 
ed, or appearing so, near the middle. Stigma a little en- 
larged. Berries oblong, smooth, of a greenish yellow, one- 
seeded, &c. as in the genus. 



B AMBUS A. Schreb.gm. n. 607- 
Calyx calycled, from two to three-valved, many- 
flowered. Corol, glume two-valved. Style bifid. Seed 
one. 



Bamhusa. hex anuria monogynia. 191 

1. B. arunduiacea. Corom. pi. 1. N. 79. 

Spikes halt verticelled; calyces about four-flowered, half 
of wliich are male ; nectaries three-leaved. 

Arundo bambos Linn, sp, pi. 120. 

Ilij, RItecd. Mai. 1. 1. 16. 

Beng. Bans. 

Teling. Mulkas, Vedroo. 

Tam. Mungil, vel Munkil. 

It delights in a rich, moist soil, such as the banks of 
rivulets, lakes, &c. among the mountains. 

Stems, I fear to call them culms, numerous, from ten 
to a hundred from the same root, for eighteen or twen- 
ty feet straight, then bending gently to one side, pip- 
ed, jointed, undivided, but with innumerable, very ra- 
mous, alternate, winding, bifarious, spreading branches. 
Thorns double, or triple, alternate, on the joints of the 
branches and branchlets ; when double, a branchlet oc- 
cupies the centre ; when triple the largest thorn stands 
there ; they are remarkably strong, sharp, and somewhat 
recurved ; sometimes they are wanting, particularly in 
rich moist soils. Leaves sheathing, bifarious short-petioled, 
linear-lanceolate, the upper side and margins backwardly 
hispid, broad at the base, fine-pointed, from two to six 
inches long, and half or three quarters of an inch broad ; 
on the rich moist soil on the banks of the Ganges they 
are from two to four inches broad, and about a foot lonsr. 
Sheaths somewhat downy with a few short, bent filaments 
on each side of the mouth . 

Inflorescence. When in flower the tree is generally des- 
titute of leaves, and as the extremity of every ramifica- 
tion is covered with flowers, the whole tree seems one 
entire, immense panicle, composed of innumerable, some- 
what verticelled spikes, each verticil is composed of se- 
veral, distichous, oblong, pointed, sessile, rigid spikelets, 
such as those of Eleusine, Poa, &)C. 

Common calyx, calycled, from two to six-flowered, 



192 HKXANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Bamhusa. 

from two to three- valved, valvelets equal, oblong, con- 
cave, smooth, and of a firm texture ; scales round the 
base small, oval, number uncertain ; they are also often 
common to several minute, sterile spikelets. 

Hermaphrodite flowers one, two, or three below the 
male. Calyx no other than that above described. Corol 
two- valved, the exterior valvelet rather the shortest, ob- 
long, pointed, smooth, cartilaginous ; the inner valvelet 
oblong, margins inflected, concave behind, and fringed 
with hairs round the elevated margins of the posterior 
concavity. Nectary three obovate scales embracing the 
insertions of the stamens, and germ. Filaments six, in- 
serted in the base of the germ. Anthers linear, incum- 
bent. Germ oval. Style single. Stigma two-cleft ; 
divisions plumose. Seed firmly closed in the corol, ex- 
ceedingly like oats and about the same size. 

Male Flowers from one to three above the herma- 
phrodite. Pistil none. 

It would be needless, and unnecessary to mention the 
various purposes to which this most useful plant is put ; 
they are already known to most people. 

The Tamul Doctors say the root is diluent ; that the 
bark cures eruptions ; the Camphire, or salt (Tabaseer) 
cures all sorts of paralytic complaints, flatulencies, and 
poisons. The leaves are esteemed the bestEmmenagogue ; 
the Chinese are said to possess the same idea. The seed 
is used for food as rice. 

Tabasheer Vedroo Paloo, that is milk of bamboo, of 
the Telingas ; and Mungle Upoo, salt of bamboo, of the 
Tamuls, the substance so well described by Dr. Patrick 
Russell, in the 80th vol. of the Philosophical Transactions 
of London, is found in the cavities of the joints of this 
sort. 



Bambusa. hexandria monogynia. 193 

2. B. sb'kta. Corom. pi. 1. N. 80. 

Spikes with dense globular verticels. Calyces from 
two to three-flowered, all hermaphrodite ; no nectary ; 
exterior glumes of the corols daggered. 

Teling. Sadanapa vcdroo. 

This is clearly a distinct species ; it grows in a drier 
situation, is not near so large, has a much smaller ca- 
vity, and is very straight ; its great strength, sohdity, and 
straightness renders it much fitter for a variety of uses, 
than the common sort ; the natives make staffs to their 
spears, &c. of it. 

Stems fewer, straighter, and smaller, than in the com- 
mon sort, otherwise they are the same. Thorns oftener 
wanting. Inflorescence the same as in the former. Verticels 
sessile, globular, very dense, entirely surrounding the 
branchlets. Spikelets of the verticel, crowded, distichous, 
&c. as in the last. Calyx as in the last, except that the 
scales are longer, and common to two or three spikelets. 
Here the flowers are generally all hermaphrodite, and 
seldom more than three to the calyx. Corol two-valved ; 
exterior valvelet downy, with a very stiff", sharp, daggered 
point. Inner valve as in B. arundinacea. Nectary I 
could not see any. Stamens six. Pistil woolly. Stigma 
two-cleft, filiform. Seed as in the last. 

3. B. Tulda. R. 

Arboreous, unarmed. Spikelets about five-flowered, 
all hermaphrodite. Nectaries cuneate, fringed. Style 
three-cleft. 

Vansa is the Sanscrit name which Sir William Jones 
applies to bamboos in general. 

Beng. Tulda Bans. 

Hind. Peka-Bans. 

This is the common bamboo of Bengal, where it grows 
in the greatest abundance every where. Flow^ering time 
the month of May. 



194 HEXANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Bamhusa. 

The root consists of many small fibres, spreading in 
every direction, but to no great distance, nor do they pe- 
netrate very deep. 

The roots of all the other species are similar. 

Stems in old plants numerous from the same root, joint- 
ed, smooth, and ramous. In the month of June, soon 
after the first rains set in, new ones rise up amongst those 
of the former year and in the same manner in all the o- 
ther species, at first in the form of a large straight eh- 
phanfs tusk, invested in strong coriaceous sheaths, one 
at each joint ; these shoots rise simple to their full size, 
from twenty to seventy feet in height, and from six to 
twelve inches ih circumference, in the course of about 
thirty days ; during which period the sheaths drop off, 
and are soon succeeded by numerous, alternate, ramous, 
bifarious, unarmed branches, from the joints ; before these 
appear, the shoots look like as many naked fishing rods, 
of immense size. Leaves alternate, bifarious, subsessile, 
sheathing, linear-lanceolate, acute-pointed, with their 
bases broad, and often rounded, or cordate ; from six to 
twelve inches long, and about one broad. Sheaths of 
the leaves longer than the joints, and ending in two, late- 
ral, stipulary, bearded processes. 

Inflorescence. Before these trees blossom, they must be 
of considerable age, several years ; and even then it is 
seldom they can be found in this state ; at that period 
the whole plant is destitute of leaves, and forms one im- 
mensely, oblong, waving panicle, composed of innumera- 
ble, supra-decompound ramifications. 

Spikelets lanceolate, sessile, one, two, three, or more at 
the joints of the most extreme ramifications ; each bear- 
ing from four to eight, (generally all,) hermaphrodite 
flowers. Calyx calycled, as in the other species describ- 
ed by me. Coral two-valved. Exterior valve oblong, 
pointed, smooth, completely involving the inner valve, 
us well as a portion of the flat rachis in which it is in- 



Bambusa. hexandria monogynia. 195 

serted. Inner valve concave on the inside, where it press- 
es on the rachis ; this concave portion is surrounded 
with a sharp ciiiate margin. Nectary of three, broad, 
cuneate, ciiiate leaflets. Filaments six, half the length 
of the valves of the corol. Anthers linear, drooping, red- 
purple. Germ obovate, obtusely three-sided. Style 
very short. Stigma three, long, feathering. Seed, they 
may best be described by comparing them to oats, which 
they exactly resemble, and are of the same size. 

This species is very generally used all over Bengal, for 
covering the houses of the natives, scaffolding, &c. &c. 
If soaked in water for some weeks previously to their be- 
ing used, they last much longer, and are stronger ; if not 
they are soon devoured by a small species of Bostrichus. 
It is notwithstanding deemed inferior to Balkooa (Bat- 
koo bans) of the Bengalees. 

This species, Tulda bans, so far as I am able to judge 
at present, is not to be found on the Coast of Coroman- 
del. Its quick growth, size and universal commonness in 
Bengal, renders it one of the most variously useful plants 
in India. The young thick shoots, mentioned when 
describing the stem, are when about two feet high, ten- 
der and very frequently pickled, and a most excellent 
one they make, when properly prepared. 

Jowa Bans of the Bengalees, is only a large variety of 
this species, and used chiefly for scaffolding, and build- 
ing the larger and better sorts of houses of the natives. It 
differs from Tulda in the greater length, and greater 
thickness of the joints. Basini bans of the Bengalees, 
is another variety of Tulda. It has a larger cavity, and 
is used chiefly to make baskets. 

Behoor bans of the Bengalees, is of a small size, very 
solid, and strong, much bent to one side, and armed with 
numerous strong thorns, which renders it very fit for 
hedges. A staff" of this species must be placed in the hand 
of every yoimg brahmin, when invested with the sacerdo- 

Y 2 



196 HEXANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Bamhusa. 

tal cord, otherwise they say the ceremony cannot be per- 
formed. 

4. B. Balcooa. R. 

Arboreous, unarmed. Leaves sublanceolate ; with a 
cordate base, inflorescence sub-radical, spikeletsi'i om four 
to five-flowered, all hermaphrodite. 

Beng. Balkoo-bans. 

It is a native of Bengal, and on account of its size, 
and strength, is reckoned by the workers in bamboo work 
the very best sort for building the houses of the na- 
tives, scaflblding, &c. works requiring both size and 
strength. Flowering time the rainy season, however it 
rarely arrives at this state, for I have but once met 
with it in blossom. 

Stems similar to the other species, but stouter, and of- 
ten taller. Ramifications also the same. Leaves bifarious, 
subsessile on their sheathing bases, lanceolate, with the 
base cordate; margms slightly hispid; smooth, deep green 
on both sides ; from one to two inches broad, and from four 
to twelve long. Sheaths longer than the joints ; exposed 
parts villous, with a bearded stipulary mouth, (ligula,) 
rising above the insertion of the leaves, hijlorescence in 
radical, verticelled spikes ; verticels large, sub-globular, 
composed of numerous, sessile spikelets, of from four to 
six hermaphrodite flowers. Calyx calycled, Corol two- 
valved. Exterior smooth, ovate. Liner with the exterior 
margins ciliate. Nectary of three, oval, ciliate leaflets. 
Stamina six. Style woolly. Stigmas three, and also woolly. 
To make this species more serviceable, long immersion 
in water is required to render them firmer, and proof 
against the attacks of the Bostrichi, and their larvee. 

There are two varieties of this most useful species. The 
large the natives call Dhooli-balkoo, and the smaller Bal- 
koo-bans, which has a smaller cavity, and though not so 
large a bamboo, is on that account very strong. 



Bambusa. hexandria monogynia. 197 

5. B. baccifera. R. 

Arboreous, unarmed. Pericarp a very large, pendulous 
pyramidal, one-seeded berry. 

Beesha. Rheed.Mal. vol. 5. t. GO. p. IIJ). 
Pagu-tuUu, of the people of the Chittagong mountains, 
where the plant is indigenous. 

This uncommonly curious berry-bearing bamboo, is a 
native of the Chittagong mountains. 

Growing plants, seeds, and well preserved specimens, 
were sent me from thence, by Mr. Richard Pierard, a 
gentleman to whom the Botanic Garden at Calcutta is 
under many obligations. The bamboo he writes is the 
one in common use in that country, for every purpose of 
building, &c. His description of the tree is so full and per- 
fect that I do not think I can do better than transcribe what 
he says, in reply to my queries regarding this plant, viz. 

" It bears no thorns ; grows in dry places, chiefly on 
the sides of hills, where the upper stratum of the soil is 
sandy. The circumference near the base twelve or thirteen 
inches ; height from fifty to seventy feet, beautifully erect, 
and without the least flexure, or unequality of surface, 
bare of branches except near the extremity. Perishes 
after yielding its fruit. 

"Ityields more or less Tabasheer of a siliceous crystalli- 
zation ; sometimes it is said the cavity between the joints 
is nearly filled with this, which the people call choona, 
lime" So far Mr. Pierard. 

Leaves alternate, bifarious, subsessile on their sheath- 
ing base, ovate-lanceolate, smooth on both sides, and 
slightly ribbed underneath ; from six to twelve inches 
long, and from two to four broad. Sheaths of the leaves 
villous, with their mouths bearded with many long fili- 
form fibres. Spikes compound, issuing many together 
from the joints of the large branches, or upper part of the 
stem, long, slender, jointed, ramous, each joint furnished 
with a sheath of nearly its length. Spiketets three, four, 



198 HEXANDRiA MoNOGYNiA. Bambusa. 

or more flowered. The inferior scales (Calyx,) thereof 
abortive, or with male flowers. Corol of two unequal, 
long, taper, acute-pointed, smooth valves. Stamina six, 
about as long as the pistil. Germ ovate. Style single. 
Stigmas \\\xte, filiform, woolly. Pericarp. In this singu- 
lar species, it is a very large, hard, fleshy, conical, smooth 
taper, curved, pointed frait, with a single, large, oval seed 
in each. 

6. B. spinosa. R. 

Subarboreous, dreadfully armed with simple, and com- 
pound spines. Spikelets from three to five-flowered; 
florets trigonous. Nectary three-leaved. 

Beng. Behor Bans, 

Arundarbor spinosa. Rumph. Amh. 4. 14. t. 2. 

This beautiful, middling sized, very elegant species, I 
have only found in the vicinity of Calcutta, where now 
and then some of the oldest are found to blossom about 
the beginning of the rains, in June. 

Stems scarcely fistulous, jointed, &c. as in the other spe- 
cies ; in this many grow so close together, as to appear 
a single trunk at some distance, and by the help of their 
bifariously alternate, triple branches, and spines, so 
completely bound together, that it is a most arduous 
task to cut down an old clump of them ;jom<s from six 
to twelve inches asunder. The plants, or shoots of the 
clump, which come into flower, I have observed to be 
those of the centre, and they are taller, straighter, and 
with a much longer cavity, and longer joints than the 
rest, which are shorter, droop more, and wave elegant- 
ly with the motion of the wind, notwithstanding they are 
nearly solid, for it is only the larger stems that have a 
small cavity, the branches being generally solid ; whole 
height from thirty to fifty feet. Spines at the joints, and 
very generally present, through the whole plant triple; this 
is evidently the habit, though frequently incomplete ; the 



Bamhusa. hexanuria monogynia. 199 

middle one is the largest, and often compound ; all are more 
or less recurved, very strong, and sharp. By the number 
and strength of these spines, and of the branches of this 
species, it may be said to form the most impenetrable 
jungle in India. Leaves sessile on their sheaths, bifari- 
ous, linear-lanceolate, cuspidate, rarely more than six 
inches long. The sheaths have their mouths ciliate with 
hairs and filaments. 

Inflorescence. The plants of the clump when in flower, 
form one immense, naked panicle ; for at this time there 
is not a leaf to be found on them. Spikdets crowd- 
ed on the joints of the extreme branchlets, sessile, lanceo- 
late, generally three, four, five or six -flowered, &c. ex- 
actly as in Poa. Florets the inferior two and terminal 
one male hermaphrodite, or neuter, the middle two, or 
three, or four hermaphrodite. Calyx, the number of scales 
which embrace the base of each spikelet uncertain. Co- 
rot; glume, two-valved ; exterior smooth, hard, and point- 
ed ; inner as long as the exterior, concave behind; mar^ms 
incurved, forming one acute angle, as in Poa ; edges 
of the posterior concavity much ciliate. Nectary of three, 
corol-like, oval, ciliate scales. Filaments six, three im- 
mediately within the nectarial scale, and three alternate 
with them. Germ clavate. Styles three, entirely clothed 
with pale purple wool. 

Like the other species, this is employed for various 
useful purposes ; and as it grows to a pretty large size, 
and with a smaller cavity than any of the others, it is 
strong, and well adapted for a variety of uses. 

7. B. nana. R. 

Shrubby, unarmed. 

Sans. Keu-fa, of the Chinese ; a native of their country, 
and now plentiful in the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, but 
has not yet blossomed in Bengal. It makes most beauti- 
ful close hedsres. 



200 HEXANDRIA DIGYNIA. Qrijza. 

The popular belief, that Bamboos often take fire by the 
violence of their friction, duriug those hot, dry months, 
when, what is called, the land wind prevails, is support- 
ed by the Sanscrit stanza, quoted by Sir William Jones, 
(See As. Res. vol. 4. jj. 254,J of which the following is a 
copy. 

"Delight of the world, beloved Chandana, stay no long- 
er in this forest which is overspread with rigid pernicious 
Vansas, whose hearts are unsound ; who being themselves 
confounded in the scorching stream of flames, kindled by 
their mutual attrition, will consume not their own families 
merely, but this whole world." 



HEXANDRIA DIGYNIA. 

ORYZA. Schreb. gen. n. 609. 

Calyx, glume two-valved, onc-flovvered. Coral two- 
valved, growing to the seed. Nectary two-leaved. 

Of this genus I have found only two species, but of 
the first, sativa, there are between forty and fifty varie- 
ties known to, and cultivated by the Indian farmers ; they 
seem all to have sprung from the wild sort called New- 
aree by the Telingas, and from it the following descrip- 
tion is taken. 

O. saliva.'' Willd. 2. 247 Sjc. ^c. 

Panicle diffuse. 

Unoo, Dhanya,Vriht,the Sanscrit names of the cultivat- 
ed sort, and Nivara the wild variety, called by the Telin- 
gas Newaree, Aruz of the Arabians. 

* An improper name, certainly for the original wild plant 
which is never cultivated ; however as custom has established it for 
the numerous varieties thereof, I cannot well attempt to alter it in 
describing what I take for the original, wild stock, from whence all 
the cultivated varieties have sprung, which I am now describing. 



Oryza. hexandria digyNia. 201 

Dhan the Bengalee name of the plant, and the unhusk- 
ed rice, and Chaul the clean rice. 

Uri the generic Telinga name of the cultivated sorts. 
Urloo the grain in the husk ; and Biani the grain, or 
rice. Newaree of the Telingas is the plant in its wild 
state. 

This original stock is always found wild in and about 
the borders of lakes throughout the Circars, is never cul- 
tivated so far as I can learn, because the produce, they 
say, is small^ compared to that of the varieties in cultiva- 
tion. 

Root fibrous, annual. Culms numerous, near the base 
floating, or creeping, with the extremities erect, they are 
jointed, round and smooth, from two to eight or ten feet 
long, according to the depth of the water. Leaves 
sheathing, long, and slender, backwardly scabrous; 
mouth of the sheaths crowned with a large, conical, 
membranaceous, lacerated process. This process, ligula, 
or stipule, is common to all the varieties I have examin- 
ed. Panicle terminal, thin, bowing when the seed is 
weighty. Rachis common, and partial, angular, and his- 
pid. Flowers single, pediceiled. Calyx and corol as 
described in the Genera plantarum, except that here the 
large valve of the calyx ends in a very long hispid, co- 
loured awn. Nectary, two falcate bodies embracing the 
posterior half of the germ which are common to all the 
varieties. Stamens six. 

The rice of the wild sort above described, is remark- 
ably white, palatable, and reckoned very wholesome ; so 
that it is carefully gathered, and sells dear. The rich 
esteem it a dainty ; and to make it still more delicate, 
they boil it only in steam. A coarse kind of confec- 
tion, called beat rice, is made of it, and sold in most ba- 
zars. 

Adepts in agriculture in England and Scotland say 
there is no such thing in nature as perpetual fertility, 



202 HEXANDRiA DiGYNiA. Oryza, 

they probably do not know that much of the rice land 
in Asia is so situated as to receive no help whatever from 
nature, except what the air and rains yield ; however 
the greatest proportion, and the best, are those that are 
overflowed annually by the inundations of large rivers. 
These we know receive from the waters much fertilizing 
matter ; but the greatest part of the rice lands in the 
Circars, are of the former sort ; there they depend entire- 
ly upon the rains ; consequently can receive no help but 
from the rain that immediately falls upon them, and 
the dry stubble that is annually left on the ground, to- 
gether with the remains of a few other plants that may 
have grown up with the rice. The crop is always al- 
lowed to be in every part dry ripe before cut, and is then 
immediately carried off the field. Cattle are turned to 
eat up the stubble through the day, but never suffered to 
remain on it all night, as they are then constantly house- 
ed. I speak of those parts the Circars only which are near 
Samulcota ; they cannot therefore communicate much 
fertility to the ground, and I never saw, nor heard of an 
east Indian farmer, manuring, in the smallest degree a 
rice field ; yet these fields have, for probably thousands of 
years^ continued to yield annually a large crop of rice,on 
an average from thirty to sixty-fold ; even eighty, or a 
hundred has been known. 

There is no rotation of crops on rice lands, they lie 
idle from the time one crop is cut till the next is trans- 
planted into them, during' which time the soil is most per- 
fectly dried, I may say burnt up ; whether it receives a- 
ny benefit from being so, is a point on which I cannot 
pretend to give an opinion. 

The best rice lands are extensive open plains, through 
which large rivers pasS;, and which are exposed to eve- 
ry wind that blows. No hedge, nor any kind of shelter 
is here necessary, so that the plants are exposed to the 
greatest glare of solar light, and the freest circulation of 



Oryza. hexandria digynia. 203 

air. The soil is generally of great depth, many feet pure 
mould without the least mixture of sand, small stones, 
&c. It is of a darker colour than garden mould in general. 
During the dry hot seasons these liclds retain the water 
long upon the surface, allowing but little to escape 
through, so that most of the waste is by immediate eva- 
poration. 

The Hindoo farmers divide the numerous varieties 
into two orders ; the first they call the Poonas, or the 
early sorts ; the second the Pedda, and Worloo, or Ped- 
da Pauta, which means the late or great crop. 

Division First. 

Teling. Poonas. Sungskrit, Asoo. Beng. Aus. 

The varieties of this order are generally, if the weather 
admits, sown thick in June, or early in July, on such small 
well laboured spots as are a little above the level of the 
common rice lands, for fear of their being too long inun- 
dated by heavy rains ; at the same time it is necessary that 
those spots should be so situated, as to admit of be- 
ing watered, in case of too dry weather. In about forty 
days, if the season has been favorable, the young plants 
will have attained to the height of from nine to eighteen 
inches ; by this time fields are flooded, slightly plough- 
ed, and made level by dragging by a pair of bullocks, or 
buffaloes, a long flat piece of wood. The fields being now 
in the state of very soft mud ; the plants are taken up and 
transplanted by the hand. It is astonishing to see how 
soon a few labourers, men, women, and children, will 
plant a field, nothing more is now requisite to bring the 
crop to maturity, than keeping the fields constantly wet, 
more or less flooded, according to the sort of rice up- 
on it, for some sorts require very little water, while others 
require a great deal. When nearly ripe, the water is 
drained off some days before they cut down the grain, 

Z 2 



204 HEXANDRIA DIGYNIA. Ovyza. 

which is done with the sickle, as in most parts of Europe. 
The produce is then carried to some neighbouring elevat- 
ed spot, where it is stacked, or immediately trod out by 
cattle. The grain is then winnowed, dried, and de- 
posited in pits dug in high ground, and lined with the 
rice straw. The straw is stacked by the careful far- 
mer, and reserved to feed his cattle with, during the hot 
months when all vegetation is burnt up. 

The following eight sorts are amongst the most com- 
mon of this division ; and those I am best acquainted 
with, viz. 

1st. Jillama-waree, is the Telinga name of the plant, 
and Jilla-maloo the ripe grain. This seems the first re- 
moved from the wild sort, newaree ; the awn is shorter, 
and there are many of the flowers female. The rice is of 
a dark colour, and when husked, coarse, and reddish. 

2nd. Yerra-dal-waree the plant, and Yerro-daloo the 
grain. 

This sort has also a long awn, there are many male, 
neuter and female flowers mixed with the hermaphrodite 
ones. It requires less water than most other varieties, of 
course the higher situations suits it best, particularly if 
the season is very wet. The grain is white, but the husk- 
ed rice is coarse and reddish ; hence the name yerra, 
which means red. 

3rd. Dal-waree, and Dal-waloo the grain. This sort 
has also a long awn. It is chiefly cultivated during the 
dry season, on such spots as can then be watered ; both 
the grain, and husked rice are of a dark blackish brown 
colour, and it is reckoned a very coarse sort. 

4th. Satica-ivaree the plant, and Saticaloo the grain. 
This produces a coarse brown grain, the husked rice of 
which is coarse, and reddish. It has a long awn, and is 
not much cultivated. 

5th. Telia- koadama, the plant, the grain is white, but 
the husked rice is coarse and reddish; it has no awn. This 



Oryza. hexandria digynia. 

sort is generally sown broad-cast, where it is to grow ; it 
requires little water, and of course is most cultivated on 
the higher lands that cannot command constant and re- 
gular supplies of water. 

6th. Suma-waree the plant, and Sumaloo the grain. 
This is a small grain, of a dark colour, but the husked rice 
is white, and tolerably fine. It yields but a small pro- 
duce, and is not much cultivated. It has no awn. 

7th. Kartee-waree the plant, smd Kartikaloo the grain. 
This sort is much cultivated, to a greater extent than all 
the other early sorts put together. It has no awn, the grain 
is of a middling size, brownish coloured ; the rice when 
husked for the table is tolerably fine and white. It does 
not require a great deal of water. 

8th. Gouree-waree the plant, and Gowree-kunkaloo the 
grain. This is the finest of the early sorts, the grain has 
no awn, and is of a pale purplish colour, and the husked 
rice is fine and white. 

There are many other sorts belonging to this division, 
but as I have not had an opportunity of examining them, 
I say nothing further about them. 

Division Second, or Pedda Worloo. 

Xst. Atagadal-waree the plant and Ata-gadaloo the 
grain ; of this sort a large proportion is cultivated, pro- 
bably as much as of all the other sorts put together. It is 
without avvn,the unhusked and husked rice are both white, 
^nd of an excellent quality ; it requires much water. 

2nd. Yerra-suna-waree the plant, and Yerra Sunaloo 
the grain. The unhusked and prepared rice is white, and of 
a very superior quality, no arista, grain long and slender 

3rd. Kosa-waree the plant, and Ko arloo the grain. 
The grain is of a light yellowish brown colour, small, awn- 
less, and the cleansed rice, white, and tolerably fine ; it 
requires but little water, and is little cultivated. 



206 HEXANDRIA DIGYNIA. Orijza. 

5th. Aksuna-waree the plant, and Aksunaloo the 
grain. Grain like the last, but the table rice is finer; a 
large proportion of this is cultivated. 

6lh. Krishna-neel-waree the plant, and Krishna-nee laloo 
the grain. The grain is awnless, very small, dark bluish- 
black colour. The prepared rice very fine, and white ; it is 
not much cultivated. 

This rice is generally boiled in steam, on account of its 
fineness. It is eaten by the rich only. 

7th. Bangar-tiga, Silsivge luxuriant sort. Grain white, 
and awnless ; prepared rice white, and tolerably fine, it is 
much cultivated in the Vizagapatam district. 

8th. Kalee-ganda. This is also a large luxuriant sort. 
The grain dark-coloured, awnless. The prepared rice to- 
lerably white, but not fine ; it requires but little water. 

9th. Telasuna-waree the plant, and Telia sunaloo the 
grain. It is a large luxuriant variety. The grain white, 
awnless ; the prepared rice white and fine. It is much 
cultivated. 

There are besides the above, about twenty more varie- 
ties of this division, more or less fine, but the principal 
are those above-mentioned. 

2. O. coarctata. R. 

Panicle contracted ; valvelets of the calyx subulate. 
Leaves culm-clasping. 

A native of the Delta of the Ganges, and first disco- 
vered there by Dr. Buchanan in 1796. Flowering time the 
rainy season. 

Root fibrous, and appearsto be perennial. Culms erect, 
ramous, jointed, from two to four feet high, smooth, their 
lower parts seem also perennial. Leaves sword-shaped, 
broadest at the culm-clasping base, tapering to a very 
fine, long point, smooth, and of a firm texture, unequally 
divided by the nerve, ^\hich is visible on the back only, 
margins armed with minute prickles. Sheaths of the 



Leersia. hexandria digynia. 207 

leaves smooth, with ample, waved, fring^ed mouths, be- 
ing^ a coatiimation of the leaves themselves. Panicles 
terminal, contracted, subcyliudric- Flowers solitary, 
pedicelled. Calyx of two, minute, subulate valvelets. 
Coro/ two-valved, smooth ; the exterior one boat shaped, 
and daggered. 

I have not been able to learn that any use is made of 
this sort, nor even to obtain any Asiatic name for it. 



^ LEERSIA. Soland. 
Cahjx ; glume two-valved, one-flowered. Corol none. 

1. L. aristata. R. 

Leaves lanceolate. Panicles diverging. Flowers pair- 
ed, exterior valve of the calyx awned. 

Nir-valli-pullu. Rheed. Mai. 10. t. 12. 

Beng. Junglee dal. 

Found growing on the surface of deep, standing, sweet 
water, in the vicinity of Calcutta. Flowering time the 
cold season. Compare with Pharus arisfatus. 

Clums jointed, long, floating on, and in the water ; 
emitting numerous roots from the joints ; apices above 
the water sub-erect. Sheaths much longer than the 
joints, and about as long as the leaves. Leaves sheath- 
ing, sublanceolate, rather obtuse ; cordate at the base ; 
striated and clouded with dark brownish spots above, 
scabrous. Panicles thin. Flowers paired on pedicels 
of very unequal lengths, all hermaphrodite. Calyx ; glume 
one-flowered, two-valved ; valvelets long, hispid, about 
five-nerved the exterior ending in a pretty long straight 
arista. Coi'ol none. Nectary two-leaved, obcordate, 
crenulate. Stamens six. Germ ovate. Styles two. Stig- 
mas plumose. 

2. L. ciliata. R. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, margins backwardly hispid. 



208 HEXANDRIA TRIGYNIA. RlimeX. 

Panicles oblong. Flowers solitary, valves of the calyx 
equal in length, and awnless, but amplyciliate on the 
back. 

Pharus ciliatus. Retz. obs. 5. p. 23, 

A native of Bengal, where it occupies with its primitive 
roots the margins of pools, lakes, &c. of sweet water, 
sending forth innumerable, several-fathoms-long, float- 
ing stems, and branches over the surface of the water, 
to a much greater extent than L. aristaia, which grows 
in the same manner, but rarely extends more t&an a few 
feet. Cattle are fond of the former. 

Compare with Leersia hexandra of Swarf z, and Leer- 
sia australis Brown's Prodromus, In both the foregoing 
species I have never found the flowers completely herma- 
phrodite. 



HEXANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 

RUMEX. Schreh. gen. n. 613. 

Calyx three-leaved. Petals three, converging. Three- 
seeded. 

I. R. acutus. Willd. 2. 253. 

Annual (in India.) Flowers hermaphrodite, valvelets 
all grain-bearing, at the flowering time entire, at the fruit 
time toothed ; verticels approximate, with most numer- 
ous, pedicelled, drooping flowers. Leaves lanceolate, 
entire. 

Hind. Jool-pallum. 

Beng. BMU-palung. 

This plant is common about Calcutta in low places, 
during the dry season, it perishes as soon as the first rains 
begin. 

Root long, slender, somewhatramous, annual, external- 
ly of a pale yellowish brown colour. Stem erect, ramous. 



Aponogeton. hexandria trigynia. 209 

farrowed, otherwise smooth ; from one to three feet high. 
Leaves alternate, all petioled, lanceolate ; the superior or 
floral leaves linear, and very smooth ; all are entire, wav- 
ed and smooth, from one to twelve inches lon*^., Petioles 
with a trifling membranaceous vagina at the base ; verti- 
cels numerous, approximate, consisting of numerous, 
drooping, pedicelled flowers. Calyx ; leaflets linear, 
small. Corol, valvelets ovate-lanceolate, callous grained 
on the outside ; at the flowering time they are entire, and 
as the seed advances to maturity become toothed on the 
sides, by which time the grains are very large, oblong- 
ovate, and with a granulous surface. Style short, fili- 
form. Stigmas pencil-shaped. 

Observation. 

This diff'ers from R. aciitus of Europe in being annual, 
and I think it may be a difierent species. I must however 
leave it to those to point out wherein they difler, who have 
an opportunity of doing so with the living plants before 
them. Every part thereof possesses a considerable de- 
gree of astringency and bitterness, without any thing like 
acidity. 

2. R. vesicarius. Willd. 2. 256. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, geminate ; all the valves very 
large, membranaceous, reflexed. Leaves undivided. 

Sans. Sh?/tavedhee. 

Beng. Chooka-palwng. 

Arab. Humarbostauee. 

Pers. Toorshumuk. 

Found cultivated in gardens all over Asia, and used by 
the natives in their food, as well as medicinally. 

APONOGETON. Schreh. gen. n. 835. 
Calyx, or corol two-leaved. Capsules three or four, 
superior, each containing two, or more seeds. 

A a 



210 HEXANDRIA TRIGYNIA. AponogetOU. 

1. A. monostachyon. Willd. 2. 917. Corom. pi 1. N. 81. 

Spike single, simple. Leaves linear, with cordate base. 
Capsules smooth, with about six seeds in each. 

Parua-kelanga. Rheed. Mai. 11. t. 15. 

Sans. Kakangi. 

Hind. Ghechoo. 

Nama is the Telinga name of the plant, and naraa- 
dumpa of the root. 

Saiirurus natans. Mant. 227- 

It is a native of shallow, standing, sweet water ; and 
appears, and flowers during the rains. 

Root tuberous, perennial. Leaves radical, long-peti- 
oled, linear-oblong, at the base cordate, pointed, entire, 
smooth, from three to five-nerved, from three to six inch- 
es long, and about one broad. Scapes as long as the 
leaves, a little striated, perforated by many pores length- 
ways. Spikes elegantly bent this way and that, closely 
surrounded with flowers. Calyx, or coral, which you may 
please, two wedge-shaped, concave leaflets, or petals, in- 
serted at the base of the two fissures, between the inferior 
and two superior germs, permanent. Filaments always 
six, shorter than the bractes, withering. Anthers blue. 
Germs constantly three, surrounded by the permanent 
stamens. Capsules three, pointed, with the remaining 
style, smooth, one-celled, from four to eight seeded. Seeds 
oblong, inserted into the base of the capsule. 

The natives are fond of the roots, which are nearly as 
good as potatoes. 

I have removed this genus from the fourth order of 
the seventh class, to the third order of the sixth, as all 
my four Indian species are uniformly hexandrous, and 
for the most part with three germs. 

2. A. echinatum. R, 

Spike single, and simple. Leaves linear, with cordate 
base. Capsules echinate. Seeds about six. 



Aponogetou. hexandria trigynia. 211 

Found, with the former species growing in shallow 
fresh water all over the Circars. 

3. A. undulatum. R, 

Stoloniferous. Spikes simple. Leaves lanceolate, 
waved. 

A native of Bengal, and like A. monostacliyon, grows 
in standing sweet water. It flowers during the rains. 

Root tuberous, perennial, stole-bearing and edible. 
Leaves radical, petioled, generally under, or floating on 
the water, lanceolate, waved, from three to five-nerved, 
with numerous, small, expanding veins, from four to six 
inches long, and less than one broad. Petioles compress- 
ed, shorter than the leaves. Scapes round, smooth, the 
length various, according to the depth of the water, 
thickening as it ascends. Spikes simple, crowded with 
flowers. Bractes and stamens as in A. monostachyon. 
Germs three, sometimes four, but this does not affect the 
number of stamens ; in all the flowers I examined, they 
are invariably six. Capsules smooth. Seed generally one 
or two, oblong. 

4. A. microphyllum. R. 

Root tuberous. Spike single, simple. Leaves radical, 
cylindric, many times Shorter than the spike. Capsules 
with one or two seeds. 

A native of damp places near the Bhotan mountains. 
Flowering time, the rainy season. 

Root tuberous, and esculent. Leaves radical, sessile, 
about three, four, or five to the scape, spreading close 
on the surface of the earth, sub-semicylindric, their mar- 
gins being incurved ; about one inch long, and one-eighth 
of an inch broad. Scape erect, round, smooth, three or four 
times longer than the leaves. Spathe caducous. Spike 
terminal, suberect, every where covered with beautiful 
blue coloured flowers. Calyx (bractes or corol) two-lea v- 

Aa2 



212 HEXANDRIA TRiGYNiA. Andersoiiia. 

ed ; leaflets wedge-shaped, expanding. Stamens uniform- 
ly six. Germs three. Capsules with one, or two round 
seeds in each. 

ANDERSONIA. R. 

Calyx three-five-parted. Corol petalled. Nectary 
globular, with the sessile anthers affixed to its inside. 
Germ superior, three-celled ; cells two-seeded; attachment 
interior. Capsules three-celled, three- valved. Seeds so- 
litary, arilled. Embryo inverse, without perisperm. 

It was named in memory of the late Dr. James Ander- 
son, Physician at Madras. It differs from Cupania in 
having a three-petalled corol, and globular antheriferous 
nectary ; and from Gnarea and Persoonia in the calyx 
and pericarpium. 

1. A. cucuUata. R. 

Polygamous. Leaves unequally pinnate; leaflets op- 
posite, from two to four pair, obtuse. Hermaphrodite 
peduncles axillary, few flowered, male panicled. 

Beng. f/inwr. 

A tree of considerable, size, but of very slow growth, a 
native of the Delta of the Ganges. Flowering time, the 
latter part of the rainy season, and the beginning of the 
cold season. 

Trunk in young trees straight, with few branches ; the 
bark ash-coloured, and smooth ; young shoots also smooth. 
Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, from six to eighteen 
inches long. Leaflets opposite, two, three, or four pair, 
short-petiolated, obliquely ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, un- 
equally divided by the nerve, polished on both sides, 
and of a firm texture ; margins entire, from three to six 
inches long. The terminal leaflet is often cowled at the 
base, hence the specific name. Petioles nearly round, 
and pretty smooth. Stipules none. 

Male. tree. Panicles axillary, solitary, drooping, about 



Andersonia. hexandria. trigynia. 213 

as long as the leaves ; ramifications numerous, diverging. 
Flowers numerous, small, yellow. Bractes a small ob- 
scure scale, under each division of the panicle, and two 
pressing the calyx laterally. Ca/ya; small, one-leaved, 
three-toothed. The two bractes, while they remain, make 
it appear five-parted. Petals three, oval, concave, press- 
ed to the nectary. Nectary round, turbinate, with a con- 
tracted triangular opening on the apex. Filaments none. 
Anthers from six to eight, sessile, round the inside of the 
nectary, apparently abortive. Germ none, but a clavate 
gland in its place. 

Hermaphrodite tree. Peduncles axillary, solita- 
ry from three to six-flowered. Flowers longer than the 
male, in other respects the same. Calyx, corol, and nec- 
tary as in the male. Anthers always six. Germ supe- 
rior, three-sided, ovate, covered with minute, stellate 
scales, three-celled, with two vertically placed ovula in 
each, attached to the middle of the axis. Style none. 
Stigma large, three-lobed ; lobes somewhat two-lobed. 
Capsule nearly round, as large as a middling sized apple, 
three-lobed, three-celled, three-valved. Cortex thick, 
firm, and of a tough, fleshy texture. Seeds solitary, of a 
roundish trigonal shape, three-fourths covered with a 
fleshy bright orange-coloured aril. Integument under the 
aril smooth, and of a chesnut colour. Perisperm none. 
Embryo inverse. Cotyledons conform to the seed. Plu- 
mula two-lobed. Radicle semilunar, superior. 

2. A. Rohituka. R. 

Polygamous Leaves unequally pinnate ; leaflets six- 
paired, obliquely oblong, entire, smooth, opposite. In- 
florescence axillary, the fertile flowers spiked, the abor- 
tive ones panicled. 

Sans. Rohitwka. 

Beng. Tikta-raj. 

Hind. Harrin-hara, or khana. 



214 HEXANDRIA TRiGYNiA. Andersotita. 

These synonyms refer chiefly to the female hermaphro- 
dite, or fertile tree. 

A small tree, a native of Bengal. Flowering time the 
rainy season. 

Trunk pretty straight, covered with smooth, ash-co- 
loured bark. Branches not very numerous, but spreading 
and drooping much, and so densely decorated with 
leaves, as to yield the most complete shade. Leaves al- 
ternate, unequally pinnate, from one, to two feet long. 
Leaflets from four, to eight pair, opposite, short-petioled, 
oblong, and linear-oblong, somewhat falcate, entire, ob- 
tusely cuspidate, smooth on both sides ; the most exte- 
rior are about six inches long, while the lower pair is 
scarcely half the length. Petioles nearly round, and very 
slightly villous. Stipules none. 

Male tree. Panicles axillary, or rather a little above, 
shorter than the leaves, composed of numerous, simple, 
diverging, somewhat drooping ramifications. Flowers nu- 
merous, subsessile, small, white, inodorous. Bractes mi- 
nute, scales under the divisions of the panicle, and ca- 
lyx. Calyx one-leaved, thick, firm and fleshy. Border di- 
vided into five nearly equal, imbricate, reniform segments. 
Petals three, oval, concave. Nectary globular, pure 
white, fleshy, smooth, with a roundish triangular open- 
ing on the apex. Filaments none. Anthers six, their 
back attached to the inside of the nectary. Germ abor- 
tive. 

Hermaphrodite tree. Spikes axillary,solitary, pedun- 
cled, erect, generally simple, rather more than half the 
length of the leaves. Flowers sessile, numerous, small, 
cream-coloured. Bractes, a. very minute one below each 
flower. Calyx five-leaved. Leaflets orbicular, unequal, 
leathery, concave, smooth on both sides. Petals three, 
roundish, concave, much longer than the calyx. Nec- 
tary globular, fleshy, perforated at the apex, occupying 



Damasonium. hexandria hexagynia. 215 

the whole centre of the corol ; inclosing the stamens, and 
pistil. Filaments none, or very short. Anthers six, li- 
near, pointed, joined to the inside of the nectary, with 
their apices just appearing at its perforation, which 
makes the nectary look as if its mouth was six-toothed. 
Germ three-celled, with two ovula in each, attached to the 
middle of the axis. Style scarcely any. Stigma three-lob- 
ed ; lobes emarginate. Capsule round, about an inch and 
a quarter in diameter, smooth, pale yellow, rather soft 
and fleshy, three-celled, three-valved, opening from the 
apex. Seeds solitary, oblong, enclosed in a complete, 
thick, fleshy, scarlet aril, which is attached length-ways 
to the three-partible mouth of the capsule, and this again 
to a light coloured mark on the inner edge of the seed, and 
round its apex. Integuments two ; exterior the colour, po- 
lish, and consistence of the chesnut ; the inner one lighter 
coloured, thin and firmly attached to the cotyledons. Pe- 
risperm none. Embryo inverse, minute, until vegetation 
has taken place. Cotyledons conform to the seed, and 
so firmly and completely united, as to seem one, until 
the two-lobed plumula, and superior radicle, are consider- 
ably advanced. 

From the seeds of this species, the natives, where the 
trees grow plentifully, extract an oil, which they use for 
various economical purposes- 



HEXANDRIA HEXAGYNIA. 

DAMASONIUM. Schreb. gen. n. 624. 
Spatlie superior. Perianth superior, three-leaved. Corol 
three-petalled. Germ lanceolate, from six to twelve-cell- 
ed ; cells many-seeded ; attachment septal. Styles equal- 
ling in number the cells of the germ. Capsule one-celled, 
six-vaived. 6'eeds numerous. JSmferyo minute ; direction 
various ; perisperm ample. 



216 HEXANDRIA HEXAGYNIA. DamasoTiium. 

1. D. indicum, Willd. 2. 276. Corom. pi. 2. N. 185. 

Ottel-ambel. Rheed. Mai. 11. t. 46. 

Beng. Parmi-kidla. 

Teling. Neer-venekee. 

An annual plant, a native of sweet water. Flowering 
time the rainy season. 

Root fibrous. Leaves radical, petioled, from oblong-cor- 
date to broad- cordate, waved, from seven to eleven- 
nerved, smooth, of a thin membranaceous texture ; size 
very various, say six inches each way ; they generally 
grow under the water. Petioles three-sided, length va- 
rious. Peduncles radical, with the petioles, of suffi- 
cient length to raise the flower above the surface of the 
water, from four to five-sided, smooth, one-flowered. 
Calyx, spathe, superior, one-leaved, from five to six- 
winged ; wings membranaceous, waved ; mouth five or 
six-toothed. Perianth superior, three-leaved ; leaflets 
lanceolate, three-nerved. Corol three-petalled. Nectary 
three small, obcordate scales within the insertion of the 
petals. Filaments from six to twelve, erect. Anthers 
linear, erect. Germ within the belly of the spathe and in- 
ferior to the perianth, from six to twelve-celled, each con- 
taining numerous ovula attached to the partitions, as in 
Nijmphea. Styles from six to twelve, half two-cleft. Stig- 
mas acute. Capsule oblong, crowned with the withered 
perianth, six-grooved ; one-celled, six-valved. Seeds nu- 
merous, affixed to six sharp keels, {parietal receptacles,^ 
running on the inside of the sutures of the six valves. 



CLASS VII. 

HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

PISONIA. Schreb. gen. n. 1603. 

Calyx carapanulate, five-toothed. Corol none. Seed 
solitary, involved in the enlarged, bacciform calyx. Em- 
bryo erect, embracing a central perisperm. 

1. P. aculeata. Willd. 2. 283. Goert. Sem, 1. 367. t. 76. 

Dioecous, shrubby, scandent. Thorns axillary, recurv- 
ed. Leaves oblong. Panicles axillary. 

Beng. Baghachwra. 

Tarn. Karu-indu. 

Tragularia horrida, of Konig. M. S- S. 

Teling. KMuki-pootri. 

A very common, strong, large, straggling shrub. 

Trunk scarcely to be distinguished. Bark smooth, 
dark-olive-coloured. Branches numerous, nearly oppo- 
site, decussate, horizontal, extending far ; young parts 
downy. Thorns axillary, solitary, recurved, very sharp, 
and strong. Leaves sub-opposite, petioled, oval, obtuse. 
a little downy. Flowers collected on small, rigid, ter- 
minal, and axillary panicles- 

Male. Calyx, bell-shaped, five-toothed, five-angled, 
somewhat scabrous. Corol none. Filaments seven 
or eight, twice the length of the calyx, inserted into a 
fleshy receptacle, which surrounds the base of the abor- 
tive germ. Anthers simple. Germ lanceolate, abortive. 

B h 



218 HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Jouesilt. 

Female. Calyx as in the male. Corol none. Stamens 
none. Germ superior, conical. Style longer than the 
calyx. Stigma headed. Pericarp none, the calyx now 
enlarged, and contracted at the mouths serves for one. 
It is five-sided, each angle being armed with two or three 
rows of conical, headed, very glutinous glands. Seeds 
one, nearly cylindric, &c. as described by Gosrtner. 

It makes most excellent, impenetrable fences, and when 
fairly caught in its trammels, it is no easy matter to be 
extricated, the prickles beinjr so numerous, strong, crook- 
ed, and sharp. Both Konig and myself were so situated a- 
mongst the Vandalore hills near Madras, and hence he 
named it T. horrida, not at that time suspecting it to be 
Pisonia aculeata. 

Plants received from the West Indies into the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta, do not in any respect difier from our 
East Indian one, which grows common in forests, hedges, 
&c. 

JONESIA. R. 
Calyx two-leaved. Corol infundibuliform, the tube 
fleshy and closed, border four-parted. Nectary, a starai- 
niferous and pistiliferous ring crowning the mouth of the 
tube. Germ pedicelled. Legume turgid, from four to eight- 
seeded. 

J. asoca, R. in Asiat. Res. 4. 355. 

Leaflets five pair, lanceolate. Flowers heptandrous. 

Jonesia pinnata. Willd. 2. '2&7. 

Asoca. Asiat. Res. 3. 254. atid 4. 274. 

Asjogam. Rheed. Mat. 5. p. 117. tab. 59. 

Beng. Usok. 

Found in gardens about Calcutta, where it grows to 
be a very handsome, middling sized, ramous tree; flower- 
ing time the beginning of the hot season ; the seeds ripen 
during the rains. 



Jonesia. heptandria monogynia. 219 

The plants and seeds were probal>ly brought originally 
from the eastern frontier of Bengal, where it is indigenous. 

Trunk erect, though not very straight. Bark dark brown, 
pretty smooth. Branches numerous,speadingin every direc- 
tion, so as to form a most elegant, large shady head. Leaves 
alternate, abruptly pinnate, sessile, j>enerally more than a 
foot lung ; when young, pendulous, and coloured. Leaflets 
opposite, from four to six-pair, the lower pairs broad-lan- 
ceolate ; the superior lanceolate; all are smooth, shining, 
and of a firm texture, with their margins a little waved. 
Common petioles, round, smooth. Stipules axillary, solita- 
ry, in fact a process from the base of the common petiole, 
as in many of the grasses. Cymes terminal and axillary, 
between the stipule and branchlets, nearly globular, large, 
and crowded with flowers. Bracies a small, cordate, one 
under each division, and subdivision of the cyme. Pedun- 
cles, and pedicels smooth, and reddish-coloured. Flowers 
numerous, pretty large ; when they first expand, they are 
of a beautiful orange colour, gradually changing to red, 
forming a variety of beautiful shades, fragrant during 
the night. Calyx two-leaved ; leaflets nearly opposite, 
coloured, cordate, bracte-like, marking the terraiuation of 
the pedicel, or the beginning of the tube of the corol. Ca- 
rol one-ipetsd\ed,i'u.nnel-f or med. Tube slightly incurved, 
firm, and fleshy, tapering towards the base, and imper- 
vious. Border four-parted ; divisions spreading, sub- 
orbicular, one-third the length of the tube ; margin 
slightly woolly. Nectary, a staminiferous, and pistilif6r- 
ous, crenulated ring crowning the mouth of the tube. 
Filaments generally seven, and seven must, I think, be 
the natural number ; viz. three on each side, and one be- 
low; above a vacancy, as if the place of an eight filament, 
occupied on its inside by the pedicel of the germ ; the fila- 
ments are equal, distinct, ascending, and about three, 
or four times longer than the border of the corol. An- 

B b 2 



220 HEPTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Jouesia. 

thers reniforra, small, incumbent. Germ oblong, pedi- 
celled ; pedicel inserted into the inside of the nectary, 
immediately below the vacant space already mentioned, 
one-celled, from eight to twelve-seeded, attached to the 
upper margin of the cell. Style nearly as long as the 
stamens, declining. Stigma simple. Legume scimi- 
tar-shaped, turgid, on the outside reticulated, otherwise 
pretty smooth, from six to ten inches long, and about 
two broad. Seeds generally from four to eight, smooth, 
gray, the size of a large chesnut. 

Note. Many of the flowers have only the rudiment 
of a pistilium. 

When this tree is in full blossom, I do not think the 
whole vegetable kingdom, affords a more beautiful object. 

2. J. scandens. R. 

Shrubby scandent, or twining. Leaflets two or three 
pairs. 

A native of Sumatra, and has been received into the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta, but has not yet blossomed 
there. Sir William Jones, whose name this genus bears, 
mentions (Asiat. Res. 4. 275.) a twining species, to 
which Jayadeva gave the epithet voluble which is pro- 
bably a fourth species, if not this. 

3. J. triandra. R. 

Leaflets two pair, oval. Flowers triandrous. 
A. native of the Malay Archipelago. 



CLASS VIII. 

OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

XANTHOPHYLLUM. B. 

Calyx five-leaved. Corol five-petalled, sub-papiliona- 
ceous. Germ superior, one-celled, few-seeded, attached to 
two opposite parietal receptacles. Berry one seeded. 
Embryo transverse, without perisperm. 

1. X. virens. R. 

Panicles interfoliaceous and terminal. Germ four-seed- 
ed. 

Beng. Gundee. 

A large timber tree, a native of the thick forests of 
Silhel, where it blossoms in March and the seed ripens in 
June and July, The wood is said to be remarkably hard 
and useful to the natives. 

Branches and branchlefs very numerous, and much 
crowded, smooth. Leaves alternate, short-petioled, from 
oblong to lanceolar, entire, of a firm texture, and polish- 
ed ; about six inches long, and from one and a half to 
two and half broad. Stipules none. Panicles termindil, 
and between the leaves, internodal, very numerous 
and pretty much crowded with flowers ; in general they 
are shorter than the leaves, and every part is smooth. 
Flowers numerous, rather small, colour a mixture of yel- 



222 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Xanthophyllum. 

low and pink, generally solitary, pretty long-pedicelled. 
Bractes tern, at the base of each solitary pedicel, small, 
ensiform, viilous, caducous. Ca/i/x five-leaved, rather un- 
equal, the lower two, and the superior one being smaller. 
Petals five, the superior and lateral four nearly equal, 
sub-spa tulate, falcate ; the upper two from what may 
be called the vexillum; the fifth or lower, {carina,) boat- 
shaped, unsuiculate, and pink- coloured. Filaments 
eight, incurved, nearly equal, shorter than the corol, and 
hairy ; lour of them inserted on the claws of the upper 
four petals, two on the claw of the lower, viz. the cari- 
na, and the remaining two into the receptacle, be- 
tween the two petals which form the vexillum and 
the two wings. Anthers oval. Germ superior, short- 
pedicelled, the insertion of which is embraced by a 
seven-anjiled, nectarial cup, round, ribbed, a little hairy, 
one-celled, containing four ovula, attached two and 
two to two opposite sub-parietal receptacles, near the 
base of the cell. Style the length of the stamina, toward 
the apex incurved. Stigma slightly two-lobed. Berry 
globular, short-pedicelled, of a firm fleshy texture, when 
ripe, olive-coloured, and about the size of a pigeon's egg, 
one-celled. Seed solitary, nearly round ; attachment 
lateral. Integument single, rather thick and brownish. 
Perisperm none. Embryo transverse, green. Cotyle- 
dons two, confirm to the seed, equal. Radicle lateral, 
truncate, lodged immediately within the umbilicus of 
the seed, and pointing to it. 

2. "X.. fliivescens. R. 

Panicles axillary and terminal. Germs from eight to 
ten-seeded. Two glands on the back of the leaves near 
the base. 

Beng. Ajensak. 

A large tree, a native of the hilly parts of the province 
£)f Chittagong, where it blossoms in May, and is so ve- 



Osheckia. octandria monogynia. 223 

ry much like the former species, virens, that I was for 
some time inclined to consider them only varieties of one 
species, but attentive examinations made at various 
times, give me reason to think they are sufficiently dis- 
tinct. In the former, virens, the leaves continue green 
when dry, and are destitute of the two small, hollow 
glands on the base of the lower pair of veins, one on each 
of the lower ends of the rib, or nerve, which particular- 
ly mark flavescens. The panicles except those that ter- 
minate the twigs, are in this perfectly axillary ; in that far 
above the axills, and their insertions accompanied by two 
or three, vertically situated knobs or buds, as in some 
species of Cappai-is, &c. There the germ has never more 
than four ovula, inserted by pairs on opposite sides near 
the bottom of the cell ; here are from eight to twelve 
ovula in the germ, inserted on opposite sides of the cell, 
from the base to near the top. There the stigma is large 
and more or less two-lobed ; here simple. In other res- 
pects they agree so well, that it seems unnecessary to 
figure more o^ flavescens, than the back of the base of one 
leaf, to shew the two glands. 

OSBECKIA. Schreb. gen. n. 635. 
Calyx from four to five-cleft ; lobes separated with 
a fringed scale. Corol from four to five-petalled. An- 
thers beaked. Capsule four-celled, girt with the tube 
of the calyx. 

1. O. zeylanica. Willd. 2. 300. 

Annual, bristly. Leaves petioled, oblong, bristly. 
Flowers axillary, and terminal. 

A native of Ceylon. 

Stem annual, erect, four-sided, the angles armed with 
erect bristles. Branches opposite, stem-like ; whole height 
about one foot. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblon;^, 
entire, fringed, bristly on both sides. Flowers axillary, 



224 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Osbeckitt. 

and terminal ; those of the axils solitary, and short-pe- 
duncled ; the terminal from one to five, or seven toge- 
ther, and still shorter peduncled, a large, beautiful bright 
blue-purple. Bractes fringed. Calyx bristly ; interme- 
diate scales consisting of a pedicelled star of bristles 
each. 

2. O. chinensis. Willd. 2. 300. 

Annual, erect, four-seeded, scabrous. Leaves sessile, 
lanceolate, three-nerved. Flowers terminal, subsessile, 
four smaller divisions of the calyx fringed. 

Found in Cuttack, on dry rice fields, in flower during 
the cold season. 

3. O. tetrandra. R. 

Shrubby, scandent. Leaves opposite, three-nerved. 
Panicle terminal. Flowers tetrandrous. 

A large, climbing shrub, a native of Pulo Pinang, 
Tendrils few, scattered, solitary, undivided. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, Ihree-nerved, cordate- 
oblong, entire, smooth on both sides ; a marginal vein 
runs round the leaves, which gives them the appearance 
of being five-nerved. Petioles short, bristly on the up- 
per side. Panicles terminal, cross-armed, conical ; di- 
visions thereof trichotomous. Ca/yx one-leaved. Ttihe 
gibbous, permanent. Border four-parted, deciduous. 
Petals four, alternate with the stamens, long-clawed, cres- 
cent-shaped, fringed, each having a long spur projecting 
downward from the inside. Filaments four, inserted into 
the calyx. Anthers erect ; before expansion their points 
are lodged in four deep pits between the calyx and germ, 
with long perforated beaks and two small scales at the 
base of each on the inside. Germ hidden within the calyx. 
iS<2/?e awled. 5h'gma simple. CapsM/es roundish, crowned 
with the entire tube of the calyx, four-celled ; cells open- 
ing at top. Seeds very numerous. Receptacle semilunate. 



Combretum. octandria monogynia. 225 



Observation. 
This plant appears to me to be nearly allied to Osbec- 
kia, however the want of the intermediate small scales of 
the calyx, and their being only four stamens, are I think 
sufficient motives for doubt. Compare with Melastoma, 
also with Rhexia. 

New genus (Blank.) 

Calyx entire. Corol four-petalled, inserted on the 
calyx. Capsule inferior, four-celled; receptacles parie- 
tal. Seeds numerous. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, ovate-oblong, entire, 
pointed, three-nerved, smooth on both sides. Corymbs 
terminal, and axillary, much shorter than the leaves, 
crowded, decompound. Flowers numerous, small. Brae- 
tes minute. Calyx entire. Petals four, contorted, ovate- 
cordate, subsessile, expanding, inserted in the mouth of 
the calyx. Filaments e\^\\t, the length of the petals, insert- 
ed into the calyx under the petals, points incurved and 
fine. Anthers crescent-shaped, with a double poUenifer- 
ous groove on the inside. Germ inferior, roundish, small. 
-Sfy/e the length of the stamens, «S%ma clavate. Capsule 
four-celled, four-valved, crowned with the remaining 
calyx. Seeds numerous, affixed to four, callous, vertical 
parietal receptacles, as in Vallisneria, &c. 



COMBRETUM. Schreh. gen. n. 641. 

Calyx superior, from four to five-toothed. Corol from 
four to five-petalled, inserted with the stamina into the 
mouth of the calyx. Germ one-celled ; ovula from two 
to four ; attachment superior. Seeds solitary, from four 
to five-winged, or lobed. Embryo inverse, without peris- 
perm. 

c« 



226 ocTANDR[A MONOGYNIA. Combretum. 

1. C. ovalifolium. R. 

Scandent. Leaves opposite, oval, smooth, obtuse. 
Spikes axillary and terminal, the latter compound. Ca- 
lyx subrotate. Petals elliptic. 

A native of Coromandel. Flowerinjv time in the Bo- 
tanic Garden at Calcutta March and April. The seeds 
ripen during the rainy season. 

Stem stout, and ligneous, soon dividing into numerous, 
woody, scandent branches and branchlets of great ex- 
tent. Bark of the olc[ parts rough, and brown ; of the 
young shoots smooth. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, 
oval, entire, obtuse, smooth on both sides ; from fjur to 
six inches long, and two to three broad. Stipules none. 
Spikes terminal and axillary ; the former compound, hav- 
ing two, or three pairs of opposite, expanding branch- 
es, and may be called a panicle. Bractes minute, 
subulate, one-flowered. Flowers small, yellowish white, 
sessile. Calyx without a tube, concave within, and there 
the rim is surrounded with a large, orange-coloured, 
hairy ring ; border four-parted ; segments three, angular, 
reflexed. Petals elliptic, obtuse, longer than the seg- 
ments of the calyx, smooth, white. Filaments longer 
than the petals, incurved, alternately somewhat shorter. 
Germ inferior, oblong, one-celled, containing two ovu- 
la, attached to the top of the cell. Style shorter than 
the stamina. Stigma simple. Seed narrow-lanceolar, 
four-winged ; wings semilunar, smooth, membranace- 
ous. Integuments two ; interior thin, and brown. 
Perisperm none. Embryo inverse. Cotyledons intri- 
cately folded into the four lobes of the seed, when ex- 
panded two-lobed, as in most of the Convolvulacea. Ra- 
dicle superior. 

2. C. rotundifolium. R. 

Scandent. Leaves opposite, petioled, nearly round, 
smooth, entire. Racemes axillary, solitary, cylindric, 



Combretum. octandria monogynia. 227 

dense. Flowers pedicelled ; cali/x narrow-campanulate ; 
petals obcordate. 

Cou-lwta the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is in- 
digenous. Flowering in January and February. 

Stem and branches scandent ; the young shoots often 
twining. Leaves opposite, or nearly so, petioled, sub- 
rotund, entire, smooth ; from three to five inches long, 
and nearly as broad. Petioles about an inch long. Ra- 
cemes axillary, solitary, long-peduncled, short, cylin- 
dric, crowded with numerous, small, straw-coloured, 
pedicelled flowers. Bractes subulate, one-flowered, 
caducous. Calyx narrow-campanulate, four-toothed. 
Petals four, obcordate, and about as long as the teeth 
of the calyx. Filaments eight, long and slender, just 
under the insertion of each is a hairy gland. Germ lan- 
ceolar, four-sided, one-celled, containing two ovula at- 
tached to the top of the cell. 

3. C. costatum. R. 

Scandent. Leaves opposite, oblong, smooth, veins 
single and parallel. Spikes axillary, single, or paired ; 
calyx cup-shaped ; petals lanceolar, minute. 

Tali jooniar the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is 
indigenous, and like the other East India species, a large, 
scandent shrub. Flowering time March and April. 

Branchlets opposite, or dichotomous, round, and 
smooth. Leaves opposite short-petioled, oblong, taper- 
pointed, entire, smooth on both sides ; veins simple and 
parallel ; about six inches long, and three broad. Sti- 
pules none. Spikes axillary, and terminal, single, or in 
pairs, subsessile, from one to two inches long. Flowers 
numerous, scattered, small, dull yellow. Bractes mi- 
nute, one on the under side of each germ. Calyx cup- 
shaped, obscurely four-toothed, pretty smooth and even 

on both sides. Petals four, very small, lanceolar. Fi- 

c c 2 



228 oCTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Combretum. 

laments eight, smooth, many times longer than the calyx, 
and inserted into it. Anthers two-lobed. Germ inferior, 
one-celled, containing two, three, or four ovula, attached 
to the top of the cell. Style nearly as long as the stami- 
na. Stigma acute. 



4. C. acuminatum. R. 

Scandent. Leaves opposite, and alternate, subsessile, 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, with a cordate base. Spikes 
axillary, and terminal. Calyx campanulate, a very hairy 
belt within. Petals subrotund. 

Patjooni, the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is 
found wild in the forests, running over trees, &c. to a 
great extent. Flowers in March and April ; seed ripe in 

July. 

Young shoots downy. Leaves subopposite, and alter- 
nate, subsessile, from oblong to ovate-lanceolate, entire; 
base cordate; apex alternate and acute; upper surface 
pretty smooth, villous underneath ; from four to six inches 
lono-, and from one to three broad. Spikes axillary and 
terminal, peduncled, shorter than the leaves, villous. 
Flowers numerous, sessile, small, yellow. Calyx cam- 
panulate ; mouth acutely four-toothed, round the inside 
just below the insertion of the filaments, is a very hairy, 
membranaceous ring, with the lower hairs thereof point- 
ing down, while those above point up through the mouth 
of the tube, and are si raw-coloured. This hairy valve, 
or membrane, will immediately point out this species. 
Petals four, round-oval, yellow. Stamina eight. Germ 
ovate, one-celled, containing three or four ovula, at- 
tached to the top of the cell. Style length of the stami- 
na. Stigma simple. Seed oblong, four-cornered, the four 
sides grooved ; angles thick and rounded, smooth, dark 
brown and dry. Integuments two, no perisperm. Embryo 
inverse, with the large cotyledons most intricately folded 



Combretum. octandria monogynia. 229 

as in the Convolvulacem, and not expanding, or rising 
above ground during vegetation. 

5. C. extensum. R. 

Shrubby, climbing and twining to a great extent. 
Jjeaves opposite, oblong, smooth, entire. Spikes lateral, 
often compound, short-peduncled, ovate. Calyx infun- 
dibuliibrra, smooth ; divisions acute. Petals truncated. 

A most extensive, stout, woody, twining, and climb- 
ing plant, with smooth brown bark ; a native of the Ma- 
lay Islands. From Amboyna it has been introduced in- 
to the Botanic Garden at Calcutta, where it blossoms in 
January and February ; seed ripe in April. 

ieaves opposite, short-petioled, oblong, entire, firm and 
polished, about six inches long, and about three broad. 
Spikes lateral, and axillary ; the first from the former 
years branches, below the leaves, short-peduncled, often 
compound much shorter than the leaves, ovate, and 
closely covered with diverging, small, pale greenish 
white flowers, becoming reddish by age. Bractes most 
minute, one-flowered. Calyx funnel-shaped ; border of 
four, triangular, recurved, acute, divisions. Petals four, 
not half the length of the divisions of the calyx, ovate- 
truncate, but as the edges become revolute, they then 
appear acute. Filaments eight, inserted into the mouth 
of the calyx, and longer than the divisions of its border. 
Anthers roundish, orange-coloured. Germ inferior, li- 
near-oblong, one-celled, containing two, three, or four 
seeds attached to the top of the cell. Style so long as 
to elevate the stigma even with the anthers. Seed al- 
ways single, and with Gaertner, I consider the exterior 
integument thereof all there is for a seed vessel, which is 
of a lanceolate shape, with four grooves on the four sides, 
and the four angles extended into four, large, scariose, 
semilunar wings. Inner integument more spongy and 
entering into the four angular grooves formed by the fold- 



230 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. CombretuiTi. 

ings of the lobes. Perisperm none. Embryo inverse. 
Cotyledons two, oval, three-nerved, emarginate, plaited 
into each other. Plumula minute. Radicle clavate, 
superior, pointing directly to the convoluted cord, which 
attaches the inner integument to the outer, under the 
style. 

6. C. cJwiensis. R. 

Subarboreous, scandent. Ltaves opposite, and tern, 
oblong, smooth. Spikes axillary, shorter than the leaves. 
Tube of the calyx clavate, mouth shut with hairs. 

A very large, spreading, ramous, scandent plant, in the 
Botanic Garden at Calcutta ; originally from China. 

Flowering time in Bengal the beginning of the cold 
season. 

Trunk scarcely any, but numerous branches, spreading 
in every direction and climbing when supported, to the 
extent of some fathoms. 5ar A: dark brown ; and pretty 
smooth. Leaves opposite, and tern, petioled, drooping, 
entire, oblong, polished on both sides ; about four inches 
long, and two broad. Spikes axillary, solitary, simple, 
erect, subcylindric, compact, scarcely half the length of 
the leaves, bearing sessile flowers on all sides, Bractes 
subulate, recurved. Calyx. Tube, clavate ; mouth shut 
with hairs ; border of four, acute segments. Petals obo- 
vate, acuminate, twice longer than the segments of the 
calyx. Stamens eight, a little longer than the petals. 
Germ sessile. Style nearly equalling the filaments. 
Seed with four large wings. 

This is evidently different from C. secundum and de- 
candrum but to distinguish it from laxum, requires that 
attention be paid to the three-fold leaves ; the form and 
length of the spikes, the size of the petals, and the length 
of the filaments. Vide Jacquin. Stirp. Amer. p. 103. 4-5. 



Combretiim. octandria monogynia. 231 

7. C. macrophyllum. R. 

Scandent, smooth. Leaves opposite, ovate. Racemes 
axillary, subcylindric, dense and crowded. Calyx infun- 
dibuliform. Segments acuminate. Petals oval. 

A very extensive, powerful rambler, a native of Chit- 
tagong, where it blossoms in December. It is readily 
distinguished by the flowers being pedicelled, and while 
in the bud acutely conical, also within is a hairy rim 
round its mouth, below the eight stamina. The larger 
leaves are about a foot long, and from six to eight inches 
broad. 

8. C. squamosum. R. 

Scandent, all the tender parts covered with minute 
scales. Leaves opposite short-petioled, oblong, entire, 
acute. Panicles terminal, and axillary. Petals lanceo- 
lar. 

A native of the Malay Archipelago. 

9. C. laxum. Willd. 2. 319. 

Scandent. Leaves oval. Racemes lengthened, thin of 
flowers and w^ithout bractes. Calyx woolly within. 

Teling. Bandikota. 

A native of the Northern Circars, but I doubt whether 
it be the same as the American species with the same 
specific name. 

10. C. pilosum. R. 

Scandent. Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate. Pani- 
cles uncommonly dense and hairy. Flowers hairy, decan- 
drous. Petals lanceolar. 

Beng. ioom-ugux. 

A native of the Silhet district, and like the other Indian 
species, an extensive, very permanent, large scandent 
species with the more slender branches twining. Bark 
of the ligneous parts pretty smooth, dark brown ; that of 



232 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Combrefum, 

the younger shoots clothed with much ferruginous, soft 
pubescense. 

Leaves opposite, subsessile, broad ovate-lanceolate, 
entire, nearly smooth, as scarcely any thing more than the 
nerve and veins on the underside are slightly pubescent ; 
six or eight inches long, and from one to three broad. Flo- 
ral leaves small, broader in proportion, more pointed, and 
somewhat coloured. Panicles terminal or short, with op- 
posite, diverging, hairy branchlets, very large, crowded 
with opposite, brachiate, compound racemes, and those 
again crowded w ith opposite flowers, bractes, and small 
floral leaves ; every part densely clothed with much fer- 
ruginous hair. Flowers tawny, with ferruginous hairs, 
short-pedicelled. Bractes linear-lanceolar, opposite, 
one-flowered. Calyx superior, campanulate, five-tooth- 
ed, both sides hairy. Petals five, lanceolar, much longer 
than the segments of the calyx, outside clothed with 
appressed fulvous hairs. Filaments ten, much longer 
than the corol, five inserted immediately under the 
petals, and five deep in the tube of the calyx. Germ 
five-angled, hairy, one-celled, containing two ovula, 
attached to the top of the cell. .S^i//e length of the sta- 
mina. Stigma simple. Seed five-winged, villous. Integu- 
ments two. The exterior is the soft, villous winged tunic ; 
the inner a thin dark brown membrane, adhering to the 
cotyledons. Perisperm none. Embryo inverse. Cotyle- 
dons angularly-convolute. Radicle superior. 

11. C. decandrum. Willd. 2. 319. Corom. pi. 1. N. 59. 

Shrubby, climbing. Leaves opposite, oblong, smooth, 
floral leaves coloured, and villous. Spikes terminal, and 
axillary ; flowers decandrous. Capsules five-winged. 

Teling. Arikota. 

It is a large, climbing shrub, a native of forests and 
mountains, &c. Flowers during the cold season. 

Stem woody, climbing. Leaves opposite, reflected. 



Grislea. octandria monogynia. 233 

short- petioled, oblong, acute, waved, smooth, about six 
inches long, and three broad. F/oraHeaves small, colour- 
ed, downy. Spikes numerous, terminal and axillary. 
Bractes opposite, lanceolate, one-flowered. Calyx cam- 
panulate, live-toothed. Corol live-petalled. Stamens ten. 
Seed five-winged. 

12. C. purpureum. Willd. 2. 319. Vahl Stjmb. 3. 51. 

Scandent. Leaves opposite, broad-lanceolate, glossy, 
underneath purple. Spikes panicled, terminal, flowers 
decandrous, 

Cristaria coccinea. Sonnerat. it. 2. 247. 1. 140. 

A native of the Mauritius, Irom thence introduced into 
the Botanic garden at Calcutta. 



GRISLEA. Schreb.gen. n. 642. 

Calyx from four to six- toothed. Corol from four to six- 
petalled, inserted into the fissures of the calyx. Fila- 
ments long, ascending. Capsule superior, two-celled. 
Seeds numerous. 

G. tomentosa. Willd. 2. 321. Corom.pl. 1. N. 31. 

Shrubby. Leaves opposite, stem-clasping. Racemes 
axillary. Petals minute ; stamina eleven, or twelve. 

Ly thrum /rwcficosMHi, sp.pl. 641. 

Dhawry. Asiat. Res. 4l. p. 42. 

Sans. Agnijwala, and Dhatree. 

Teling. Seringir, 

Beng. Dhau-phool. 

A very beautiful, flowering shrub, or small tree, a na- 
tive of the hills and vallies through the northern Circars, 
&c. &c. It flowers during the cold, and the beginning of 
the hot season, and the seed ripens in the rains. 

Stem and principal branches erect, smaller ascending. 
Bark rust-coloured ; twigs drooping. Leaves opposite, 

D d 



234 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. RoxburgMa. 

in a position between decussate and bifarious,stem-cIasp- 
ing, lanceolate, with cordate base, acute, above smooth, 
whitish underneath. Racemes axillary and below the 
leaves, over the leafless branchlets, often compound, 
short, bearino from five to fifteen flowers. Flowers pret- 
ty large, red, in a great measure permanent. Calyx 
red, twelve-toothed, the alternate ones very small, per- 
manent, as is also the colour. Petals six, small, linear, 
lanceolate. Filaments twice the length of the calyx, al- 
ternately a little shorter, ascending, inserted into the 
calyx near its base, and projecting along its under side. 
Germ superior, two-celled. Style shorter than the sta- 
mens. Stigma bifid. Capsule two-celled, two-valved, 
covered with the coloured permanent calyx. Seeds most 
numerous. Receptacles reniform, large. 

Note. The bright red, permanent calyx, which retains 
its colour till the seeds are ripe, gives to this shrub a ve- 
ry gaudy appearance. 



ROXBURGHIA. Banks. 

Calyx four-leaved. Corol four-petalled, their lower 
half carinated on the inside. Anthers sessile in the 
grooves formed by the carinas of the petals. Germ su- 
perior, one-celled, many-seeded ; attachment inferior. 
Capsule superior, one-celled, two-valved. Seeds several, 
each sitting on a spongy receptacle. 

R. gloriosoides. Willd. 2. 321. R. Corom.pl 1. N. 32. 

Teling. Kanipoo-iiga.. 

XJbium Polypoides. Rumph. Amb. 5. p. 364. 1. 129. 

Compare with Stemona tuberosa. Lourier. Cochin Ch. 
p, 490. 

This elegant plant is a native of moist vallies up a- 
mongst the Circar mountains. Flowering time the cold 
season. 



Roxhurghia. octandria monogynia. 235 

J?oof perennial, compounded of many, smooth, cylindric, 
fleshy tubers, of from six to twelve inches lon^, and from 
three to five in circumference about the middle; they 
taper equally towards each end. Stems perennial, or 
more, twining, smooth, running over trees, &c. Branches 
like the stem, round, smooth, and slender. Leaves some- 
times alternate, sometimes opposite, petioled, nearly de- 
pending, cordate, fine-pointed, entire, smooth, shining, in 
substance soft and delicate, generally eleven-nerved, 
with beautiful very fine, transverse, veins running be- 
tween the nerves ; from four to six inches long, and from 
three to four broad. Petioles slightly channelled, 
smooth ; one and a half and two inches long. Peduncles 
axillary, single, erect, the length of the petioles, general- 
ly two-flowered. Pedicels clubbed, short. Bractes one, 
lanceolate, at the base of the pedicells. F/ott;ers large, and 
beautiful, but foetid. Calyx four-leaved ; leaflets lanceo- 
late, membranaceous, striated, coloured, revolute, placed 
immediately below the petals. Corol ; petals four, near- 
ly erect, lanceolate, the lower half is rather broader than 
the upper, and along its inside runs a deep, sharp, 
slightly waved keel, which forms on each side of it, a 
deep groove, or hollow; these four keels converge, and in 
some measure adhere together, which brings the side of 
the petals close so as to resemble a tube ; the upper part 
of the petals is narrow, first bending out a little, then 
converging at their points. Nectary com])osed of four, lan- 
ceolate, yellow bodies, each sitting sessile on the apex 
of the keel of the petals, converging into one conical 
dome. Filaments none. Anthers eight, linear, lodged 
in the grooves formed by the keel of the petals, adhering 
their whole length, but their chief insertion is near the 
base. Germ superior, cordate, compressed, one-celled ; 
ovula many, attached to the bottom of the cell, cordate. 
Style none. Stigma ]^o'mted. Capsule ovAte, compress- 
ed, one-celled, two-valved, opening from the apex ; it is 

D d 2 



236 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. MimUSOpS, 

about an inch and a half long, and one broad. Seeds 
from five to eight, inserted by pedicels into the bottom 
of the capsule, cylindric, striated ; the pedicels are sur- 
rounded with numerous, small, pellucid vesicles. 

Note. This was one of the last plants Dr. Konig saw. 
It was brought in when he was on his death bed ; he did 
attempt to examine it, but was unable, the cold hand of 
death hung over him ; he desired 1 would describe it par- 
ticularly, for he thought it was uncommonly curious, 
new, and beautiful. This observation, from a worthy 
friend, a preceptor, and predecessor, has made me more 
than usually minute in describing and drawing it. 



MIMUSOPS. Schreh. gen. n. 644. 

Calyx from six to eight-leaved, alternately smaller. 
Corol one-petalled, segments many in a double series, 
with alternate scales on the inside. Germ superior, from 
six to eight-celled, cells one-seeded ; attachment interior. 
Berry one or more seeded. Embryo erect, and furnish- 
ed with a peri sperm. 

1. M. elengi. Willd. 2. 325. R. Corom. pi. 1. N. 14. 

Leaves alternate, short-petioled, oblong, pointed, wav- 
ed, smooth. 

Bacula. Asiat. Res. 4. p. 273. 

Elengi. Rheed. Mai. 1. t. 20. 

Beng. Bokul. 

Hi?id. Mulsari. 

Teling. Pagadoo. 

Tarn. Magadoo. 

The Kunki of the native Portuguese. 

I have only once found this tree in its wild state. It was 
on the mountains in Rajamundree Circar, where it grows 
to be a middle-sized tree. On account of its fragrant 
flowers, it is very generally reared in the gardens of the 



Minmsops. octandria monogynia. 237 

natives, as well as in those of the Europeans in India. 
It flowers chiefly during the hot season. 

Trunk erect, generally from eight to twelve feet to the 
Idwest branches. BarA; pretty smooth. Branches es.ceed- 
ingly numerous, spreading, with the extremities ascend- 
ing so as to form a most elegant, globular thick head. 
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, approximated, declined 
or depending, waved, very firm, both sides of a deep shin- 
ing green ; from three to four inches long and one or one 
and a half broad. Stipules small, lanceolate, concave, rus- 
ty, caducous. Peduncles axillary, from one to eight, short, 
clubbed, bowing, undivided, one-flowered. Flowers mid- 
dle-sized, drooping, white and fragrant. Calyx inferior, 
eight-leaved, in a double series ; leaflets lanceolate, the 
four exterior ones leathery, larger, and permanent. Corol 
one-petalled. Tube very short, fleshy. Border ; it may be 
divided into a double series of segments, and a single nec- 
tary, or a single series of segments, and a double nectary; 
the first method I shall follow. I therefore consider the 
border to be composed of a double series of segments ; 
the exterior om consists of sixteen, spreading ; the interior 
one of eight, generally contorted, and converging, all are 
lanceolate, a little torn at their extremities. Nectary eight- 
leaved, conical, ragged, hairy near the base, inserted al- 
ternately with the filaments, into the mouth of the tube, 
converging. F?7amewfs eight, short, hairy. ^w^Aers linear, 
sharp pointed, below two-parted, converging. Ggrwi eight- 
celled, with one ovula in each attached from their middle 
to the lower end of the conic axis. The germ of Achras 
Sapota is exactly the same, only from eight to ten-celled. 
Berry oval, smooth, when ripe yellow, and edible, one or 
more celled, according to the number of seeds that ripen, 
which is generally one. Seed solitary, oblong, compress- 
ed ; attached to the bottom of the cell ; covered with a 
smooth, hard, thick integument, lined with a veined 
membrane. Perisperm conform to the seed, two-lobed, 



238 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. MimUSOpS. 

pointed at the base, the lobes uniting round the radicle; 
above the radicle they are often entirely divided by the 
large cotyledons, which extend to, or rather through its 
margins. Embryo erect. Cotyledons large, oval. PlU' 
mula minute. Radicle inferior, linear-oblong. 

2. M. Kanki. Willd. 2. 326. 

Leaves scattered, petioled, about the ends of the 
branchlets, obovate-oblong, obtuse, hoary underneath. 
Fruit oval, drooping. 

Flowers hexandrous. 

Metrosideros macassarensis. Rumph. Amb. 3. t. 8. 

Manil-kara. Rlieed. Mai. 4. t. 25. 

Malay. JJooa-sow. 

Achras dissecta. Linn. Siipp- 210. Forsf. pi. escul. N. 
13. 

A native of the Malay Islands, Malabar, &c. It flowers 
during the hot season ; the fruit is edible, and large. 

3. M. hexandra. W'illd. 2. 326. R. Corom.pl. I. N. 15. 

Leaves alternate, long-petioled, obovate, emarginate, 
smooth. Flowers hexandrous. 

Tam.ul. Pallas. 

Teling. Palla. 

This tree is a native of the mountainous parts of the Cir- 
cars ; it is never cultivated, nor have I seen it near culti- 
vated places. It flowers during the hot, and beginning of 
the wet season. 

Trunk erect, frequently when old it has large rotten 
excavations. Bark ash-coloured. Branches numerous, 
rigid, spreading, extremities nearly erect, forming a large 
shady head. Leaves alternate, petioled, broad, wedge- 
formed, or obcordate, deeply emarginate, very hard, both 
sides of a deep shining green; from three to five inches 
long, and one and a half, or two broad. Petioles round, 
one, or one and a half inch long. Peduncles axillary, 



Cyminosma. octandria monogynia. 239 

from one to six, erect or spreading, nearly as long as the 
petioles, clubbed, undivided, one-flowered. Flowers con- 
siderably smaller than the former. Calyx inferior, six- 
leaved, three interior and three exterior ; these last men- 
tioned three are leathery. CoroZ one-petalled. Tube very 
short. Border hke Elengi, consisting of two rows of seg- 
ments, the exterior twelve, the interior six, all spreading. 
Nectary situated between the filaments, as in the former, 
but spreading, shorter and more deeply indented. Fila- 
ment six, spreading. Anthers oval. Pistillum as in Elengi, 
but six-celled. Berry the size and shape of an olive, 
yellow, rarely more than one-seeded. Perisperm, embryo, 
&c. as in Elengi. 



CYMINOSMA. Gcert. 
Ca/i/a; four-leaved. CoroZ four-petalled. jBerry supe- 
rior, four-celled. Seed solitary. Embryo inverse, and fur- 
nished with a perisperm. 

C. pedunculafa. R. 

Jambolifera pedunculata. Willd. 2. 326. VaJil. Symb. 
3. 52. ^ 61. good. 

Cyminosma, baccas ovato acumiuatae. Gcert. sem. 1. p. 
281. t. 58./. 1. 

Perin-panel. Rheed. Mai. 5. t. 1.5. 

Dr. Konig's description of this plant as given by Dr. 
Dryander, in the 2nd. vol. of the Transactions of the Lin- 
naean Society ; page 233 is very correct. 

A native of Ceylon, Chittagong, &c. 

XYLOCARPUS. Schreb. gen. n. 646. 
Calyx four-toothed. Corol four-petalled. Nectary 
eight-cleft, staminilerous. Capsule four-valved, cells 
uncertain, replete with from six to twelve, angular, vari 
ously shaped seeds. Embryo centrifugal. 



240 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Guavea. 

X. granatum. Willd. 2. 328. 

Leaflets opposite, from two to three pair, oblong, 
smooth. 

Granatum litoreum. RunipJi. Amb. vol. 3. t. 61. 

Tarn. Kandaianga. 

Cing. Kadul-gaha. 

Beng. Pwssoor. 

This tree is a native of the Soonderbuns, (the lower 
Delta of the Ganges.) Fruit ripens in June and July. 

Leaves alternate about the extremities of the branch- 
lets, pinnate ; from six to twelve inches long. Leaflets 
two pair, opposite, sessile, oblong, entire, obtuse, smoath, 
deep on both sides ; about four inches long. Petioles round, 
smooth, dark brown. Stipules none. 



GUAREA. Schrcb. gen. n. 649. 
Calyx four- toothed. Petals four. Nectary cylindric, 
bearing the anthers in its mouth- Germ superior, four- 
celled, cells two-seeded ; attachment superior. Capsule 
four-celled, four-valved. Seed solitary. Embryo inverse ; 
no perisperm. 

1. G. binertarifera. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves pinnate; leaflets (torn four to six. 
pair, alternate. Panicles rigid, axillary, composed of 
dichotomous ramifications. Nectary double. 

A native of the eastern parts ol Bengal, where it grows 
to be a tree of considerable size. Flowering time the be- 
ginning of the rains, in June. Seed ripens in February. 

Trunk straight. Bark smooth, between ash colour, 
and olive. Branches patent ; young shoots round, and 
pretty smooth. Leaves alternate, pinnate, from one to se- 
ven on each side, drooping, ovate-oblong, petioied, from 
one to two feet long ; leaflets alternate, petioletted, taper- 
pointed, entire, smooth on both sides, about six inches 



Guarea. octandria monogynia. 241 

long, and two or three broad. Petioles common, flat on 
the upper side below the leaflets, where they are inserted, 
flexuose, and nearly round. Peho^e^s short, and round. Sti- 
pules none. Panicles axillary, or rather above the axils, 
rigid, not half the length of the leaves, composed of short, 
alternate, rigid, expanding ramifications. In old stunt- 
ed trees, the panicle has dwindled into a small, rigid, 
simple raceme. Bractes minute, caducous at a very early 
period. Flowers xnihex small, of a pale yellow colour, in- 
dorous. Calyx one-leaved, small, campanulate ; mouth 
four-toothed. Petals four, linear, recurvate, many times 
larger than the calyx, and rather longer than the exterior 
nectary. Nectary double ; exterior subcylindric, and of a 
deeper yellow colour than the petals ; mouth a little con- 
tracted, and obscurely eight-toothed, the inner one some- 
what gibbous, about one-third of the length of the exte- 
rior one, fleshy, orange-coloured ; mouth funnel-shaped, 
eight-toothed; teeth alternately smaller, and many of them 
dentate. Filament none. Anthers eight, inserted on the 
inside of the exterior nectary, a little within its mouth, 
and immediately under the eight fissures. Germ supe- 
rior, ovate, four-celled, with two horizontally placed ovu- 
la in each, attached to the top of the axis. Style cylin- 
dric as long as the exterior nectary. Stigma enlarged ; a- 
pex obscurely four-lobed, its base surrounded with a belt. 
Capsule globose, the size of an apple, of a hard fleshy tex- 
ture, smooth ; w hen ripe, of a deep yellow throughout, four- 
celled, four-valved, opening from the apex. Seed solita- 
ry, obovate, oblong, the size and appearance of a chesnut ; 
no ainl. Integument single, spongy ; the outside polished, 
of a dark purple colour ; inwardly yellow. Perisperm none. 
Embryo inverse. Cotyledons conform to the seed, firm, 
of a deep green round the edges, paler within. Plumula 
conic, two-lobed. Radicle ovate, superior, its apex consi- 
derably within the vertex of the cotyledons. 

Of all I have yet examined, this tree comes nearest 

Be 



242 ocTANDRiA iVfONOGYMA. Guarea. 

to Sandoricum Indiciim. I have not observed that any part 
of it possesses any peculiar odour, which, with the double 
nectary is a sufficient reason to induce me to think it is 
not the American species, Guarea trichilioides. 

2. G. paniculata. R. 

Leaves alternate, abruptly pinnate ; leaflets from six to 
twelve pair, alternate and opposite, ovate-lanceolate. 
Panicles axillary. 

KiAhkoura is the vernacular name in Silhet, where it 
growls to be a pretty large tree- Flowering time May and 
June ; the seed ripens the following April. 

Young shoots slightly villous. Leaves alternate, abrupt- 
ly pinnate, from eighteen to thirty inches long. Leaflets 
from six to fourteen pair, short-petiolate, the inferior pairs 
often alternate, those above opposite, somewhat une- 
qually ovate, lanceolate, entire, taper-pointed, nearly 
smooth ; from five to ten inches long, and two or four 
broad. Common petioles round and villous. Stipules none. 
Panicles axillary, solitary, nearly as long as the leaves, 
spreading. Ramifications villous. Flowers very numerous, 
pedicelled, pretty large, of a pale yellow, expanding in the 
evening, and dropping the next morning. Bractes fili- 
form, villous. Calyx cup-shaped, obscurely four-toothed, 
a little villous. Petals four, spatulate, obtuse, recurved. 
Nectary cylindric, the length of the corol,and hairy on both 
sides ; the mouth eight-toothed ; segmefitshidentsitc. Fila- 
ments scarcely any. Anthers oblong, attached round the 
inside of the mouth of the nectary. Germ superior, ovate 
four-celled, with one, rarely two ovula in each, attached 
to the top of the axis. Style the length of the nectary, 
hairy. Stigma globular. Capsule globular, the size of a 
crab apple, three or four-lobcd, with a furrow between, 
smooth, of a dark orange colour, from three to four-celled, 
from three to four-vah ed ; valves thick, and spongy, with 
the partitions rising down the middle. Seed solitary. 



Molincea. octandria monogynia. 243 

round or oval, considerably flattened ; interior half 
yellow, in the middle of \\ hich is a large whitish, flat 
umbilicus ; exterior half of a smooth, shining-, chesnut 
colour, across which is a trifling groove, marking the se- 
paration of the transverse cotyledons. Perisperm none. 
Embryo transverse. Cotyledons conform to the seed. The 
Plumula and Radicle together form a minute, round spot 
in the centre of the cotyledons, the former pointing to the 
umbilicus, and the latter to the circumference, (centrifu- 
gal.) 



MOLINjEA. Juss. 

Calyx five-parted. Corol tive-petalled, unequal. Fila- 
ments woolly, ascending over the small petal. Capsule 
three-celled, three-valved. Seed solitary. 

1. M. canescens. Willd. 2. 329. Corom. pi. I. N. 60. 

Leaves abruptly- pinnate ; leaflets two pair, obtuse. 
Racemes on the leafless branchlets. Style single ; stigma 
three-toothed, 

Teling. Korivee. 

Sapindus tetraphyllus. Vahl. Symb. 3. 54. 

A native of the Circar mountains, and flowers about 
the time the Sapindus does. 

Trunk not straight, but thick. Bark ash-coloured, a 
little scabrous. Branches numerous, spreading in every 
direction. Leaves alternate, abruptly-pinnate, sometimes 
ternate, about six or eight inches long. Leaflets opposite, 
generally two-pair, oblong, entire, smooth, shining, firm, 
five or six inches long, and two or three broad. Petioles 
round, four or five inches long. Racemes many, simple, or 
compound, from the extremities of the last, or two last 
years' leafless branchlets round the base of the present 
year's shoots. Flowers small, white, fascicled. Calyx in- 
ferior, five-parted. Petals five, four large, and standing on 

E e2 



244 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. AmyVlS. 

the upper side, the fifth small, standing singly on the 
under side. Nectary the leaflets torn, and Avoolly. StyU 
single. Stigma three-toothed. Capsule single, three-sided, 
three-celled, three-valved. Seeds one in each cell. 

The wood of this tree is white and not so serviceable 
as that of Sapindus rubiginosiis. 

2. M. lavis. Willd. 2. 329. 

Leaves abruptly-pinnate ; leaflets one or two pairs, cu- 
neate-obovate, obtuse, entire, smooth. Panicles axillary. 
Petals round, with a woolly scale in each side near the 
base. 

A handsome slender tree, a native of the Mauritius, 
where it blossoms in June and July, and the seeds ripen 
in October. 



AMYRIS. Schreb. gen. n. 650. 
Calyx four-toothed. Corol of four expanding jyetals. 
Germ superior, four-celled; ceZZs from two to three-seeded ; 
attachment interior. Berry one-seeded. Embryo inverse, 
without perisperm. 

1. A. simplicifolia. R. 

Leaves simple, oblong, and broad lanceolate. Racemes 
axillary, short, few-flowered. Germ two-celled. 

A small tree, a native of Pulo Pinang. In this spe- 
cies, the leaf is joined to the apex of the petiole by an 
articulation, and there the leaf falls off, leaving the petiole, 
which is much more permanent. 

The racemes are about twice the length of the petioles ; 
the flower small and white. The ripe fruit has not been 
found. 

2. A. commiphora. R. 

Arboreous, branchlets often ending in spines. Leaves 



Amyris. octandria monogynia. 245 

petioled, simple, elliptic, serrate, acute, with a pair of mi- 
nute leaflets, or ears at the base. Flowers axillary. 

Commiphora Madagas'carensis. Jacq. Schoenhr. 2. ji. QG. 
t. 249. 

Sans, and Beng. Googgula. 

The tree is a native of Silhet, Assam, &c. E. and N. E. 
from Bengal, in the Botanic garden at Calcutta it blos- 
soms about the beginning of the hot season, in Februa- 
ry and March, but seldom ripens its seed. 

Trunk of our small trees crooked, and clothed with 
many spreading and drooping, crooked branches down 
to the ground. The short lateral branclilets often end 
in thorny points. Bark of the young shoots green and 
smooth, that of the larger branches, and trunk covered 
with a light coloured pellicle as in the common birch, 
which peels off from time to time, exposing to view 
a smooth green coat, which in succession supplies other 
similar exfoliations. Leaves alternate, petioled, oval, or 
elliptic, serrulate, smooth on both sides, at the base or 
apex of the petiole on each side, is generally found a 
small leaflet tending to give the whole the appearance of 
a ternate leaf. Flowers short-pedicelled, small, red, 
collected in little bundles on the small protuberant gems 
left by the former years' leaves, over the now leafless 
slender twigs. Calyx, corol, and stamina as in the ge- 
nus. Nectary, eight glands alternate with the insertion 
of the filaments. Berry drupaceous, the size of a black 
currant, red, smooth. Nut two-celled, with a single seed 
in each. 

The whole plart, while growing is considerably odori- 
ferous, particularly when any part is broken or bruised, 
and diffuses a grateful fragrance, like that of the finest 
myrrh, to a considerable distance round, which for some 
time induced me to think it might be the plant from 
which that drug was procured, particularly as I observ- 
ed on being wounded, there exuded much pale colour- 



246 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Amyris, 

ed juice, but unfortunately for my conjecture, it is soon 
carried off by evaporation, leaving little or nothing be- 
hind. I have at various times of the year wounded the 
plant in different places, and placed various contrivances 
to collect the juice, but all 1 could ever procure, was a 
very minute portion of a gummy matter, which certain- 
ly resembled myrrh, both in smell and appearance, but 
had no tendency to be tenacious, or elastic, hence I con- 
clude there must be a mistake in its being the elastic gum 
tree of Madagascar, as mentioned by Jacquin. 

3. A. gileadensis. Willd. 2. 334. 

Shrubby, the branches and branchlets spinous. Leaves 
short-petioled, ternate ; leaflets from oval to elliptic, ser- 
rulate, smooth, 

A native of Arabia. It has not yet blossomed in the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta, though a pretty large plant 
has been there five years. 

4. A. acuminata. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves ternate, and quinate, rarely of se- 
ven leaflets, pinnate ; leaflets Y)etio\e6, from ovate to oval, 
entire, acuminate, smooth. Peduncles diverging, three- 
flowered, or trichotonious, and many-flowered. Stamens 
shorter than the pistillum. 

Introduced into the Botanic garden at Calcutta from 
the Moluccas, in 1798. In 1808 the young trees had ac- 
quired a short trunk, of eighteen inches in circumference, 
and not very straight, covered with very smooth greenish 
ash-coloured, fleshy bark. 

Branches stiff but brittle and spreading in every direc- 
tions ; bark thereof like that of the trunk. In Bengal they 
blossom in May, but have not yet produced ripe fruit. 
Leaves alternate, ternate, and quinate-pinnate, rarely 
seven, and nine still more so; in Bengal deciduous in 
November and December, and appearing with the flow- 



Amyris. octanuria monogynia. 247 

ers in May. Leaflets petioled, oval, or ovate, taper-point- 
ed, entire, polished ; about three inches long and about 
two broad. Petioles nearly as long as the leaflets, round, 
polished, and coloured. Stipules none. Peduncles axilla- 
ry and Irom the base of the tender shoots below the young 
leaves, as well as from the apices of small lateral, 
leaflets scions; often as long as the petioles, diverging, 
three-flowered, or once, or twice dichotomous, and ma- 
ny-flowered. Flowers small, yellow. In Bengal they 
have hitherto proved abortive. Bractes in opposite pairs, 
at the divisions of the peduncles, lanceolate, smooth and 
fleshy. Calyx four-toothed, half the length of the petals. 
Petals four, linear-oblong, their lower two-thirds forming 
a tube, the upper third expanding, and acute. Filaments 
eight, shorter than the germ, alternately longer, inserted 
on a fleshy ring round the base of the germ. Anthers 
ovate-sagittate, apparently destitute of pollen. Germ 
ovate-oblong, clammy, two-celled, with two ovula in 
each, attached to the partition below the middle. Style 
scarcely any. Stigma large two-lobed, and these again 
somewhat two-lobed. Fruit not seen. 

The Bark and all the tender parts of the plants, on be- 
ing bruised or wounded, discharges a small quantity of a 
pale whey-coloured liquid, which possesses a fragrance 
something like that of the orange leaf. 

In Bengal the flowers constantly prove abortive. I 
therefore conclude the tree to be polygamous, and that 
ours are all female-hermaphrodites-, with imperfect sta- 
mina. 

When the trees were younger, the leaflets were more 
numerous, often five and sometimes seven; I then thought 
it might be Amyris Protium, but have now reason to 
think it a new species. 

5. A. pentaphylla. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves pinnate-quinate ; leaflets broad-Ian- 



248 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Annyris. 

ceolar, entire. Panicle terminal. Berry ovate, verru- 
cose. 

Plants of this species were presented to the garden 
at Calcutta, by Colonel Hardwicke, who found them in- 
digenous in the vicinity of Ca\\npore. In this garden 
they blossomed in March, when about four years old, and 
not more than three feet high, with a simple slender stem, 
covered with smooth, ash-coloured bark. 

Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, from six to twelve 
inches long. Leaflets generally live, often subalternate, 
short-petiolleted, entire, broad-lanceolar ; from two to 
six inches long, AYhen bruised between the fingers, very 
fragrant. Stipules none. Panicles terminal, erect, com- 
posed of short, expanding, two or three times dichotom- 
ous branches, with always a single short-pedicelled flow- 
er in the fork, which makes them appear trichotomous. 
Bractes minute. Calyx small, four-toothed. Petals oblong, 
concave, dotted with glands on the outside, much larger 
than the calyx. Filaments broad. Anthers ovate. Germ 
ovate, hairy, four-celled, with many ovula in each, elevat- 
ed on a short receptacle, into the under part of which 
the filaments are inserted. Style very short. Stigma four- 
toothed. Berry ovate, pulpy, of a pale orange colour, ver- 
lucose ; the size of a small cherry, lengthened to an ob- 
tuse point. Seed single, oval, smooth. 

6. A. heptaphjlla. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves alternate, pinnate ; leaflets alternate, 
from three to four pair, entire. Panicles terminal. Ber- 
ries sub-cylindric. 

Karunphwl is the name it is known by about Calcutta, 
which is the only place in which 1 have yet found it. 

Trunk, in all the plants I have seen, there is scarcely 
any, but many, suberect branches, covered with dark 
coloured, smooth bark ; general height from five to six 
feet. .Leaves alternate, pinnate ; from six to twelve 



Amyris. octandria monogynia. 249 

inches long. Leaflets alternate ; short-petiolleted ; from 
three to four pair, obliquely oblong-lanceolate, entire, 
marked through and through with transparent dots, 
those towards the base of the common petiole smallest. 
Panicles terminal, composed of diverging, trichotomous 
ramifications. Flowers numerous, small, whitish yellow. 
Calyx, corol, receptacles, stamens and pistil as in the fa- 
mily. Berry oblong, covered with glandular dots ; when 
ripe pale yellow. Seed solitary. 

The leaves, when bruised, give out in a very strong de- 
gree the fra^france of the finest and freshest anise. 

7. A. nana. R. 

Shrubby. Leaflets from five to eleven, opposite, and al- 
ternate, ovate, crenulate, smooth. Panicles axillary. 
Berries round. 

Introduced from the Moluccas, into the Botanic garden 
at Calcutta, where it blossoms in April and May. Seed 
ripe in June and July. 

Trunk erect, in our young plants, simple. Bark smooth, 
dark brown, whole height of four years' old plants from 
two to five feet. Leaves alternate, pinnate, with an odd 
one. Leaflets from five to eleven, subopposite, or alter- 
nate, short-petioled, obliquely ovate, more or less crenu- 
late, emarginate, smooth on both sides ; general length 
from one to two inches. Petioles, and peiiolets round, 
and somewhat glandular. Racemes simple, and com- 
pound, axillary, solitary ; the simple shorter than the 
leaves, the compound, or panicles, they may be called, 
about as long as the leaves. Flowers minute, whit- 
ish, alternate, rather remote. Calyx four-toothed, glan- 
dular. Petals oblong, concave, marked with green 
glands on the back. Filaments short, wiih a broad con- 
cave base, converging over the germ. Anthers erect, 
oblong. Germ elevated on a short receptacle, four-lob- 
ed, glandular. Style short. Stigma four-lobed. Berry 

F f 



250 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Amyris. 

nearly round, size of a large pea, pale greenish somewhat 
pellucid white. 

Note. This description is taken from a small plant of 
two years' growth when it first blossomed, but I find they 
grow to be large, elegant, very fragrant shrubs. 

8. A. suffruticosa. R. 

SufFruticose ; leaflets about eleven or thirteen, opposite, 
or alternate, short-petioled, ovate. Panicles axillary. 
Berry linear, oblong. 

A native of Chittagong, and from thence sent by Dr. 
Buchanan to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where it 
blossoms in the months of February and March. Seed 
ripe in April and May. 

•Sfem simple, about two feet high. Bark of the lower 
woody part ash-coloured, of the young shoots green 
and villous. Leaves alternate, pinnate, expanding from 
six to sixteen inches in length. Leaflets generally from 
eleven to fifteen, opposite, and alternate, short-petioUeted, 
the lower pairs small, cordate-ovate, the superior oblong; 
all are entire, and downy on both sides. Petioles, and 
petiolets round and downy. Pawic/es.axillary, diverging, 
scarcely half the length of the leaves, villous. Flowers 
numerous, small, greenish white. 

Calyx small, with four acute divisions. Petals four, 
expanding, concave. Nectary a small fleshy ring round 
the base of the germ. Filaments alternately a little short- 
er, enlarged at the base. Anthers large, two-lobed. 
Germ globular. Style the length of the stamens. Stigma 
small, four-lobed. £erms lanceolate, drooping, orange- 
coloured, succulent, marked with numerous, large, pellu- 
cid glands, nearly an inch long, and about a quarter of an 
inch in diameter. Seed solitary, shaped like the berry, 
green. 

9. A. sumatrana. R. 

Arboreous, tender parts villous. Leaflets from eight to 



Amyris. octandria monogynia. 251 

twelve pairs, opposite or alternate, unequally ovate- 
lanceolate, entire. Panicles terminal. Berries oval. 

From Sumatra this tree has been introduced into the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta, where in live years the plants 
grew to the height of twenty feet, with a long, perfectly 
straight trank, covered with smooth brownish olive-co- 
loured back. The leaves when fresh and bruised emit a 
pleasant aromatic odour like that of the lemon leaf. The 
filaments spread out at the base, as in A. punctata ; the 
receptacle of the germ is also the same, but the style and 
stigma are here entire. Flowers and ripens its seed at 
various periods in Bengal. 

9. A. punctata. R. 

Arboreous ; leaflets from twelve to fifteen pair, ovate- 
lanceolate, crenalate, dotted. Panicles terminal. Germs 
elevated on a receptacle. Berries round, glandular. 

1 have only met with this tree in the Company's Bota- 
nic garden at Calcutta, to which it was brought from Chit- 
tagong some years ago. The Chinese g:ardeners say it 
grows in China also. The trees seem full grown, and are 
about twelve feet high, rather thin of branches, with the 
lower-most spreading near the surface of the earth. Bark 
smooth, dark rust-coloured. Leaves entirely deciduous 
during the cold season, they appear again with the flow- 
ers in March. 

Leaves alternate, pinnate, with an odd one, from twelve 
to eighteen inches long. Leaflets alternate, short-petiol- 
leted, from ten to twenty pairs, obliquely-oblong, the low- 
er half being lanceolate, and the upper falcate. Margins 
crenulate ; both sides of a dull green, and marked with 
glandular dots ; size various, those about the middle 
are the largest, being generally from three to four inch- 
es long and about one broad. Stipules none. Peti- 
oles and petiolets round, a little scabrous, and somewhat 
hairy. Panicles terminal, oval, erect ; the peduncles 

Ff2 



252 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Ximenia. 

and subdivisions a little hairy. Bracfes minute. Flow- 
ers numerous, small, white. Calyx small, four-toothed. 
Petals four, oval, spreading, concave, inserted by claws, 
nectary a large fleshy receptacle, contracted at the mid- 
dle, the lower swelling receiving the petals, and filaments, 
the upper supporting the germ. Filaments eight, below 
very much enlarged, with their insides concave to receive 
the corresponding convexity of the germ and nectary ; 
they are shorter than the corol. Anthers oval. Germ four- 
sided. iS/i/Ze thick, four-sided, straight, the length of the 
stamens. »S'<?g(w?atruncated,obsoIetely four-pointed. Ber- 
ry as in the genus. 
The leaves when bruised smell like sassafras. 



XIMENIA. 

Calyx four-toothed. Corol four-petalled, hairy on the 
inside, and revolute, forming a bell. Drupe superior ; one- 
seeded. 

1. X. americana, Willd. 2. 330. 

Shrubby, armed. Leaves alternate, oval, emarginate. 
Peduncles many-flowered. 

Teling. Oora-nechra. 

A large, ramous, thorny shrub, a native of forests, and 
mountains. It flowers about the beginning of the hot 
season. Trunk and branches irregularly disposed. Bark 
scabrous, inwardly red, and very astringent. Thorns 
axillary, or terminating the branchlets, single, large, 
bearing leaves, flowers, and sometimes smaller thorns, 
ieaves alternate, short-petioled, oval, emarginate, smooth, 
about two inches long, and one broad Racemes axillary, 
or from the extremities of small branchlets, one, two, or 
three together, small, erect, each bearing, generally, from 
four to six flowers. Peduncles and pedicels round, 
smooth. Bractes small, single. Flowers of a dull white. 



Ximenia, octandrca monogynia. 253 

small, many of them male. Calyx below, small, generally 
four-toothed, though sometimes five-toothed. Petals four 
or five, corresponding with the number of toothlets in the 
calyx, oblong, campanulate, with the upper half revolute, 
very hairy on the inside. Filaments from eight to ten, erect, 
short. Anthers linear, erect. Germ superior, conical. 
Style tapering, the length of the filaments. Stigma simple. 
Drupe OYdiXy size of a nutmeg, pulpy, red, smooth, one- 
celled. Nut solitary, of the same shape as the drupe, not 
very hard. The ripe fruits are eaten raw by the natives ; 
their taste is a compound of sour and bitter. The kernels 
are also eaten, and taste much like fresh filberts. The 
wood is yellow, like sandal, and its powder is often sub- 
stituted for that of sandal by the brahmuns on this part of 
the coast in their religious ceremonies. 



2. X. (egyptiaca. Jussieu. genera, p. 288. 

Thorny. Leaves binate. Flowers decandrous. Drupe to- 
rose. 

Hind, llingen. 

Teling. Garee. 

In the Memoirs sur L' Egypt, is a paper on this plant, 
by M. A. Dehile, where he says the fruit passes in Egypt 
for Chebnlic myrobalans. 

This seems to me a new genus rather than a species of 
Ximenia. It is an hostile-looking, small tree, or large 
shrub, grows on the most inhospitable, dry, barren, un- 
cultivated places in the Circars. Flowering in May. 

Trunk erect; bark ash-coloured, crooked. Branches 
few, erect, with extremities spreading, and often droop- 
ing. Thorns axillary, single, large, strong, very sharp, 
frequently leaf and flower-bearing. Leaves scattered, pe- 
tioled, binate. Leaflets short-petiolated, from oval to 
oblong, smooth, shining, when young downy ; about an 
inch and a half long, and three quarters broad. Peduncles 



254 ocTANDRJA MONOGYNIA. Pieravdia. 

axillary, short, downy, many flowered. Flowers small, 
greenish-white, pedicelled. Calyx inferior, five-leaved; 
leaflets oval, downy, spreading. Petals five, very like the 
calyx. Nectary a large, fleshy green, ten-notched, ten- 
grooved ring, surrounding the lower half of the germ. Fila- 
ments ten, rather shorter than the petals, inserted between 
the nectary and petals. Anthers cordate. Germ superior, 
woolly, five-grooved, five-celled, with one ovula in each, 
attached to the upper end of the axis. Style erect, short. 
Stigma slightly five-lobed. Drupe size of a pullet's eg^, 
five-grooved, covered with a smooth, light grey, dry cor- 
tex. Pulp very like soft soap, exceedingly bitter, hav- 
ing an offensive greasy smell. Nut exceedingly hard, one- 
celled, one-seeded. 

The nut is employed in fire works. A small hole is 
drilled in it, at which the kernel is extracted, and being 
filled with powder, and fired, bursts with a very loud re- 
port, so exceedingly hard is the nut ; I know no other 
use to which any part of this shrub is put. 



PIERARDIA. R. 

Calyx feur-leaved. Corol none. Germ superior, four- 
celled ; cells two-seeded, attachment superior. Style 
scarcely any. Stigma tetragonal. Berry with three or 
four arilled seeds. Embryo inverse, and furnished with a 
perisperm. 

P. sapida. R. 

Lutco of the Hindoos, about Tippera, &c. to the east- 
ward of Calcutta, where the tree is indigenous. 

A few small trees are now in the Company's Botanic 
garden at Calcutta ; they were originally from Tippera. 
Our Chinese gardeners say it is also a native of their 
country, where it is called Lutqua, and is cultivated for 
its agreeable fruit, our trees are as yet small, from six 



Pierardia. octandria monogynia. 255 

to ten feet high, with little or no trunk, but many, sub- 
erect branches, covered with dark-coloured, scabrous bark. 
In their native soil they blossom in February, and ripen 
their fruit in June. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, oblong, entire, smooth on 
both sides ; generally about eight inches long. Petioles 
channelled, about two inches long. Racemes from the 
naked branches (such as are about the thickness of the 
little finger seem to produce the greatest number) droop- 
ing, covered nearly to the base with numerous, small, yel- 
low flowers. Bractes lanceolate, inserted on the common 
peduncle, three-flowered, each flower hanging on its pro- 
per pedicel, there uniting into a common one rather 
shorter than its bracte. Calyx, or corol, for tliere is but 
one, four-leaved ; leaflets oval, downy, fleshy, incurv- 
ed over the stamens, and pistil. Filaments generally 
eight, short, incurved, inserted round the base of the 
germ, ^n^/ters two-lobed. Germ superior, round, three 
or more generally four-celled, with two ovula in each, at- 
tached to the top of the cell. Berry round, size of a large 
gooseberry, smooth, yellow, from three to four-celled. 
Seed solitary, subovate ; invested in a copious soft, 
white, subacid, edible aril. Integument reddish, firm, 
pretty thick. Perisperm conform to the seed, cartila- 
ginous. Embryo nearly as broad and long as the peris- 
perm, inverse. Cotyledons oval, three-nerved. Radicle 
oval, superior. 

Note. This new genus, for so it seems to me, I have 
named after Francis Pierard, Esq. one of the Honourable 
East India Company's Civil Servants. His abilities as a 
Botanist, in discovering various new plants, with which 
he has enriched the Honourable Company's Botanic gar- 
den, claims for him this mark of distinction. 



256 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. DodoTicea. 

DODONCEA. 
Calyx or coro/ four-leaved. Capsule three-celled, three- 
valved, three-winged. Seeds one or two in each cell. 

1. D. angustifolia. Willd. 2. 344. 

Polygan^ous, shrubby. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Ra- 
cemes axillary and terminal. 

A large ramous, erect shrub, very common on the barren 
uncultivated lands of Coromandel. It flowers during the 

rains. 

Leaves scattered, sub-sessile, linear-lanceolate, smooth, 
entire, margins a little revolute ; from two to four inches 
long; on the gems and young leaves a little bright yellow 
resin in generally found. Racemes axillary, and terminal, 
generally terminal, much shorter than the leaves, few 
flowered. Flowers long-pedicelled, small, of a greenish 
colour. 

Hermaphrodite Flowers have sometimes a fifth 
more parts than in the genus, there is only o;ie seed in 
each cell of the capsule, and sometimes the capsule con- 
sists of only two cells, and two wings. 

Female Flowers, are sometimes mixed with the her- 
maphrodite, and sometimes occupy a distinct plant ; they 
want the stamens entirely, otherwise they agree. 

2. D. dioeca. R. 

Dioecous, shrubby. Leaves lanceolate. Racemes axil- 
lary and terminal. 

A native of the interior parts of India. Flowering 
time the rainy season. 

Stem erect, woody, with numerous, suberect, woody 
branches. Bark smooth, light brown. Leaves alternate, 
short-petioled, broad-lanceolate, tapering most towards 
the base, entire, smooth. Racemes axillary, and terminal, 
solitary, short, corymbiform. Flowers with long slender, 
nodding pedicels. Bractes minute. Male. Calyx iouv- 



Melicope. octandria monogynia. 257 

leaved. Corol none. Filaments seven or eight, very 
short. Anther linear, six or eight times longer than the 
filaments. 

Female flowers on a separate tree. Calyx as in the 
male. Corol none. Germ superior, three-lobed. Style long, 
three-sided, as if composed of three portions. Stigma 
three-pointed. The ripe seed vessel has not been found. 



MELICOPE. 

Ca^j/ir four-parted. Corol four-petalled. Nectary sm- 
rounding the germ. Capsules superior, four, singly ovate- 
oblonor, tvvo-valved, one-celled, with a single winded seed 
in each. 

M. ietrandra. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves opposite, obovate. Corymbs axil- 
lary. Flowers tetrandrous. 

This tree is a native of Pulo Pinang where it blossoms 
in May, 

Branchlets round, and smooth. Leaves near the extre- 
mities of the branchlets, opposite, petioled^ cuneate, 
obovate, entire, smooth on both sides ; from three to four 
inches long, and two or two and a half broad. Petioles 
scarcely an inch long, channelled, smooth, swelled at the 
apex, as if united to the leaf by an articulation. Stipu- 
les not visible. Corymbs axillary, opposite, long-pedun- 
cled, supra-decompound, smaller ramifications villous. 
Bractes minute, solitary under each division and subdi- 
vision. F/oiyers pedicelled, small, very numerous. Ca- 
lyx four-cleft, small, permanent. Petals four, cordate, 
acute, expanding, inserted between the calyx and necta- 
ry ; on the disk of each rests a small, seemingly abortive 
stamen. Nectary a fleshy ring round the four-lobed germ. 
Filaments lour, expanding, alternate with the petals, and 



258 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Lawsouia. 

of the same length, inserted on the four angles of the 
nectary. Anthers cordate. Germ superior, immersed 
in the nectary, four-lobed. Style single. Stiyma most 
slightly four-lobed. Capsule deeply two-lobed, each 
lobe oblong, one-celled, two-valved, but not opening readi- 
ly. Seeds one or two in each lobe, or cell of the pericarp, 
inserted at the base, and all but the apex enveloped in 
an orange coloured, fleshy aril. 

LAWSONIA. 
Calyx four-toothed. Corol four-petalled, inserted into 
the bottom of the calyx alternately with the pairs of sta- 
mens. Germ four-celled, cells many-seeded ; attachment 
central. Capsule superior, four-celled, many-seeded. 
Embryo with centripetal radicle, and no perisperm. 

L. inermis. Willd. 2. 344. 

Arboreous, armed, in a bad soil. Leaves ventricose- 
lanceolate. 

Alcanna. Gcert. sem. 2. 133. f. 110. 

Mail-anschi. Rheed. Mai 1. t. 40. 

Beng. Mendee. 

Pers. Henna. 

Arab. Erkan. 

Teling. Gounta. 

On the coast of Coromandel where it is indigenous, I 
have commonly found it in the state of a large shrub, 
though it is naturally a small, ramous tree. Here it is 
in flower and seed most part of the year. 

Trunk crooked, of various lengths and thickness. Bark 
rust-coloured. Branches very numerous, standing in every 
direction ; young shoots somewhat angular. Leaves oppo- 
site, short-petioled oblong, or broad lanceolate, pointed at 
both ends ; about an inch long, and less than half an inch 
broad. Stipules wanting. Panicles terminal, globular. 



Lawsonia. octandria monogynia. 259 

cross-armed, many flowered, Bracies scarcely any. Floiv- 
ers small, £;reenish- yellow, very fragrant. Petals orhiculur, 
inserted into the divisions of the calyx; margins involute, 
and very much curled, as in Lagerstrcemia. Filaments 
longer than the corol, inserted by pairs into the calyx 
between the petals. Germ superior, four-celled ; ovula nu- 
merous, attached to the axis. Style the length of the sta- 
mens, somewhat bent. Stigma simple. Capsule globular, 
the size of a grain of pepper, four-grooved, with the apex 
depressed, having in it part of the remaining style, four- 
celled ; partitions membranaceous. Seeds angular, wedge- 
form, inserted by their apices round the middle, or en- 
larged part of a centrical, columnar receptacle. Embryo 
with centripetal radicle, and no perisperm. 

It is much used for hedges, growing readily from cut- 
tings ; consequently fertile seeds are not often met with. 
The tlowers are remarkably fragrant, whether fresh or 
dry, and are particularly grateful at a distance. 

The species called spinosa is nothing more, 1 imagine, 
than the same plant growing on a dry sterile soil ; at 
least, in such soils, I have often found it very thorny, the 
branchlets being then short and rigid, with sharp thorny 
points. 

The fresh leaves beat up with Catechu, dyes the nails 
and skin of a reddish orange colour, which is much ad- 
mixed by the fair sex all over India. The fresh made 
paste is laid on at bed time, and removed in the morn- 
ing ; the colour remains till the nails or epedermis is re- 
newed, or removed. 

The leaves yield in decoction a porter coloured liquor ; 
I have found it a deep orange colour, which acids des- 
troy, while alkalies and infusions of astringent vegeta- 
bles deepen it ; this decoction dyes the finger of a deep 
orange ; but does not communicate any colour to cloth 
variously prepared, nor could I procure any precipitate 
from the decoction worth attending to. 

Gs2 



260 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Memecyloti, 

MEMECYLON. 
Calyx four-toothed. Carols four-petalled. Nectary four 
glands, inserted just over the stamina, in the fissure of 
the calyx. Berry inferior, one-seeded. 

1. M. edule. R. Corom. pi. 1. N. 82. 

Shrubby. Leaves opposite, oval, smooth. Umbellets from 
the naked branches, and stems below the leaves. 

Comus sylvestris. Burm Zeyl. p. 76. t. 31. 

Teling. Alie. 

The leaves are an ingredient in the dyes of Coroman- 
del. I therefore suspect M. tinctorium of Willdenow 
may be the same plant. 

A very common, small tree, or large shrub ; it is to be 
found in every jungle all over the coast. It flowers about 
the beginning of the hot season. 

Trunk very irregular in shape and size, covered with 
a dark coloured, scabrous bark. Branches numerous, 
nearly erect. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oval, 
smooth, shining, firm, entire, with scarcely any veins, from 
three to four inches long, and from two to three broad. 
Umbellets many, compound, small, from scabrous eleva- 
tions, wher^ the leaves stood, over the old woody 
branches. Peduncles common, and partial, four-sided. 
Pedicels round, coloured. The generic character as in 
Richard's edition of the Genera Plantarum. Seeds, seldom 
more than one comes to perfection, though in the germ 
the rudiments of many are to be seen. 

The ripe berries are eaten by the natives; they are 
astringent ; the pulp is of a bluish black colour, and is 
found in considerable quantity. 

2. M. amplexicauUs. R. 

Leaves opposite, half stem-clasping, ovate-cordate. 
Flowers in sessile, axillary heads. 



Marlea. octandria monogvnia. 261 

A native of Pulo Pinang. 

Leaves opposite, sessile, half stem-clasping, ovate 
cordate, smooth, shining, entire, of a firm texture, and 
veinless ; from four to six inches long. Flowers numer- 
ous, very small, collected in round, sessile heads, in the 
axills of the leaves, or below them. Bractes two at the 
base of each pedicel. Ca/yx four-toothed. Petals orhi- 
cular, sessile. Stamens, length of the petals. Berries a- 
bout the size of a gooseberry, dry. Seed solitary, round. 



MARLEA. R. 

Calyx from six to eight toothed, superior. Petals from 
six to eight. Germ inferior, two-celled ; cells one-seeded; 
attachment superior. Drupe with a two-celled nut. Em- 
bryo inverse, furnished with a perispenu. 

M. begonifolia. R. 

Marlea is the vernacular name in Silhet, where, it is 
indigenous and grows to the size of a small tree, yield- 
ing timber w^hich is employed by the natives in the con- 
struction, of their houses. Flowering time the month of 
April ; the seed ripens in July. 

In its natural character it approaches near to Alan- 
gium ; the number of stamina, and the internal structure 
of the germ and drupe, however, are so different, as to 
induce me to consider it sufficiently distinct to form a 
separate genus, which I do under its vernacular name 
of Marlea. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, unequally cordate, as in 
Begonia, entire, or lobate, acuminate, smooth, five, or 
more-nerved ; from four to eight inches long, by from 
three to five broad. Petioles round, a little villous, about 
an inch long. Stipules none. Peduncles axillary, the 
length of the petioles, dichotomous, many-flowered. Flow- 
ers of a middling size, short-pedicelled, petals white. Ca- 



262 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. S ympJiorema. 

lyx superior, small, from six to eig^ht-tootlied. Petals from 
six to eight, linear, recurved. Filaments eight, short, flat, 
hairy, inserted within the petals on a glandular hemis- 
pherical body which crowns the germ. Anthers linear, ve- 
ry long. Germ inferior, two-celled, with one ovula in each, 
attached to the top of the axis. Style the length of the 
stamina. Stigma large, four-toothed. Drupe oval, obtuse- 
pointed, the size of a small cherry, pulp in small quanti- 
ty but soft and dark coloured ; round the base of the ob- 
tuse point may be traced the minute remains of the ca- 
lyx. Nut single, conform to the drupe, brittle, though 
hard, black, two-celled, grooved on the sides, with the a- 
pex transversely two-toothed. Seed solitary, oval, flat- 
tened. Integument single, thin, Perisperm conform to the 
seed, soft and oily. Embryo inverse, nearly as extensive 
as the perisperm ; cotyledons ovate, cordate, obtuse. Ra- 
dicle superior, oval. 



SYMPHOREMA. 

Calyx ; involucre, from six to eight-leaved. Perianth 
from six to eight- toothed. Corol one-petalled, from six to 
eight-cleft. Capsule none. Seed single, inclosed in the 
calyx. 

S, involucrata. Corom. pi. 2. N. 186.. 

Teling. Suroodoo. 

A large scandent shrub, a native of the Coromandel 
forests, &c. Leaves deciduous during the cold season, 
and coming out with the flowers in February, March, and 
April. 

Stems woody, large, climbing. Bark ash-coloured. 
Branches straight, cross-armed. Leaves opposite, short- 
petioled, ovate, grossly-sawed, downy ; about three in 
ches long, and two broad. Peduncles fascicled, from 
the extremities of the naked branchlets, and last year's 



AUophyllus. OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 263 

axills, round, downy, each supporting a single umbellet. 
Flowers sessile, small, white. Calyx ; involucre from 
six to eight-leaved, from seven to nine-flowered ; leaflets 
chaffy, lanceolate, downy, permanent. Perianth inferior, 
one-leaved, tubular, from six to eight-striated, from six 
to eight-toothed, downy, permanent. Corol one-petalled ; 
tube short ; border from six to eight-cleft ; divisions linear, 
spreading. Filaments seven or eight, shorter than the 
corol, inserted just below its divisions. Anthers oblong. 
Germ superior, round. Style the length of the stamens, 
Stigmahx^A. Pericarp none, the remaining withered 
calyx serving for one. Seed one, globular, smooth, the 
size of a pea. 

I know of no use to which any part of this shrub is 
put, except that of fuel. 



ALLOPUYLLUS. Schreh. gen. w. 643. 

Calyx of two unequal pairs of suborbicular leaflets. 
Corol four-petalled, regular. Stamina regular. Germ 
two-Iobed. Stigma bifid. Berry superior, two-lobed, with 
one seed in each. 

A. lanatus. Lourier. Cochin Ch. 286. 

Leaves ternate ; leaflets broad-lanceolate, serrate. Ra- 
cemes axillary, simple. Petals equally disposed, and wool- 
ly on the whole of the inside. 

A native of Pulo Pinang, Silhet, &c. It flowers in 
May. Arboreous ; young branchlets round, and smooth. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, ternate. Leaflets subsessile, 
lanceolate, remotely and minutely serrate, smooth on both 
sides ; from four to six inches long. Petioles slightly 
channelled, smooth, about half the length of the leaflets. 
Racemes axillary, in pairs, or solitary, twice the length 
of the petioles, simple. Flowers numerous, very small, 
collected in little, one-bracted bundles. Calyx four-lea v- 



264 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Omitropke. 

ed; /ea/efs roundish, the two exterior longer. Petals four, 
wedge-shaped, the whole of the inside very woolly, equal- 
ly disposed round the stamina and pistil. Filaments 
eight, nearly the length of the petals. Anthers oval. Germ 
two-lobed. Style single. Stigma two-parted. Pericarp 
not seen. 



ORNITROPHE. Juss. 

Calyx of two unequal pairs of leaflets. Corol four- 
petalled, unilateral. Germ superior, two-lobed, two-cell- 
ed ; cells one-seeded ; attachment subinferior. Berries 
two (though it frequently happens that one is abortive) 
one-seeded. Embryo folded, with inferior radicle and no 
perisperra. 

3.0. aporetica. R. 

Polygamous, shrubby. Leaves ternate ; leaflets ses- 
sile, broad-lanceolar, acuminate, acutely serrate. Race- 
mes simple. Nectary four-leaved. 

Aporetica ternata. Forst. gen. N. 66. 

Beng. Ghee-Kz^shee. 

A shrubby species, about four or five feet in height ; a 
native of the Silhet district where it blossoms in June. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, ternate. Leaflets sessile, 
broad-lanceolar, remotely but acutely serrate, cuspidate, 
smooth on both sides, from four to six inches long, 
and from two to three broad. Stipules none . Racemes 
axillary, solitary, simple, erect, shorter than the leaves, 
villous. Flowers numerous, small, pale yellow, collected 
in little bundles, and embraced by some small, linear, 
villous bractes, many of them male. Calyx of two, op- 
posite, rather unequal pairs of round concave leaflets. 
Petals four, unilateral, obovate, cuneate, emarginate, 
very woolly on the inside above the middle. Nectary 
within the base of each petal, a small, oblong, smooth. 



Ornitrophe, octandria monogynia. 265 

pale yellow leaflet. Filaments eight, ascending oppo- 
site to the petals, very woolly near the base. Anthers 
oval. Germ superior, in some of the flowers minute, 
and abortive, in others hairy, and two-lobed, with one 
ovula in each, attached to the lower, and inner angle of 
the cell. Style erect. Stigma of two revolute lobes. 
Berries two, when both come to perfection, which is not 
frequent, obovate, smooth, succulent ; when ripe, red, 
the size of a large pea, one-celled. ^eecZ conform to the 
berry, and attached to the bottom of the cell. Integuments 
two ; exterior whitish yellow and thin ; interior membra- 
naceous. Perisperm none. Embryo conform to the 
seed, folded. Cotyledons unequal, fleshy, sublanceolar. 
Radicle taper-pointed, a little curved, inferior. 

2. O. villosa. R. 

Shrubby, tomentose. Leaves ternate ; leaflets oblong, 
ventricose, remotely serrulate on the anterior margin. Ra- 
cemes axillary, and terminal, simple. Petals cuneiform, 
the whole of the inside woolly. 

A native of Chittagong. 

Young shoots flexuose, very villous. Leaves alter- 
nate, ternate. Leaflets suboblong, ventricose, remotely 
serrulate, upper surface scarcely hairy, but soft with 
brownish short hairs underneath ; from six to eight 
inches long and from four to five broad. Petioles long, 
round, and very villous. Racemes axillary and ter- 
minal, when in the axils, which is by far the most fre- 
quent, solitary, all are very hairy, generally shorter 
than the petioles. Flowers numerous, small, hairy, col- 
lected into little fascicles all over the raceme. Bractes su- 
bulate, very hairy. Calyx of two very equal pairs of 
opposite, roundish, concave hairy leaflets. Petals four, 
unilateral, cuneiform, very woolly over the whole of the 
inside. Nectary, a gland at the base of each petal on 
the inside, and without the stamina. Filaments eight, 

H li 



266 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Omitrophe. 

scarcely so long as the petals, surrounding the germ on all 
sides, woolly. Anthers oblong. Germ two-lobed, hairy, 
two-celled, with one ovula in each, attached to (he bot- 
tom of its cell. Style short. Stigmas two, as long as the 
style, recurved. 

3. O. serrata. Willd. 2. 322. R. Corom. pL 1. N. Gl. 
Polygamous, shrubby. Leaves ternate ; leaflets oval, 
serrate. Racemes axillary. Petals cuneate, woolly in 
the centre. Berries obovate. 
Hind. Rakhal-phul. 
Teling. Tauatikee. 

It is one of the most common plants on the Coast of 
Corom andel ; amongst the mountains it grov\s to be 
a small tree ; on the low lands nearer the sea, it is al- 
ways a ramous shrub, with grey spotted bark. It flow- 
ers during the wet season. It is also common in Ben- 
gal. 

Leaves ternate. Leaflets OYdite, pointed, serrate, gener- 
ally bubbled, with frequently reflected margins, smooth on 
the back ; from two to three inches long, and about one 
and a half broad. Racemes axillary, single, erect. Flowers 
numerous, small, white, fascicled. Male and Herma- 
phrodite flowers mixed on the same tree, and sometimes 
on separate ones- 

Hermaphrodite. C«/?/jc four-leaved. Petals four, uni- 
lateral. Nectarial scales lacerated. Filaments very 
woolly near the base. Germ superior, two-lobed, with 
a single ovula in each, attached to the base of the parti- 
tion. Style single. Stigma two-clelt. Berry succulent, ge- 
nerally single, the second lobe of the germ, being for the 
most part abortive, obovate, the size of a pea, smooth, 
bright red, one-celled. Seed conform to the berry. Integu- 
ments two, the exterior one white, thin, and rather hard 
like parchment, and in general larger than the embryo, 
which is closely embraced by the inner brown^ rather 



Ornitrophe. octandria monogynia. 267 

spongy, somewhat double covering. Perisperm none. 
Embryo conlorm to the seed, folded. Cotyledons two, 
sublanceolate, thick, and fleshy. Radicle taper-pointed, 
inferior. Male flowers exactly like the Hermaphro- 
dite, except the pistil, which is wanting, or at most only 
the rudiments of one are to be found. 

The ripe berries are eaten by the natives. The root is 
astringent, and employed by the Telinga physicians in 
substance to stop Diarrhoeas. 

4. O. glabra. R. 

Shrubby, Leaves alternate, ternate ; leaflets oblong, 
smooth, serrate, with hairy glands in the axills of the 
veins. Racemes axillary. 

Schmidelia racemosa. Willd. 2. 435. 

Usubus triphylla. Burm. ind. 81. t. 32./. 1. 

The species 1 am now describing, was fouad at Chitta- 
gong by Mr. Roxburgh, and by him introduced into 
the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where it blossoms in 
May, and ripens its seeds in August and September. 

Stem nothing that deserves the name, but several, 
spreading branches. Bark somewhat scabrous, with 
ferruginous spots. Leaves alternate, ternate, petioled. 
Leaflets oblong, subsessile, serrate, the point rather ob- 
tuse, having small hairy glands in the axils of the veins 
underneath, from two to four inches long, and from one 
to two broad. Petioles channelled, smooth, from one to 
two inches long. Racemes axillary, solitary, simple, 
erect, twice the length of the petioles. Flowers numer- 
ous, short-pedicelled, collected into little fascicles, ma- 
ny of which are male. Bractes minute, acute, one, two, 
or three, to each fascicle of flowers. Calyx of two 
unequal pairs of round, permanent leaflets, the inner 
pair much larger. Petals four, placed on one side 
opposite to the stamens ; cuneate, emarginate, on the 
inside of the exterior half is a tuft of wool. Nectary, a 

H h2 



268 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Omitrophe, 

yellow, somewhat crescent-shaped gland, between the 
petals and stamens. Filament SGv^ht, as long as the petals, 
projecting in an ascending direction, woolly. Anthers 
roundish, incumbent. Germ superior, two-lobed, &c. as 
in serrata. Style short. Stigma two-cleft. Berries one or 
two, round, the size of a pea, when ripe red, pulpy. Seed 
solitary, the shape of the berry, and nearly the same size. 
Embryo as in serrata. 

It differs from serrata ; 1st. In being a spreading 
shrub, whereas that is erect and very ramous. 2ndly. In 
the young shoots, leaves and raceme being all very 
smooth, whereas there they are downy. 3dly. and lastly. 
In the points of the leaves being rather obtuse,there acute. 
But in habit the difference is most striking, when seen 
growing together. 

5. O. Cobbe. Willd. 2. 322, 

Shrubby. Leaves ternate ; leaflets subsessile, serrate, 
downy, the pair ovate, oblong, the terminal one broad 
lanceolar. Racemes axillary, simple. 

Rhus Cohbe. sp. pi. 382. 

I have seen only one dry specimen of this, it was given 
me by Dr. Rottler, under its old name (Rhus Cobbe. J 
The tender parts of the specimen are very downy, the 
leaves narrower, and less deeply serrate than O. serrata, 
which it resembles almost exactly in every other res- 
pect. The tlowers are all male, or male hermaphrodite : 
and agree so exactly with those of that plant, that one 
description may serve for both. 

6. O. integrifolia. Willd. 2. 322, 

Leaves alternate; leaflets petioletted, oblong, entire. 
Racemes axillary, simple, as long as the leaves. Petals 
reniform, long-clawed. 

A native of the Moluccas. 



Scytalia. octandria monogynia. 269 

7. O. repanda. R. 

Leaves ternate ; leaflets ovate, lepand, smooth. Ra- 
cemes axillary, compound, shorter than the leaves. Petals 
obovate, short-clawed, very woolly on the inside. 

A native of the Moluccas. 



SCYTALIA. Schreh. gen. n. 671. 
Calyx four or five-toothed. Corol none, or of four or 
five petals regularly disposed. Germ superior, two-cell- 
ed, two-lobed, cells one-seeded; attachment inferior. 
Style two-cleft. Berries two, though rarely more than 
one comes to maturity. Embryo erect, without peris- 
perm. 

1. S. Lichi. R. 

Polygamous. Leaflets four pair, lanceolate, acute. 
Calyx four-parted. Corol none. Fertile germ two-lobed ; 
fruit oval, murexed. 

Scytalia Chinensis. Gcert. sem. 1. t. 4.2. f. 2. 

Euphoria. Juss. Gen. pi. p. 274. 

Dimocarpus. Lichi Lour, Cochin Ch. 287. Willd. 2. 346. 

Sapindus erfit/is, HorL Kew. 2. p. 30. 

Chin. Lichi, or Lee chee- 

This very famous tree is now common in Bengal. It 
was originally brought from China. Flowering time Fe- 
bruary and March. The fruit ripens three months after- 
wards. The trees in Bengal are as yet small, but I have 
seen them in China fully as large as a middling sized ash- 
tree ; they are al>o somewhat like it in appearance, with 
numerous, spreading branches, and a smooth ash-co- 
loured bark. Specimens of this tree have been sent to me 
from old trees growing on the Garros mountains. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, abruptly-pinnate. Leaflets 
from two to six pair, opposite, short petiolleted, lanceo- 
late, tapering to a long, fine point, very smooth and shin- 



270 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Sciftalia. 

ing on both sides, of a firm texture, and almost veinless, 
from three to six inches long, and about one broad. Pa- 
nicles terminal, large, oval, ramous, erect, or ascending, 
according to the direction of the branch that supports them. 
Bractes minute. Flowers small, greenish white, smell ra- 
ther offensive. On some trees they are mostly hermaphro- 
dite; while on others mostly male, but as far as I have 
observed never completely so. 

Hermaphrodite. Cahjx spreading, four, rarely five- 
lobed ; both sides downy. Corol none. Nectary a large, 
fleshy, crenulate gland, into which the stamens and pis- 
til are inserted. Filaments from six to eight, short, hairy, 
spreading. Anthers roundish, two-lobed. Germ superi- 
or, elevated on a short column, two-lobed, hairy, two- 
celled, each containing a single ovula, attached to the 
inner and lower angle of the cell. Style erect, rather 
short, hairy. Stigma two-cleft ; divisions revolute. Ber- 
ry generally single, though sometimes double, oval, the 
size of a pigeon's e^^g, covered with a thin, bright red, 
murexed bark ; next under it is the pulpy aril, which is 
of a faint, transparent azure colour, and delicious suba- 
cid taste. Seed single, oblong, enveloped by the pulpy 
aril, smooth, brown and affixed by the base. Embryo 
erect, without perisperm, &c. as described by Gsertner. 

Male flowers mixed with the hermaphrodite. Ca- 
lyx and nectary as in the former. Corol none. Fila- 
ments from six to eight, thrice as long as in the herma- 
phrodite. Germ smaller than in the former and always 
abortive. Style very short and entire. 

Independently of the well known fruit of this tree, it 
is highly ornamental, being one of the most permanent 
ever greens we have in India. 

2. S. Longan. R. 

Leaflets four pair, lanceolate, obtuse, Coro/ five-petall- 
ed, fertile germ, often three-lobed, fruit round, slightly 
cabrous. 



Scytalia. octandria monogynia. 271 

Beng. Ash-phul. 
Chin. Longan. 

Dimocarpus Longam Lour- Cochin Ch. 287. 
This is also a tree, and more regular in form than the 
preceding species, having a short straight trunk with a 
large, very dense, globular head. The leaves are the 
same in situation, and composition, but obtuse, some- 
what downy on the under side, and with large parallel 
veins. Panicles the same. It is also a native of China, as 
well as of the mountainous countries which form the 
eastern frontier of Bengal. Flowers small, pale yellow- 
ish white, male and hermaphrodite, mixed on the same 
panicle. 

Hermaphrodite, Calyx deeply five-parted, downy 
on both sides. Petals five, inserted between the calyx 
and nectary, lanceolate, spreading, hairy. Nectary 
as in the former. Stamens also the same, but the fila- 
ments much more hairy. Germ superior, and frequently 
three-lobed \\ith a three-cleft style, otherwise as in the 
former. Berry single, or double, rarely triple, round, 
the size of a large cherry, covered with a brownish-grey, 
scabrous bark. Aril less in quantity than in the Lichi, 
and less grateful to the taste, but reckoned very whole- 
some. Seed solitary, round, smooth, and brown. Embryo 
as in the Lichi. 

Male, Calyx corol, and nectary as in the hermaphro- 
dite. Filaments long, and very hairy. Pistil, abortive, 
&c. as in the Lichi. 

The wood of both trees is hard, close-grained and 
white ; 1 do not find that it is yet employed for any purpose 
in Bengal. 

3. S, Ramhoutan. R. 

Polygamous. Leaflets two or three pair, oblong or broad 
lanceolate. Panicles axillary. Calyx four and five part- 
ed. Corol none. Berries with dry echinate bark. 



272 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. ScijtClUa. 

Nephelium Cappacum. Linn. Syst.S5]. k.c. 
Dimocarpus crinita Lourier. Cochin Ch. 288. 
Mai. Ramboutan, or Rambosteen. 
From the Malay Islands it has been introduced into the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta. 

4. S. rimosa. R. 

Polygamous. Leaflets three or four pair, subopposite, 
lanceolate. Panicles axillary and terminal. Corol none. 
Berries oblong, rimose, tubercled. 

Tengoori is the vernacular name in Silhet, Avhere the 
tree is indigenous and grows to a large size ; flowers in 
March and April, and the fruit which is generally eaten, 
ripens in August. 

5. S. rubia. R. 

Leaflets four or five pairs, lanceolate. Panicles termi- 
nal, and axillary, Corol of five, smooth, orbicular pe- 
tals. Fruit oblong, smooth, purple. 

Lall Koe-pooia is the vernacular name in Silhet, 
where the tree is indigenous, and grows to a moderate 
size. It blossoms in March ; the fruit ripens in May and 
is eaten by the natives. Bark of the young branch- 
es and branchlets rather scabrous. Leaves alternate, 
abruptly-pinnate, from one to two feet long. Lea- 
flets four or five pair, subopposite, lanceolate, entire, 
rather smooth, except while very tender, then villous un- 
derneath, from six to twelve inches long. Petioles cylin- 
dric, rather rough. Panicles terminal, and axillary, 
shorter than the leaves ; ramifications alternate, smooth, 
and spreading much. Flowers numerous, small, rosy, or 
purple, according to the age. Bractes small, triangular. 
Calyx five-leaved ; /ea^ef 5 unequal, roundish, concave, co- 
loured. PefrtZs five, round, sessile, concave, smooth in 
every part. Filaments about eight, short, inserted on 
the base of the short column which elevates the pistil- 



Scytalia. octandria monogynia. 273 

lum. -4/i/Aer5- linear-oblong, incurvate. Germ superior, 
two-lobed, with one ovula in each, attached to the base 
of the partition. Style short. Stigma bifid ; segments 
recurved. Berries one or two, the size and shape of an 
olive, smooth, dark purple; like the fruit of Eugenia jam- 
bolana, succulent, one-celled, the purple aril is eaten by 
the natives. Seed, solitary, the shape of the berry. Integu- 
ments two, exterior, ash-coloured, firm and thin ; interior 
brown, softer, and thicker than the exterior. Perisperm 
none. Embryo erect. Cotyledons nearly equal. Radicle 
inferior, truncated. 

6. S. parviflora. R. 

Leaflets about seven, lanceolate, serrate, crenate. Pa- 
nicles terminal. Calyx, and Corol of four leaflets, and 
petals. 

A native of the Moluccas. 

7. S, oppositifolia. R. 

Leaves opposite, unequally pinnate, leaflets from three 
to five, lanceolate, remotely serrate, crenate. Panicles 
terminal. 

A native of the Malay Islands. 

8. S. verticillata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves simple, subverticelled, lanceolar, 
smooth, entire. Panicles terminal. Petals five, with a 
woolly scale near the base. Germ two-lobed, elevated 
on a receptacle. 

This pretty shrub, or small tree was brought to this 
garden from the Moluccas, with the spice plants in 1798, 
where it blossoms and ripens its seed at difierent periods 
through the year. 

Trunk straight, with many straight branches, and to- 
lerably smooth, brownish bark ; height of the plants, about 
seven feet, and are still growing fast. jLeat?es subver- 
ticelled, short-petioled, lanceolate, smooth on both sides, 

I i 



274 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Scytalia. 

and entire ; about six inches long and about two broad. 
Stipules none. Panicles terminal, many crowded to- 
gether; also single from the exterior ax ills, erect, with 
numerous diverging ramifications. Bractes minute, ca- 
ducous. Flowers short-pedicelled, small, pale yellow, 
with atinge of red. Calyx of five, unequal, roundish con- 
cave leaflets. Petals five, oblong, expanding, each with 
one villous, nectarial scale on the inside near the base. 
Filaments, about seven, short, erect, inserted on a short 
fleshy receptacle, which also elevates the pistil. Anthers 
erect. Germ superior, on a short fleshy receptacle, two- 
rarely three-lobed ; lohes one-seeded, attached to the bot- 
tom of the cell, &c. Style very short. Stigma two point- 
ed. Berries generally twin, oval, the size of a small cof- 
fee bean, pulpy, when ripe, orange-coloured, supported 
on a short common receptacle. Embryo erect, without 
perisperm. 

9. S. Danura. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves simple, broad-lanceolate, with a cor- 
date base. Panicles terminal, petals five, with two wool- 
ly scales at their base. Germ two-lobed. Style scarcely 
any. 

Beng. Danoora. 

This tree is a native cf the Delta of the Ganges and of 
the parts to the east of it. Flowering time the beginning 
of the hot season. 

Leaves about the extremities of the branchlets, sim- 
ple, subsessile, broad-lanceolate, smooth, entire, about a 
foot long. Panicles terminal, composed of rather remote, 
diverging, compound, ramifications. F/oi^ers numerous, 
solitary, pedicelled, of a pale pink colour. Bractes mi- 
nute, one-flowered. Calyx of five, unequal, roundish, 
concave leaflets. Coral of five equal, equally disposed, 
oval, emarginate, short, clavate petals. Nectary, a double 
woolly scale at the base of each petal on the inside, also 



ScJileichera. octandria monogynia. 275 

a fleshy, crenulated ring round the germ, in which the 
stamens are inserted. Filaments from six to eight, half 
the length of the petals. Anthers erect, oblong. Germ 
two-lobed. 5'/?/^e rather shorter than the stamens. Stigma 
two-parted. In some flowers, (and they are, I suspect, 
always barren,) the germ is small, and the style only 
a conical point between its lobes. Berries one or two- 
celled, the size of a field bean, and juiceless. Seed soli- 
tary. 

It was formerly observed, that I thought it necessary 
tc keep the first described two species of 6'cyto^ia dis- 
tinct from the genus Sapindus, on account of the regular 
corol, or its entire absence ; the same reason prevails 
here. To the former, Scytalia, I assign a regular corol 
with the stamens equally disposed on all sides ; where- 
as to the latter T give an irregular corol, with ascending 
filaments. 



SCHLEICHERA. Willd. 

Polygamous. CaZ?/.T five-toothed. CoroZ five-petalled, 
or none. Germ superior, three-celled, cells one-seeded ; 
attachment inferior. Capsule berried, entire, or three- 
valved. Seeds from one to three, arilled. Embryo naked, 
without perisperra, curved, erect. 

1. S. pentapetala. R. 

Leaflets from three to four pair, subalternate, lanceolate. 
Flowers five-petalled. Capsule one-seeded. 

A pretty large tree, a native of the forests of Silhet, 
where it blossoms in March and April, and the fruit ri- 
pens during the rains. The male tree is there called Koi- 
poora and the hermaphrodite, or fertile tree Poora-Koi. 
This sort is not eaten, the aril, the only edible part, being 
very thin, and insipid. 

Young shoots smooth. Leaves alternate, abruptly pin- 

Ii2 



276 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Schleichera. 

nate, from six to twelve inches long. Leaflets three or 
four pair, subopposite, lanceolate, entire, firm, lucid, ob- 
tusely acuminate, from four to eight inches long, and one 
or two broad. Petioles round, smooth. Stipules none. 
Panicles axillary, rather shorter than the leaves, crowded 
with numerous ramifications, and clothed with soft down. 
Flowers small, and very numerous, of a dull yellowish 
green. Male. Calyx five-parted; segments broad-cordate, 
a little hairy. Petals five, lanceolate, with two small, 
smooth, incurved scales at the base, as in the Sapindi. 
Nectary a tomlose hairy ring betw'een the insertions of tll'e 
petals and filaments. Filaments seven or eight, the length 
of the petals, or longer. Anthers two-Iobed. Germ an ob- 
long gland. 

Hermaphrodite and Male flowers on a separate 
tree. Calyx, corol, and nectary of the hermaphrodite, 
like those of the male. Filaments shorter, but the an- 
thers as in the male. Germ oblong, three-celled, with 
one ovula in each, attached to the bottom of its cell. 
Style scarcely any. Stigma of three recurved lobes. 
Capsule the size of a black currant ; tapering into a 
pedicel at the base, marked with three sutures on the out- 
side, generally one-celled, three-valved ; the valves con- 
taining little cells filled with a fragrant balsam. Seed 
generally solitary, the size of a small pea, round, envelop- 
ed in a thin, succulent aril. Integuments single, smooth, 
brown. Perisperm none. Embryo curved, erect, green- 
ish. Cotyledons unequal, one-curved, the other, viz. the 
inferior one, doubled. Radicle conical, curved, inferior, 
its apex touching one side of the umbilicus. 

The seed vessel of my other species. S. trijuga. Willd. 
4. 1096. Koon. Gcert. sem. 2. 486. t. 180. does not open 
spontaneously as in this, and sometimes contains three 
seeds, enveloped in a thick, succulent, subacid, edible 
aril. The proper integument is there also single ; nor is 



Schkichera. octandria monogynia. 277 

there any perisperm, but both the cotyledons are doubled, 
and equally long. 

2. S. irijuga. Willd. 4. 1096. 

Leaflets three pair, lanceolate. Flowers apetalous. 

Koon. Gcert. sem. 2. p. 486. t. 180./. 11. 

Cing. Coughas. 

Tarn. Zolini-buriki. 

Teling. May, or Roatangha. 

A stout, handsome middling sized tree, a native of va- 
rious parts of India. Flowers about February. The fruit 
ripens in May. It is allied to Melicocca, and Scytalia, 
probably not suflaciently removed from the former to au- 
thorize its forming a new genus. The pulpy subacid aril, 
is edible, and palatable. 

Leaves about the extremities of the branchlets, abrupt- 
ly pinnate, from eight to sixteen inches long. Leaflets 
from two to four pair, opposite, sessile, broad-lanceo- 
late, or oblong, entire, pretty smooth on both sides ; the 
lower pairs the smallest ; from three to eight inches long. 
Petioles a little downy, from six to sixteen inches long. 
Stipules wanting. Racemes axillary, or below the leaves, 
round the base of the young shoots, solitary ; in the male 
simple ; in the hermaphrodite often compound ; from two 
to four inches long. 

Male. CaZ?/x cup-formed, five-toothed. C'oro/ none. 
Filaments from six to ten, erect, many times longer than 
the calyx. Anthers oval, erect. Pistil, merely the rudi- 
ment of one. 

Hermaphrodite flowers on a separate tree. Calyx 
as in the male. Coro? none. Nectary a fleshy, yellow ring 
surrounding the insertions of the filaments. Stamens as 
in the male. Germ superior, ovate, three-celled, with one 
ovula in each, attached to the bottom of the cell. Style 
short. Stigma three-cleft, recurved, slender, downy. 



278 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Sapilldus. 

Drupe the size of a nutmeg, a little pointed, covered with 
a tender, dry, grey bark. Seeds one, two or three, oblong, 
smooth, at the base obliquely truncate, and there affixed, 
each surrounded with its proper whitish, pulpy aril, 
which is of a pleasant acid taste, and is most grateful 
during dry weather. Embryo doubled, with inferior ra- 
dicle and no perisperni. 

The bark is astringent, rubbed up with oil, the natives 
of these parts use it to cure the itch. The wood is hard, 
and employed for many purposes by the natives. 



SAP INDUS. 

Calyx from four to five leaves. CoroZ from four to five 
petalled, in some unilateral. Germ superior, three cell- 
ed, cells one-seeded ; attachment inferior. Berries three, 
superior, more or less united. Seed solitary. Embryo 
erect, curved, or straight, no perisperm. 

1. S. laurifolius. Willd. 2. 469. Vahl. symb. 3. 54. 

Leaflets three-pair, ovate, lanceolate, smooth, rachis 
simple. Panicles terminal. Petals five, lanceolar, equally 
woolly all over the inside. 

A stout, very shady tree, a native of various parts of 
India. Flowering time December; the seed ripens in 
April. 

Trunk straight, when full grown as thick as a man's 
body. Bark, a mixture of ash and olive colour. Bran- 
ches numerous, spreading much in every direction. Leaves 
alternate, abruptly pinnate. Leaflets three pair, though 
sometimes next to the panicles two pair, obliquely ovate- 
lanceolate, taper-pointed, entire and smooth on both 
sides ; veins elevated and whitish.^ from four to six 
inches long. Petioles round. Petiolets short and rugose. 
Panicles terminal, broad-ovate, large, and very ramous ; 
ramification rather scaly. Bractes minute. Flowers, 



Sapindus. octandria monogynia. 279 

numerous, small, short-pedicelled, dull white. Calyx 
five- leaved ; leaflets oval, villous on the outside, and mar- 
gin. Petals five, lanceolar, equally woolly over the whole 
of the inside, and without any appearance of the nec- 
tarial scales on the base, or margin, as in all the other 
species described by me, clothed on the outside with ap- 
pressed brown hairs. Filaments woolly, shorter than the 
germ, and inserted between it and the five-lobed, hairy re- 
ceptacle. Germ three-lobed, very hairy, three- celled, with 
one ovula in each, attached to the bottom of the axis. Style 
simple. Stigma three-toothed. Berries three, united, 
singly, the size of a cherry, when ripe soft, and of a yel- 
lowish-green colour, with a few brown hairs scattered 
over them ; one-celled. Seed round-obovate. Integuments 
two, the exterior one thick, tough and hard, smooth and 
black ; the inner one membranaceous. Perisperm none. 
Embryo conform to the seed, uncinate. Cotyledons un- 
equal, thick, firm, fleshy, spirally incurvate, colored with 
a tinge of green. Radicle inferior, linear, lodged at the 
base of the seed, pointing to the lower and inner angle. 

The berries are saponaceous, and used with those of 
the other species of the same nature. 

2. S. emarginatus. Vahl. symh. 3. 54. Willd. 2. 469. 

Leaflets two or three pair, oblong, retuse, or emar- 
giriate. Pamc^es terminal. Ca///x and Coro/ of five equal, 
regularly disposed leaflets, and petals, with a woolly scale 
on each side of the latter. 

Beng, Bwra-reetha. 

Teling. Konkoodoo. 

A handsome, middling-sized tree, with a short trunk, 
and very large, dense, spreading head, decorated with 
beautiful thick, deep green foliage the whole year. Floiu- 
ering time in Bengal, October ; the seeds ripen in April. 

Leaves alternate, abruptly pinnate, from six to ten inch- 
es long. Leaflets generally two pair, opposite, short-petio- 



280 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. SaphlduS. 

letted, oblong, with entire margins, and rounded emargi- 
nate apex, smooth, of a shining deep-green, and downy 
tinderneath. Petioles round, villous. Stipules none. Pa- 
nicles terminal, crowded with numerous ramifications of 
small, whitish, inodorous blossoms. Bractes small, cadu- 
cous. Calyx of five, equal, oblong leaflets. Petah five, 
equal, regularly disposed, oblong, or lanceolate, outside 
hairy ; with two inflected woolly tufts on their margin 
near the middle. As in most, if not all, the other species, 
there is a notched, fleshy, hairy ring between the inser- 
tion of the petals and stamina. Filaments eight, short, 
woolly. Anthers two-lobed. Pericarp, drupes from one to 
four, though three is the most common number, slightly 
conjoined, singly, somewhat of an oblique-ovate shape, 
with an elevation running from the base to the apex on 
the outside, smooth until wrinkled by age in drying, lined 
on the inside with a smooth, tough membrane, except 
round the insertion of the seed, and there hairy, as in S. 
detergens. Seeds, or nuts solitary, round, smooth, dark- 
coloured, indeed almost black ; size of a large marrow-fat 
pea, unilocular thick and exceedingly hard. 

The leaflets in this species are always very obtuse, 
and generally emarginate ; this circumstance, together 
with a calyx, and corol of five parts, induces me to think 
Gcertner's Sapindus rigida, p. 341. 70./. 3, must be an- 
other species. 

3. S. detergens R. 

Polygamous. Leaflets from four to five pair, subalternate 
obliquely ovate-oblong, obtuse. Petioles simple. Flowers 
panicled. Calyces, and corols of five, equal, regularly 
disposed leaflets, and petals. 

Hind, and Beng. Reetha. 

Sans. C/rista. 

I have found this tree only in Bengal, though a native 



Sapindus. octandria monogynia. 281 

of most parts of India. Flowering time the beginning of 
the hot season. 

Trunk straight ; branches also nearly erect, and few of 
them. Bark smooth, and ash-coloured ; height of the tree 
generally about twenty feet. Leaves alternate, about the 
ends of the branchlets alternately pinnate ; from six to 
twelve inches long. Leaflets subalternate, from eight to 
twelve in number, or from four to six pair, entire, ob- 
liquely lanceolate, oblong, smooth on both sides, and a- 
bout four inches long. Petioles common, round, flexuose, 
smooth. Panicles terminal, and from the exterior axils, 
diffuse, composed of diverging, compound ramifications. 
Calyx five-leaved. Petals five, equal, and regular. Nec- 
tary, two woolly scales near the base of each petal. Sta- 
mens six or eight ; filaments woolly. Germ three-sided, 
sitting, with the stamens, on a large glandular recepta- 
cle. Style single and short. Drupes generally solitary, 
seldom more than one coming to maturity, one- celled, 
subglobular, very smooth, and yellow, with a pretty large 
ridge round the base on the outside, the inside mark- 
ed with the two abortive lobes of the germ. Nut solitary, 
round, and smooth, aftixed to the inside of its cells, where 
a considerable quantity of woolly fibres intervene. 

With the pulp of the fruit the Hindoos wash linen, &c. 

In January, 1808, a healthy young tree of about twen- 
ty feet in height, reared from seed, received from North 
America, under the name Sapindus Saponaria, flower- 
ed abundantly, and ripened many seeds. It differs from 
my detergens ; 1st. in being a larger tree, and more ra- 
mous. 2ad, In the leaflets being acute, and lanceolar, 
that is taper at each end. 3rd. In the calyx, and corol 
consisting of six parts each, which are rjund, and shorter 
than the germ ; and in the petals being without the two 
woolly scales, so conspicuous in detergens. I therefore 
conclude they are distinct species, and doubt if the Ame- 

Jj 



282 ocTANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Sapindus. 

rican tree is to be found indigenous in India, probably 
not in Asia. 

4. S. sqnamosus. R. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets about three-pair, sub-opposite, 
obliquely ovate, lanceolate, acute, polished, entire. Pa- 
nicles axillary and terminal. Petals five, regular, with 
two very large woolly scales. Filaments and Germs 
woolly. 

A native of the Malay Archipelago ; ray specimens were 
gathered on the Island of Nasau-lant. 

Young shoots straight, round, and a little villous. 
Leaves alternate, pinnate, sometimes abruptly, sometimes 
unequally, about six inches long. Leaflets about three pairs 
sub-opposite, short-petioletted, obliquely ovate-lanceo- 
late, rather unequally divided by the nerve, entire, acute, 
firm and polished, about three inches long. Petioles 
round, villous. Panicles axillary, and terminal, the length 
of the leaves. F/otfers numerous, small. Ca/*/ jc five-cleft, 
hairy. Petals five, equal. Nectarial scales very large, and 
very woolly. Filaments eight, equally disposed, woolly, 
inserted on the inner edge of a glandular ring which sepa- 
rates them from the petals. Germ woolly. 

5. S. longifolius. Willd. 2. 469. 

Leaflets from four to eight pair, subalternate, short-pe- 
tioletted, entire, linear-lanceolate, obluse, the most infe- 
rior pair or two oblong. Panicles terminal. Coro^ regular, 
five-petalled. 

A native of the Moluccas. 

6. S. ruhiginosus. Willd. 2. 469, R. Coram, pi l.N. 62. 
Arboreous, unarmed. Leaves abruptly pinnate ; leaflets 

from four to five pair, lanceolate, villous. Panicles ter- 
minal- Calyces live-leaved. Coro^ four-petalled. Sttjlt 
and Stigma single. Berries distinct, oblong. 



Sapindus. octandria monogynia. 283 

Teling. /shee-rashee. 

A lar^e timber tree, a native of the mountainous parts 
of the Circars. It flowers about the beginning of the hot 
season. 

Trunk perfectly erect, of considerable length and 
thickness. Branches numerous, ascending. Branc/dets 
clothed with ferruginous pubescence. Leaves alternate, 
abruptly pinnate, about a foot long. Leaflets opposite, 
from four to six pair, sublanceolar, entire, above smooth, 
downy underneath ; from three to six inches long, and 
from one to two broad. Petioles round, downy, endingin a 
downy bristle. Panicles terminal, large, erect, composed 
of simple racemes. C'a/i/A; five-leaved. Pefa/s four, placed 
on the upper side, an entirely woolly scale arises from the 
base on the inside of each. Style single, ascending, short- 
er than the stamens. Berries three when all come to per- 
fection, which is rarely the case, singly oblong, one-celled. 

The wood of this tree is very useful for a great variety 
of purposes ; being large, straight, strong, and durable, 
towards the centre it is chocolate-coloured. 

7. S.fruticGsus. R. 

Shrubby. Leaflets from three to four pair, lanceolar, 
with an orbicular pair inserted on the base of the com- 
mon petiole. Petals with small woolly scales at the base. 

It is a native of the Moluccas, and from thence intro- 
duced into the Botanic garden at Calcutta in 1798,w^here 
it blossoms in March, and the fruit ripens in May and 
June. 

The plants are as yet (1809) but small, but with an 
erect trunk, covered with smooth ash-coloured bark. 
The branches are few, weak, and much bent, even so 
as to be cernuus. 

Leaves abruptly pinnate, about a foot long. Leaflets 
three or four pair, generally alternate, subsessile, lance- 
olar, entire, of a firm texture, and smooth on both sides ; 
J j 2 



284 OCTANDRIA MONOGYNIA. SapitlduS. 

from three to six inches long, (the exterior largest,) and 
from one to two inches broad. Petioles round, smooth. 
Stipules, or inferior pair of leaflets very remarkable, 
smooth, round cordate, inserted on opposite sides of the 
base of the common petiole. Inflorescence for the most 
part axillary racemes, though sometimes terminal pa- 
nicles, composed of but few, expanding ramifications. 
Flowers small, with a ferruginous calyx, and white corol. 
Bract es solitary, one-flowered, subulate. Calyx of four 
smooth, suborbicular, ferruginous leaflets. Petals four, 
suborbicular, rather larger than the calyx, near the base 
of each is a double tuft of wool. Filaments eight, shorter 
than the corol, inserted into a woolly receptacle, which 
also receives the base of the germ. Anthers ovate. 
Germ superior, two or three-lobed, from two to three 
celled, each containing one ovula attached to the bottom 
of the cell. Style none. •S'^/^wm large, glandular, two- 
lobed. Berry two or three-lobed, size of a small cherry, 
of a bright, smooth, shining black colour, the pulp is in 
large proportion, and of a pleasant sweetish astringent 
taste. Seeds one in each lobe of the berry. Embryo 
erect, without a perisperm. 

8. S. serratus. /?. 

Leaflets numerous, alternate, lanceolate, serrate ; ra- 
chis simple. Panicles subterminal. Petals five, regular, 
with two very hairy clavate scales near the base. 

A native of the Moluccas. 



Polygonum. octandria trigynia. 285 



OCTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 

POLYGONUM. Schreh. gen. n. 677- 
Calyx none. Corol flve-parted resembling a calyx. 
Seed solitary. 

Sect. 5^y?6 two-cleft, ^eerf without angles. 

1. P. nutans. R. 

Annual, suberect, ramous. Leaves lanceolate. Sti- 
pules not bearded. Corols four-cleft. Stamens five. 
Styles two. Seed roundish, compressed. 

Several plants came up accidentally in the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta, but from whence the seed came I 
cannot be certain. 

Stem short, erect, soon dividing into many, first spread- 
ing, then ascending branches, covered with red bark, 
and maculated with still darker red, with a few short, 
white, stifi" hairs, scattered over every part, as also over 
the underside of the nerves of the leaves. Leaves short- 
petioled, lanceolate, margins a little curled, and some- 
what waved. Stiptiles membranaceous, smooth, trun- 
cated, not ciliate. Racemes terminal, and from the ex- 
terior axils, cylindric, nodding, most completely covered 
with numerous, small, white flowers. Bractes somewhat 
fringed. Corols four-cleft, opposite ; divisions a little 
unequal. Stamens five. Styles two. Seed roundish, 
pointed, much compressed, smooth. 

2. P. lanatum. R. 

Procumbent, with erect branches. Leaves linear-lan- 
ceolate, woolly ; s/jea^^es lacerated. Corol four-cleft. 
Styles two-cleft. Stamens six. Seeds round, compressed. 

Beng. Swet panee-mMrich. 

Annual, growing in ditches, &c. near Calcutta ; and 
flowering during the rains. 



2S6 ocTANUR[A TRiGYNiA- Polygonum. 

Stems herbaceous, jointed, below procumbent, and 
striking root from the joints that rest on the g^round ; a- 
bove erect, internally of a deep red colour, particularly at 
thejoints, height various. Leaves short-petioled, narrow- 
lanceolate, entire, hoary underneath, long and about 
one inch broad, withering on the plant. Stipules nea.r\y as 
long as the joints, striated, woolly, having their mouths 
lacerated, but not bearded. Racemes terminal, peduncled, 
erect,crowded with numerous, small, white flowers. Bractes 
many-flowered, &c. as in the other species. Calyx four- 
parted. Stamens six. Style two cleft. Seed round, point- 
ed, much compressed, smooth, of a shining brown colour. 

3. P. pilosum. R. 

Erect, annual, hairy. Leaves long-petioled, ovate-cor- 
date, downy ; the mouth of the sheaths spreading open. 
Style two-cleft. Stamens from seven to eight. Seeds 
round, compressed, and somewhat thin at the edge. 

Beng. Bwra-panee-mMrich. 

Lagunea Cochin Chinensis. Lourier Flor. Cochin Ch. 
272. 

Common near Calcutta, on the borders of such places 
as are inundated during the rains. Flowering time the 
begiiming of the wet season. 

Stems annual, suberect, branchy, the whole plant from 
two to four feet high, and covered with many soft greyish 
hairs. X.eat;es alternate, petioled, ovate-cordate, decurrent 
on the petiole, pointed, entire, both sides covered with 
much soft down, six inches long, and three broad. Peti- 
oles two inches long, inserted into the stipules. Stipules 
sheathing, hairy, striated, truncated, having the mouths 
ciliated, sometimes expanded, sometimes closely embrac- 
ing the stem. Racemes long-peduncled, crowded with 
small white flowers. Stamens seven, five in the fissures 
of the corol, and two embracing the germ. Style half two- 
cleft. Stigmas glohul^v. Seed round, compressed, smooth, 
brown. 



Polygonum. octandria trigynia. 287 

Note. The ends of the succulent branches, after being 
wetted became covered with a clear thick gluten. 

4. P. tomentosum. Willd. 2. 447. 

Annual, suberect. Leaves lanceolar, silky ; sheaths and 
bractes bearded. Stamens seven or eight. Stigma two- 
cleft. Seed round. 

Teling. Yeatee-mallier. 

Persicaria maderaspatana. Pluk. t. 210./. 7. good. 

This plant is annual, a native of ditches, rivulets, &c. 
appearing during the wet season. 

Stems several, below procumbent, and there rooting at 
the joints, above erect, jointed, with but few branches ; 
from two to four feet high. Leaves broad-lanceolar, short- 
petioled, silky, entire ; from four to six inches long, and 
from one to two broad. Stipules long, sheathing the stem, 
with the petioles issuing from it a little above its base, 
lobed, having the mouth bearded. Racemes (generally 
from three to five,) terminal, or from the exterior axills, 
erect, peduncled, hairy. Bractes a large exterior one at 
each joint, which embraces the rachis,and fascicle of flow- 
ers ; this is unequally lobed, and its mouth much bearded ; 
besides this there is another common one which embraces 
the fascicle of flowers only ; within it each flower has its 
proper bracte, these are not bearded. Flowers numerous, 
small, white, from six to eight at each joint, or set of 
bractes, but always expanding in succession. Stamens 
seven or eight. Style two-cleft, shorter than the stamens. 
Seed round, compressed, not in the least angular. 
Cattle eat it greedily. 

5. P. glahrum. Willd. 2. 447. 

Annual, suberect, smooth, reddish. Leaves narrow-lan- 
ceolar. Stipules a little ragged. Stamens seven. Style three- 
cleft. Seed round. 

Schovanna mudela muccu. Rheed Mai. 12. t. 77. 

Annual, a native of the same places as the other species 



288 ocTANDRiA TRiGYNiA. Polygonum. 

are, but less comnion. It is a much more elegant, deli- 
cate looking plant. 

Stems as in the last species, but deeply tinged with red. 
Leaves short-petioled, linear-lanceolar, tapering much 
towards each end, smooth on both sides, entire, from five 
to seven inches long. Stipules sheathing , lobed, short, 
smooth, adhering firmly to the stem ; mouth a little rag- 
ged, but not ciliated. Racemes as in F. tomentosum, but 
longer, slender and smooth. Bractes as in the former, but 
without a beard. Flowers numerous, rose-coloured, three 
or four in each set of bractes, appearing in succession, 
heptandrous. Sttjle three-cleft, twice as long as the sta- 
mens. Seed ovate, compressed, not in the least angular. 

6. P. perfoliatum. Willd. 2. 454. 

Prickly, scandent, perennial. Leaves triangular. SiL 
pules ample, round-oval, spreading, perfoliate. Stylethrec- 
cleft. Seed round. 

A native of various parts of India. From Nepal the 
seeds were sent by Dr. Buchanan to the Botanic garden 
at Calcutta, where the plants thrive well, and blossom 
most part of the year. 

Stems and branches slender, scandent to a considera- 
ble extent, armed with numerous, acute, recurved pric- 
kles, but without pubescence. Leaves long-petioled, 
somewhat peltate, triangular, entire smooth on both 
sides, except a few, very minute prickles on the un- 
derside of the nerve and veins ; size various, from one 
to three inches each way. Petioles as long as the leaves, 
armed. Stipules large, round, oval, surrounding the 
branch, or branchlet immediately within the insertion 
of the leaves ; smooth and unarmed. Spikes terminal, 
solitary. Bractes cordate, spike-clasping. Stamens 
from eight to ten. Style three-cleft. Seed round, smooth, 
shining black, hid in the enlarged, livid, fleshy calyx, 
and in that state appear a berry. 
It is probably a Coccoloba. 



Polygonum. octandria trigynia. 289 

7. P. chinense. Willd. 2. 453. 

Scandent, flexuose. Leaves oblong, with truncate 
base, Bractes ear-shaped. Peduncles terminal, sub- 
panicled ; floivers in globular pedicelled heads. 

A native of the eastern parts of Bengal. Flowers in 
February, March, and April. 

8. P. cymosum. R. 

Shrubby, scandent, ramous. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
entire, acute, smooth. Cymes terminal ; flowers in small 
heads, octaudrous. 

A native of Chittagoug, where it flowers in April. 

Sect. 2. Style three-cleft. Seed three-sided. 

9. P. tenellum. R. 

Annual, flaccid, ramous. Leaves lanceolar, with beard- 
ed sheaths. Racemes filiform, fascicles of flowers remote. 
Tube of the corol internally ribbed. Stamens from seven 
to eight. Styles three. Seed three-sided. 

Found in ditches, &c. low wet places all over Bengal. 
Flowering time the rainy season. 

Root fibrous, often biennial, if not perennial. Stems 
several, ramous, weak and straggling, slender, and 
smooth. Leaves subsessile, lanceolar, entire, smooth. 
Stipules on the outside furrowed, otherwise smooth, hav- 
ing their mouths crowned with long distinct filaments. 
Racemes terminal, often subpanicled, filiform. Bractes 
rather remote, obliquely truncated, ciliate, outside glan- 
dular. Flowers small, white. Corol, the mouth of its tube 
contracted with ridges, alternate, with the insertions 
of the filaments. Stamens eight. Styles three. Seed 
three-sided. 

10. P. barbatum. Willd. 2. 447. 
Branches erect, ramous, smooth. Xeaves lanceolar, 
smooth. Stipules bearded, and hairy. Racemes twiggy, 

K k 



290 



ocTANDRiA. TRiGYNiA. Polygonum. 



with fascicles of flowers rather remote. Stamens eight 
Style three-cleft. Seed three-sided. 

Telhig. Kwnda-mallier. 

It is a native of moist, or wet places amongst the 
mountains. 

Stems several, erect, ramous, slender, smooth, from 
three to four feet high, joints a little swelled. Leaves 
short-petioled, lanceolar, smooth, from three to five in- 
ches long. Stipules as long as in P. tomentosum, mouth 
much ciliate, the whole outside hairy. Racemes terminal, 
long, twiggy, short-peduncled ; fascicles of flowers rather 
remote. Bractes as in the former species, the exterior 
one ciliate and hairy. Flowers rose colour, numerous, 
in succession from the same set of bractes, octandrous. 
Style three-cleft, length of the stamens. Seed three-sid- 
ed. 

Cattle are fond of all these four species. 

11. P. rivulare. Kon. Mss. 

Annual ; branches erect. Leaves narrow-lanceolate, 
pretty smooth. Stamens eight. Style three-cleft. Seed 
three-sided. 

Velujta modela muccu. Rheed. Mai- 12. t. 76. 

Annual, a native of similar places with the last two 
species, has nearly the same appearance and habit, but 
is rather more slender than even P. glabrum. 

Leaves narrow-lanceolate, entire, pretty smooth ; from 
five to six inches long. Stipules short, obliquely lobed, 
much ciliate. Racemes as in the last described species. 
Bractes as in the former two, the exterior one is here 
bearded. Flowers numerous, crowded, from three to four 
to the set of bractes, also in succession. Stamens eight. 
Style three-cleft, twice as long as the stamens. Seed 
three-sided. 

Note. The three-sided seed and three-cleft style, dis- 
tinguish it from P. tomentosum. 



Polygonum. octandria trigynia. 291 

12. V.flaccidum. R. 

Annual, flaccid, smooth. Leaves lanceolate, with cor- 
date base, smooth. Stipules long, ciliate- Stamens eight. 
Style three-cleft. Seed three-sided. 

Beng. Panee-rawrich. 

A native of ditches, &c. near Calcutta ; flowering time 
the wet season. 

Stem scarcely any, but many, slender, straggling, 
smooth, jointed, round branches. Leaves sessile, from the 
base of the stipules, lanceolate, with the base cordate, en- 
tire, and smooth on both sides ; from one to six inches long. 
Stipules, bristles on the outside ; mouths long ciliate. 
Racemes terminal, subcylindric, crowded with small, 
white flowers. Bractes ciliate. Stamens eight. Style half 
three-cleft. Seed three-sided, smooth, of a dark brown 
colour. 

13. P. elegans. K. 

Perennial, prostrate. Leaves lanceolar. Flowers axilla- 
ry, crowded. Stamens eight. Stigma three-cleft. Seed 
three-sided. 

A native of dry, uncultivated ground, appearing and 
flowering chiefly in the dry season. 

Root simple, very long, yellow. Stems numerous, pros- 
trate, from six to twelve inches long. Branches numerous, 
bifarious. Leaves alternate, bifarious, very short-petiol- 
ed, lanceolar, dotted with small glandular points, smooth, 
margins red ; about half an inch long. Stipules sheathing, 
membranaceous;mowfA torn, and ciliated. Bractes shea.th~ 
ing, membranaceous. Flowers axillary, peduncled, 
small, rose-coloured, octandrous. Calyx, the three inte- 
rior divisions obtuse, the two exterior pointed. Styles 
three, very short. Seed three-sided, with sharp angles. 

14. P. horridum. Buch. 

Scandent, angular ; the angles armed with recurved, 
sharp aculei. Leaves sessile, linear, with a cordate base ; 

K k3 



292 OCTANDRIA TRIGYNIA. CoCColoba. 

sheaths fringed. Spikes terminal, subcylindric subpani- 
cled. 

A native of the eastern parts of Bengal. 

15. P.fagopyrum. Willd. 2. 455. 

Stem nearly erect, unarmed. Leaves petioled, cordate, 
sagittate. Flowers in loose spikes; angles of the seed 
equal. 

Found cultivated all over the mountainous countries 
north of Bengal, Oude, &c. 

COCCOLOBA. Schreb. gen. n. 678. 

Calyx beneath, five-parted, coloured. Corol none. 
Berry calycine, one-seeded. 

C. crispata. Buck. 

Perennial. Leaves short-petioled, ovate-oblong, mar- 
gins finely curled, smooth; sheaths membranaceous, 
truncate. Panicles terminal, composed of numerous 
heads, on glandular peduncles. 

A native of Nepal. In the Botanic garden at Calcut- 
ta it blossoms during the cold season. 

CARDIOSPERMUM. Schreb. gen. n. 680. 

Calyx from four to five-leaved. Coro/ four-petalled. 
Nectary four-leaved, unequal. Capsules three, united, in- 
flated. Seed solitary, globular. 

C. halicacabum. Willd. 

Sraudent, five-seeded- Leaves compound, gashed, 
smooth. Tendrils umbelliferous. 

Sung. Jyotishmwtee. 

Beng. Noaphwtki Sibjhool. 

Teling. Nalla goolisienda. 

Very common all over the southern parts of India, and 
in flower, and seed all the year. 



Odina. octandria tetragynia. 293 



OCTANDRIA TETRAGYNIA. 

ODINA. R. 

Polygamous. Hermaphrodite, CaZ^/x four- tooth- 
ed. Coro/ four-petalled. Gen« one-celled, outf?a single, 
pendulous. Drupe superior, one-seeded. Embryo in- 
verse, without perisperm, 

Male. Calyx and Corol, as in the Hermaphrodite. 

O. wodier. R. 
Sang. Jeevwla. 
Beng. Jiyal. 
Teling. Gampina. 

Hind. KMshmwlla, Kashmwlla, Kiinwl, &c. 
It is a very large tree, a native of most mountainous 
parts of the coast, Bengal, &c. it is also frequently found 
in a cultivated state, chiefly about Madras where the 
sides of the roads are lined with them. It grows readily 
from cuttings, which is I believe, the chief inducement 
for employing it ; for it is without leaves from the begin- 
ning of the year, till April or May, a season when shade 
is particularly wanted, for after that the weather, in ge- 
neral, becomes more clouded. Flowering time March and 
April, when it is perfectly naked of leaves. Nor could 
the flowers be any inducement to have it near the hous- 
es ; in short there is nothing in its favor, but its growing 
easily and quickly. 

The following description is taken from the tree in its 
wild state amongst the Circar mountains. 

Trunk straight to the branches, of no great height but 
very thick. Bark pretty smooth, ash-coloured. Branches 
numerous, the lower spreading, the upper ones disposed in 
every direction. In a cultivated state it is generally prun- 
ed very close once in two or three years, which makes the 
branches shoot more erect, but takes away from the na- 



294 OCTANDRIA TBTRAGYNIA. Oditta. 

tive bejiuty of the tree, and renders the shade when in 
foliage mnch less extensive, than in its natural state. 
Liaves alternate, about the ends of the branchlets. piu- 
nate with an odd one, from twelve to eighteen inches 
long. Leaflets generally three or four pair, opposite, ses- 
sile, oblong, ovate, pointed, smooth, entire ; about live in- 
ches long, and two bioad, the exterior ones largest. Ra- 
cemes terminal, tiliform. pendulous if long, which they ge- 
nerally are, if short spreading. Bractes minute, falling. 
Flowers small, purple, inodorous. 

In general the Hermaphrodite and Male (lowers (there 
are no other sort that ever I saw.) are on the same tree, 
and even mixed on the same racemes ; the male are by far 
the most numerous ; sometimes but rarely they are on a 
separate tree. 

Hermaphrodite. Calyx four-toothed, small, perma- 
nent. Petals four, oblong, concave, spreading. Filaments 
eight, spreading, rather shorter than the petals. Anthers 
ovate. Germ superior, oblong, one-celled, containing 
one ovula, attached to the top of the coll. Styles four, 
short, erect. Stigmas simple. Drupe kidney-form, smooth, 
the size of a large trench bean, when ripe red, one-celled. 
Nut the shape of the berry, one-celled. Seed conform to 
the nut ; no perisperm. Embryo inverse, curved. 

Male. Calyx, Corol. and Stamens as in the hermaphro- 
dite. Pistil the rudiments of a germ, with a short, four- 
toothed style. 

The wood of old trees is close grained, of a deep red- 
dish mahogany colour towards the centre. This colour- 
ed part is serviceable for many uses, and looks well. The 
w hite w ood is fit for no use that I know of. 

From wounds in the bark there issues a gum, whicb, 
when dry, is much like pieces of dry glue ;but I know of 
no use it is put to. 

This is the tree Dr. Anderson calls Wodur in his niis- 
cellauies. 



CLASS IX. 

ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

LAURUS. Schreh. gen. n. «fJ8. 

Calyx one-leaved, six-cleft. Corol none. Anthers four- 
celled. Cerm superior, one-celled ; attachment .superior. 
Berry .superior, one-.seeded. Embryo inverse, without 
perispenn. 

.SECT. 1. Leaves opposite. 

1. It. Cinnamomum. W'dld. 2. 477. 

Leaves oppo.site, ovate-oblon;,', three-nerved. Panicles 
terminal, with the extreme ramifications three-flowered. 
Nectar ial glands .sagittate. 

Cinnarrioinum foliis latis, &c. Jiurm. zeyl. (}2 t. 27. 

Ka.s.s<: Koroude of the .same. 

Dar-cheen«, often pronounced dal-cheene, the Persian, 
llindee and Bengalee name of Cinnamon. Twu\<.-\mira, 
Ootkuia, Bhng«, Twwcha, Chocha, V^wranguka, are some 
of the numerous Sanscrit names of Cinnamon, and Dr. 
Carey says the last three are also given to the hark of 
Laurus Cassia, commonly called Cassia lignea, or Cas- 
sia bark. 

This well known tree seems still to require a little 
illustration, particularly as there are no doubt several 
varieties, if not species, included under this name. 
When General Hay Macdowall was in command on the 
Lsland of Ceylon, he sent to the liotanic garden at Cal- 
cutta in 1801, several plants of the first, or best sort ; 
called by the Cingalese Kasse Koronde. Tlicse plants 
have now, 1810, attained to the height of twenty 
feet ; the trunk is short, and from sixteen to eighteen 



296 ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LttUrUS, 

inches in circumference. The bark thereof scabrous, 
and considerably cracked in various directions, that 
of the younger parts smooth. The head remarkably ra- 
mous, large, and dense, for the last three or four years 
they have flowered freely during the months of January and 
February ; and ripened abundance of berries. It is from 
these the following description was taken. The drawing 
and description, No. 1058,* was made from young trees, 
which were reared by me at Samwlkota, from the seeds of 
the trees growing in Tinnevellee, near Palamkotta, which 
were procured from Ceylon in 1781 or 1782, and which 
diflfer from this in the leaves being much narrower at the 
base, in short, broad-lanceolar, and the three nectarial 
glands clavate. The sort introduced into Bengal by Mr. 
Hastings, between thirty and forty years ago is of this 
narrow leaved, inferior kind. 

Descriptions ofKasse Koronde. 
Leaves opposite, rarely sub-opposite, short-petioled, 
ovate-oblong, entire, rather obtuse ; texture hard, surfa- 
ces polished, the three nerves often uniting a little above 
the base, and the lateral two vanishing beyond the middle 
of the leaves ; from four to six inches long, and from one 
and a half to three broad. Petioles about half an inch 
long, smooth, and channelled. Paw?c/es terminal; the large 
ramifications opposite, expanding,the extreme ones three- 
flowered, all more or less four- sided, and smooth. Flow- 
ers nnmerous, small, greenish-white, smell rather ofiensive. 
Bractes minute, caducous. Cahjx six -cleft ; base entire, 
embracing the germ ; border divided into six, oblong, 
slightly villous segments, the three exterior rather broad- 
er, all are permanent and from a cupula, or small cup in 
which the berry sits, as in the common oak. Corol no o- 
ther than the last described body. Filaments nine, the six 
exterior inserted on the base of the segments of the calyx, 

* Sent to the Honourable the Court of Directors. 



Laurus. enneandria monogynia, 297 

and without glands, the other three have a conglobate 
gland on each side, and alternate with the three short 
pedicelled, sagittate, nectarial bodies, inserted a little 
lower down. Anthers four-lobed, &c. as in the other spe- 
cies. Germ ovate, one-celled, containing one ovula, at- 
tached to the top of the cell. Style length of the sta- 
mina. Stigma three-lobed. Berries oblong-oval, smooth, 
succulent, when ripe, dark blackish purple, the size of a 
field-bean, one-celled, one-seeded. Seed conform to the 
berry. Perisperm none. Embryo inverse. Cotyledons ob- 
long, fleshy. Plumula two-lobed. Radicle ovate, supe- 
rior. 

2. L. malabathrica. Soland. Mss. 

Leaves oblong, three-nerved, with the lateral nerves 
distinct to the very apex. Panicles terminal. 
Katou-karua. Rheed. Mai. 5. t. 53. 
A native of the Malabar mountains. 

3. L. cassia. Willd. 2. 477. 

Leaves subopposite, lanceolar, triple nerved. Panicles 
axillary with simple, three-flowered ramifications. Nec- 
tarial glands sagittate. Stigma triangular. 

Sans. Twuk-pwtra. 

Tej-pat the Hindoo name of the leaves. 

Carua. Rheed. Mai. 1. t. 57. 

Cinnamomum perpetuo florens of Burnt. Zeyl. 1. 28. is 
too broad in the leaf, and too ovate for this, and seems to 
me to agree better with my next species L. multiflora, 
which is also a native of Ceylon. 

An elegant large tree, a native of the various moun- 
tains of the continent of India. The trees are now com- 
mon in gardens about Calcutta, originally from the moun- 
tains of Tippera. Flowering time, in the gardens, the 
beginning of the warm season ; the seed ripens in July. 

L 1 



298 ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LauruS, 

Trunk straight. Bark smooth, oi" a greenish ash-colour. 
Branches numerous, forming an elegant, tall, oblong 
head. Xmi/essubopposite, drooping, short-petioled, lan- 
ceolar, triple nerved, smooth and polished on both 
sides ; about five inches long, and one and a half broad. 
Panicles axillary, or terminal, on small axillary branch- 
lets, as long as the leaves. Ramifications opposite, sim- 
ple, each bearing three short-pedicelled, small, whitish 
flowers. Bractes minute, caducous. Calyx as in the ge- 
nus. Segments villous. Nectarial glands sagittate, and 
yellow. Filaments nine, six in the exterior series, 
without glands ; and three in the inner, with glands. Stig- 
ma clavate, three-lobed. Berry oval, the size of a black 
currant, smooth, succulent, when ripe black, one-celled. 
Seed conform to the berry. Embryo inverse, w itbout pe- 
risperm. 

This differs from all the other species hitherto describ- 
ed by me, not only in the narrowness of the leaves, but 
in the lateral nerves thereof issuing from the middle nerve 
considerably above the base. The panicles also differ 
greatly ; for here the ramifications are simple, and bear 
three flowers ; there they are compound, and umbellifer- 
ous. In both this, and multiflora (which is the species it 
comes nearest to,) the nectarial glands are sagittate, but 
there the stigma is peltate, here three-lobed. 

4. L. multiflora. R. 

Leaves opposite, three-nerved, ovate-lanceolar, the 
nerves vanishing towards the top. Panicles terminal, 
and axillary, with compound umbelliferous ramifications. 
Nectarial glands sagittate. Stigma peltate. 

Cinnamomum perpetuo florens. Burm. zeyl p. 63. t, 
28. appears to be this plant, and is the only figure known 
to me that I can well refer to. 

This small elegant tree, as far as I know, is only 
found in Ceylon, and approaches the true Cinnamon ; 



Laurus. enneandria monogynia. 299 

yet I must deem them distinct species for the reason 
mentioQcd throughout the description, and in a note at 
the bottom.* 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, ovate, or ovate-lanceo- 
late, entire, very smooth on both sides, three-nerved, with 
the lateral nerves vanishing towards the apex. Stipules 
none. Panicles from the exterior axils, and terminal, 
crowded with numerous, cross-armed ramifications, divid- 
ing into others, and finally ending in umbellets of small, 
whitish-yellow flowers. Calyx of six divisions, which are 
sublanceolate, nearly equal and very downy, particular- 
ly on the inside. Nectarial glands, the three that stand 
alternate with the three interior stamens are sagittate, 
and purple. Stamens, the three interior filaments have 
each a pair of large, flat, crenulate glands near the middle, 
as in L. Cinnamomum, &c. Anthers with four polenifer- 
ous pits. Stigma large, peltate. 

5. L. culitlaban. Willd. 2. 478. 

Arboreous. Branches appressed. ieayes apposite, ovate, 
lanceolate, triple-nerved, retrofracted. Panicles terminal, 
and axillary. Pedicells three-flowered. Nectarial scales 
sagittate. 

Mai. Culit-lawan, Culi-lawan, or Cortex caryophyl- 
laides. Rumph. Amb. 2. t. 14. 

About the year 1802, many plants of this tree were re- 
ceived into the Company's Botanic garden at Calcutta 
from Amboyna, and in the dry seasons of 1809 10 the only 
plant that remained alive blossomed. It is about twelve 

* The remarkable, umbelliferous, extreme ramifications of the 
panicles in this species, readily distinguish it from others hither- 
to described by me. I must, at the same time say, that I think 
every attempt to find clear, correct, specific marks in the leaves- 
alone, will prove fruitless. 

L 12 



300 ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LaurUS. 

feet high, slender as the common Cypress, in conse- 
quence of the branches being short, erect, and pressed 
to the stem. The bark of the trunk, which is about as 
thick as a man's arm, is ash-coloured ; of the round 
young shoots a shining deep green, from it the Malays 
obtain an essential oil by distillation ; and Dr. Fleming- 
informs me that he has seen various specimens of it from 
Bencoolen, and says it smelt like a mixture of sassafras 
and cloves. 1 suppose that its medical virtues agree 
with those of the essential oils of those substances. 
Murray says that the inhabitants of Amboyna esteem 
it an excellent remedy in a retention of urine, given in 
a dose of six drops twice a day. 

Leaves for the most part perfectly opposite, short-pe- 
tioled, refracted, broad-ovate-lanceolate, triple-nerved, 
of a hard texture, and with a polished, deep green surface, 
from three to five inches long, and from one to two 
broad. Panicles terminal and axillary, shorter than the 
leaves, brachiate, the ultimate divisions three-flowered. 
Flowers small, white, inodorous. Bractes oblong, or lan- 
ceolate, opposite at the divisions of the panicle. Calyx 
to near the base, six-parted, &c. as in the other species. 
Stamina also as in the other East Indian species. Nec- 
tarial glands with very exactly sagittate heads. Germ 
ovate, one-celled containing one seed, attached to the 
top of the cell. Style of a middling length. Stigma ob- 
scurely three- toothed. 

6. L. nitida. R. 

Leaves opposite, broad-lanceolar, obtuse, triple-nerved, 
glossy. Panicles axillary, and below the leaves, with 
simple, three-flowered, ramifications. Glands of the in* 
ner filaments pedicelled. 

Cassia Coolit manees Marsden's Sumatra, p. 125. 

A native of Sumatra, from thence Dr. Charles Camp- 
bell sect plants in 1802, to the Botanic garden at Cal- 



Laurus. enneandria monogynia. 301 

cutta under the Malay name KooUt manees. After 
seven years the young trees blossomed in February, and 
ripened their seeds in May. 

Trunk straight, in our young trees the bark is yet quite 
smooth, and of a greenish ash-colour. Branches, and 
branchlets spreading. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, 
broad-lanceolar, distinctly triple-nerved to near the 
apex, permanent, of a firm texture, polished, and very 
smooth on both sides, but paler coloured underneath ; 
five or six inches long, and from one and a half to two 
broad ; when young, coloured ; when bruised they emit a 
pleasant spicy odour. Petioles short, and channelled. 
Panicles below the tender leaves of the young shoots, and 
also solitary in their axils, and shorter than them, com- 
posed of opposite, and alternate, three-flowered, diverging 
peduncles. Flowers small, pale yellow. Segments of 
the calyx, (corol. Linn.) oval and hairy on the inside. 
Nectarial glands ; the inner three cordate-sagittate, on 
short pedicells. Those attached to the inner three fila- 
ments, are also supported on short pedicells, which 
issue from their filaments a little above their base. This 
circumstance alone, if constant, distinguishes it from all 
the other species of this genus which I have yet met 
with, for in all the rest they are sessile. 

Germ conical, one-celled, with one seed, attached to 
the top of the ceil. Stigma three-lobed. Berry obovate, the 
size of a field-bean, polished, and when ripe, of a deep 
dark green bordering on grey, one-celled. Seed solitary, 
conform to the berry. Integuments two, both thin, and of a 
dark, dull brown colour. Perisperm none. Embryo con- 
form to the seed, inverse, pale green. Plumula conic, 
three-lobed. Radicle roundish, superior. 

7. L. recurvata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves subopposite, ovate, long-pointed, 
with the two lateral nerves evanescent towards the 



302 ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LuurUS. 

apex. Nectarial glands with cordate heads. Peduncles 
axillary, three-flowered. 

There are several trees of this species in Mr. Cox's gar- 
den at Russapugla near Calcutta, formerly Mr. John- 
son's ; the plants are said to have been originally from 
China. Flowering time the hot season. 

Trunk short, with suberect, rigid branches forming a 
large, oblong, erect bush. Bark smooth, and more or 
less green, accordiug to age. Leaves subopposite, short- 
petioled, ovate, taperinj^ to a long narrow point, recurv- 
ed, three-nerved, with the two lateral vanishing towards 
the apex, on both sides smooth. Peduncles axillary, or 
opposite, on the present years shoots below the leaves ; 
solitary, three-flowered. Carol, nectary, stamens, and 
pistil as in L. Dulcis. 

The leaves possess a considerable share of a sweetish 
aromatic taste ; but are much weaker than those of dulcis, 
and the bark still more so. 

8. L. ohtusifolia. R. 

Leaves opposite, three-nerved, lanceolar, obtuse. Pa- 
nicies terminal, with an involucre of four large leaves, 
and a bud in the centre, smooth. Nectarial glands cor- 
date-sagittate. Berries oval. Kinton is the vernacular 
name in Silhet, and Ramtejpatat Chittagong. 

A large tree, a native of the mountainous countries 
immediately east of Bengal, where it blossoms in J anua- 
ry and February, and the seed ripens in July and August. 
It has the habit of the Cinnamon tree, but grows to a 
much greater size, being as large as the mango tree. The 
limber is said to be very useful, and as it can be had of 
a large size, it is used for various purposes. 

Branches opposite ; the young ones smooth, and some- 
what four-cornered. Leaves opposite, when they attend 
the panicles subquatern,short-petioled, lanceolar, obtuse, 
entire^ completely three-nerved, of a very firm texture. 



Laurus. enneandria monogynia. 303 

smooth, of a deep, shining green on the upper surface, and 
glaucous underneath ; from six to ten inches long, and 
from two to three and a half broad. Panicles many, round 
a smooth scaly bud, which forms the apex of the branch- 
let, and also from the axils of their subquatern leaves, 
long-peduncled, subdecussate ; ramifications smooth, and 
tending to be four-cornered ; ultimate divisions three- 
flowered. Flowers very numerous, small, greyish-yel- 
low. Bractes caducous at an early period, clothed with 
greyish, sericeous pubescence. Calyx six-cleft, &c. as in 
the genus, somewhat sericeous. Nectar ial filaments hairy, 
with large cordate-sagittate heads. Stamina as in the ge- 
nus, the inner three filaments have their glands clavate, 
and hairy. Germ superior, ovate, one-celled, containing 
a single ovula, attached to the top of the cell. Style 
shorter than the stamina. Stigma large, three-angled. 
Berries oval, succulent, the size of a field bean, smooth ; 
when ripe, black, one-celled, one-seeded, &c. as in the 
genus. 

9. L. dulcis. R. 

Leaves sub-opposite, three-nerved, lanceolate. Pa. 
nicies terminal and axillary ; nectarial glands with pur- 
ple cordate heads. 

This elegant, tall, slender, small tree, I have only 
found in an Armenian's garden near Calcutta, who in- 
forms me that he got the plants from China about seven 
years ago ; they are in flower about the beginning of the 
hot season, in March and April, the seed ripens early in 
the rains. 

Trunk straight, and high in proportion to its thickness ; 
bark ash-coloured, and smooth. Branches elegantly scat- 
tered in all directions, with extremities often pendulous, 
forming a slender, oblong head. Leaves opposite, or 
nearly so, drooping, short-petioled, lanceolate, entire, ra- 
ther obtuse, three-nerved, with the lateral ones vanishing 



304 ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LaurUS, 

above the middle, smooth, deep green on both sides ; 
about four or five inches long, and from one to one and 
a half broad ; when young coloured like those of the Cin- 
namon tree. Panicles terminal, or opposite near the ex- 
tremities of last year's shoots, or the base of the present ; 
when so, the coloured leafy shoot from the centre, gives to 
the whole the appearance of a large tufted panicle. Bractes 
minute, caducous. Flowers small, of a pale yellowish 
colour, on pretty long, slender, diverging pedicels. Calyx 
none. Carol as in L. Cinnamomum. Nectarial glands 
cordate, dark purple, on short, thick, yellow filaments. 
Stamens exactly as in L. Cinnamomum. Germ ovate. 
Style crooked, the length of the stamens. Stigma pretty 
large, and glandular. T 

From tho sweet aromatic taste, and smell of the leaved 
and bark of this pretty tree, I am inclined to think it is 
this which yields the thin, small, quilled cinnamon like 
Cassia, and Cassia-buds carried from China to Europe 
and elsewhere. 

It is readily distinguished from L. cinnamomum by 
its long narrow leaves in which the nerves vanish a little 
above the middle, and by its cordate nectarial glands. 
From Laurus Cassia it is readily distinguished by its 
leaves ; there the nerves are triple, (that is they meet the 
main or middle one considerably above the base of the 
leaves) and continue distinct to near the apex, as in Ca- 
rua Rheed. Mai. vol. 1. /. 57. 

SECT. 2. Leaves alternate. 

10. L. camphorifera. Willd. 2. 478. 

Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, taper-pointed, three- 
nerved. Panicles axillary, with alternate corymbiform 
ramifications. Nectarial glands clavate, hairy. 

The trees from which my description, and drawing of 
this famous plant are taken, grow at Hottentos Holland 
near Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 



Laurus. enneandria monogynia. 305 

They were brought to that place from Sumatra, or 
Java by Governor Vanderstell, in l(J92-3, the trunk of 
these trees, now 1798, is short in proportion to their thick- 
ness, rather crooked, and from ten to twelve or even 
more feet in circumference. The whole tree lias much the 
appearance of a fine old oak. I saw about twenty of them, 
besides which many have been cut down for the wood, nor 
could 1 learn that any attempts had been made to pro- 
cure Camphire from them ; though the owner. Mynheer 
De Vos says, he has often observed minute whitish 
grains amongst the fibres of the wood, but knew not 
what they were, and paid no attention to them. Many 
young trees and plants are to be found in the neighbour- 
hood. They all seem perfectly at home. M. De Vos 
would certainly find it worth his while to cut up into 
chips every refuse piece, and sublime, or distil it with 
water in an iron retort, covered with an earthen, or 
wooden head, in the cavity whereof hay or straw should be 
put to which the Camphor as it rises would adhere. See 
Kcemp. Amoen. p. 772. Thunberg, &c. authors who have 
written on the subject. 

The Leaves are alternate, petioled, ovate, and oblong- 
lanceolate, smooth, entire, pointed, triple-nerved, the 
nerves less regularly disposed than in any of the other spe- 
cies, and vanishing about the middle of the leaf ; they are 
from three to four inches long including the petiole, which 
is from a third to a fourth of the whole. 

Stipules none. Panicles axillary, solitary, about as 
long as the leaves, and composed of small, alternate, 
corymbiform ramifications. Flowers numerous, all her- 
maphrodite that I have examined, small, of a pale green- 
ish yellow. Bractes small, caducous. Corol, nectarial 
glands, stamina, pistil and berry exactly as in L. Cinna- 
momum. See the description thereof. 

The alternate leaves, and alternate ramifications of 

M m 



306 ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LauruS. 

the panicles, imraediately distinguish this species from 
all the others I have yet met with. 

This is far removed from the famous camphor tree of 
Sumatra, which is a Shorea. 

Laurus camphorifera. Kcempf. Amoen. 770. t. 771. 

Leaves alternate, oblong, ventricose, acuminate, sub- 
triple-nerved, with glands in their axils. Racemes axilla- 
ry, nectarial glands conglobate. 

This slow growing, handsome tree, is a native of the 
Malay Islands, and was introduced into the Botanic gar- 
den at Calcutta in 1802 ; now 1810, the largest of many 
individuals is only eight or ten feet high, clothed with 
spreading branches down to the ground. They now be- 
gin to blossom in April. 

Trunk in our young trees short, variously bent, divid- 
ing into many, far expanding, ramous branches. Bark 
of the oldest woody parts rather scabrous ; of the young 
shoots smooth, polished, glaucous-green. Leaves alter- 
nate, no tendency toward being opposite, petioled, of an 
ovate, oblong-ventricose shape, entire, waved, tapering 
at the apex to a long sharp point, while young, of a soft, 
when old, of a firm, or rather hard texture, of a polished 
deep green above, glaucous underneath, somewhat triple- 
nerved, and in the axils of the nerves little glands, as men- 
tioned by the accurate Koempfer ; from two to four inches 
long. In this species they are particularly permanent, and 
what is uncommon in these countries, scaly conical buds 
are formed. The leaves, bark, and succulent parts smell 
strongly of camphor when bruised. Petioles slender, chan- 
nelled, scarcely an inch long. Racemes axillary, short, and 
as yet simple, and bearing but very few, subopposite, small 
whitish, pedicelled flowers. Bractes minute, and cadu- 
cous. Calyx and Stamina as in the genus. Nectarial 
glands three which (as in all the other species of Laurus 
described by me,) are alternate with the inner three fila- 



Laurus. enneandria monogynia. 307 

ments, sessile, conglobate, and yellow. The other three 
pairs are small, and attached laterally to the very base of 
the inner three filaments. Stamina as in the other species. 
Germ superior, ovate, one-celled, containing one seed, at- 
tached to the top of the cell. Style about as long as the 
stamina. Stigma three-lobed. Berry sub-globular, size 
and colour of a black currant. Seed solitary. Embryo in- 
verse, without perisperm, &c. as in the genus. 

11. L; glaucescens. R. 

ifai;esalternate,narrow-lanceolate, triple-nerved. Flow- 
ers in lateral fascicles. 

A native of the northern Circar mountains, behind 
Rajamundree. 

Laurus syluestris. B. H. 

Arboreous. Leaves alternate, lanceolar, acuminate, 
one-nerved. Panicles terminal, toraentose (with a tomen- 
tose scaly bud in the centre.) Nectarial glands, broad- 
cordate-sagittate. Berries spherical. 

Orook, the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is indi- 
genous, growing to the size of the mango tree. It flowers 
in February, and the seed ripens in April and May. The 
timber of this tree is made use of by the natives for vari- 
ous economical purposes. 

Leaves alternate, short-petioled, broad-lanceolar, and 
though acuminate, tapering most toward the base, en- 
tire, smooth on both sides, but glaucous underneath ; (no 
tendency to the tri or triple-nerve habit,) from three to 
six inches long, and two broad. Stipules none. Panicles 
terminal, several, round a terminal scaly tomentose bud, 
the length of the leaves, having every part amply clothed 
with soft, light-brown pubescence, and composed of 
alternate, dichotomous branches ; each division three- 
flowered, and one in the fork. Bractes small, villous, 
caducous. Calyx six-cleft. Segments oblong, villous on 
both sides, permanent. Nectarial glands with short fila- 

M m 2 



308 ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LttUrUS. 

ments, and broad-sagittate-cordate heads. Stamina as 
in the genus, viz. six forming the exterior series, with the 
side of the anthers containing the four poleniferous pits 
facing the stigma ; the inner three with their anthers re- 
versed ; (i. e. the four poleniferous pits facing outward. 
Germ ovate, one-celled, containing one ovida attached 
to the top of the cell. Style shorter than the stamina. 
Stigma small, and obscurely three-toothed. Berries round, 
&c. in size and appearance much like a large black cur- 
rant. Seed solitary, round, &c. as in the genus. 

12. L. porrecta. R, 

Leaves alternate, oblong, veined, glaucous underneath. 
Paw/c/es lateral. Nectarial glands ssigiiia,te. Stigma three- 
toothed. Berries round. 

Cayoo-gaddees. Mar sden's Sumatra, p. 129. 

A native of Sumatra. From thence Dr. Charles Campbell 
sent plants to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where af- 
ter seven years they blossomed during the cool months 
of December and January, and ripened their berries in 
MaJ^ Roots, the ligneous parts very much like sassafras, 
and possessing the same pleasant, sweetish, aromatic 
taste and fragrance. Trunk straight to the top of the tree, 
and clothed with numerous branches to the base ; the lower 
ones reclinate, with their extremities ascending, the supe- 
rior ones expanding. Bark on the trunk, and old branch- 
es, of a brow nish ash-colour, and somewhat scabrous ; on 
the young ones smooth and green ; height of the tree, in 
seven years, about twenty feet. Leaves alternate, petioled, 
veined,* permanent, oblong, entire, generally acuminate, 
firm, both sides smooth, the upper polished, the under 
glaucous, from three to six inches long, and from two to 
three broad. Petioles about an inch long, channelled, 

* The trinerve or triple-nerve habit, so general amongst our East 
India Lauri is not found in this species. 



Laurus. enneandria monogynia. 309 

smooth and slender. Panicles lateral, scattered round 
the base of the young shoots, below their tender fo- 
liage, solitary, long-peduncled, expanding, small, com- 
posed of a few, nearly diverging branchlets. Flowers 
numerous, pedicelled, small, pale yellow. Bractes few, mi- 
nute, caducous. Calyx with border divided into six al- 
ternately rather smaller, oblong, obtuse, expanding seg- 
ments, which are somewhat hairy on the inside. Nec- 
tarial glands three, with sagittate yellow heads, alter- 
nate, with the inner three stamina, and three pair on 
their filaments, immediately below the anthers. Fila- 
ments nine ; six in the exterior series, inserted on the 
base of the divisions of the calyx, and three on the in- 
ner inserted with the sagittate nectarial glands, round the 
mouth of its tube. Anthers oval, with four poliniferous, 
lidded pits, on the inside of the exterior series, and four 
on the inside of the iimer. Germ superior, ovate, one- 
celled, with one seed attached to the top of the cell. Style 
short. Stigma three-toothed. Berry globular, the size of a 
small black currant, smooth, when ripe succulent, and of 
a dark purple colour, the pulp smells exactly like the 
fresh skin of a green orange, one-celled. Seed solitary, 
round. Integuments two ; the exterior one rather hard, 
and dark brown; the interior one membranaceous, and 
adhering to the cotyledons. Perisperm none. Embryo in- 
verse. Cotyledons semispherical. Plumula two, lobate. 
Radicle ovate, superior. 

13. L. lanceolaria, R. 

Arboreous, every part glossy. Leaves alternate, lan- 
ceolar, acuminate, one-nerved. Panicles axillary, and 
round the base of the young shoots. Berries oblong. 

SMudh^ool, the vernacular name in Silhet where it is 
indigenous. It grows to be a middling sized tree, the wood 
of which the natives convert into various useful purposes. 

Flowering time April ; the fruit ripens ia the rains. 



310 ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LaitrUS. 

Branchlets crowded, or subverticillated. smooth, cloud- 
ed. Leaves nhemaie, petioled, lanceolar, taperiuo equally 
at each end, acuminate, one-nerved, entire, shining ; from 
four to six inches long, and from one to one and a half 
broad. Panicles axillary, and round the base of the 
young shoots, from the axils of the scales which formed 
the bud of the shoot, and also from the axils of the leaves 
of the shoots, longpeduncled, small, smooth. Bractes, the 
inferior ones like the leaves, but small, those of the sub- 
divisioDS linear. Flowers numerous, small, pale yellow. 
Calyx six-parted. Segments oval, smooth. Stamina 
as in the genus. Xectarial glands broad, cordate-sagit- 
tate, their pedicles hairy on the inside. Germ ovate, 
one-celled, containing one ovula attached to the top of 
the cell. Style cylindric. Stigma three-lobed. Berries 
oblong, succulent, smooth, black, one-celled, &c. as in 
the genus, 

14. L. villosa. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves alternate, petioled, lanceolar, one- 
nerved. Panicles axillary and round the base of the 
young downy shoots, villous. Berries spherical. 

A large tree, a native of the forests of Chittagong, 
where it blossoms in January. 

Trunk in full grown trees in their native soil, from four to 
five feet in circumference and covered with scabrous, dark 
brown bark ; young tender shoots tomeutose, but becom- 
ing smooth by the second year. Leaves alternate, petioled, 
lanceolar, entire, one-nerved, obtuse-pointed, when they 
first begin to expand soft and very downy, like the twigs 
that bear them, but soon becoming hard and somewhat 
slossy ; from four to six inches long, and from one and a 
half to two broad. Panicles axillary, and round the base 
of the young shoots, copious, the length of the leaves, very 
ramous, and very downy. Bractes small, downy. Calyx, 
stamina and germ as in the genus, permanent. Xectariiil 



Laurun. enneanuria monogynia. 311 

gl/mfh podicftUofl, trian^^nlarly sagittate. Jierriei sphe- 
rical, oi the size and appearance of a bhirk currant. .S>e</ii 
and Kinhryo as in the genus. 

15. L. hiUjcularu. R. 

Arboreous, with a straight trunk, and many, far-ex- 
tended branches. Leaven opposite, and alternate, broad- 
lanceolar, veined. HacemeH solitary under the leaves, or 
axillary. /''/7tfm<?n^« without glands. Neclariea xwnt. An- 
tkern hilociilar. Berries oblong, glaucous, 

A native of the country about Tippera, from thence 
Stephen Harris, Enq. sent plants to the Botanic garden 
at Calcutta in 1797, where at the age of ten years, they 
blossomed in March, and the fruit ripened in June. 

Trunk straight. In trees thirteen years old, two feet in 
circumference four feet from the root, covered with 
smooth, ash-coloured bark. Branches very numerous, and 
spreading horizontally to a great extent, forming a large, 
uncommonly dense, broad-ovate .shady head ; young 
shoots round and smooth, j^een on the .side most remote 
from the sun, and purplish on the other. Leaves oppo- 
site and alternate, petioled, veined, broad-lanceolar, of- 
ten unequal at the ba.se, entire, obtu.se.pointed, smooth 
on both sides ; about six inches long and two broad, 
deciduous during the cold season, and appearing with the 
flowers in .March. Petioles one-nixth or one-eighth the 
length of the leaves, round, smooth. Peduncles dLxiUnry 
and from the ba.se of the young .shoots below the tender 
leaves, solitary, scarcely .so long as the petioles, round, a 
little villous, bearing a few, viz. from six to twelve, small 
pedicelled pretty yellow flowers, in form of a raceme. 
Bractes one under the in.sertion of each pedicel, ovate, ca- 
ducous. Calyx of .six oblong, villous, expanding.segments, 
&c. as in all the other species examined by me. Corol 
none. Filaments nine, six in the outer series and three in 
the inner, all without glands. Anthers oblong-oval e, bilo- 



312 ENNEANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Anacardium. 

cular, that is with only one oblong, polleniferous pit 
on each side, as in Cassyta, this species differing from 
all I have yet met with, the rest having two pits on each 
side. Nectarial glands nine, all pediceiled ; six alter- 
nate, with the six exterior stamina, with larger, and 
more rounded heads, and three alternate with the inner 
three, and of a cordate-sagittate shape, all yellow and 
fleshy. Germ ovate, one-celled, with one seed attach- 
ed to the top of the cell. Style straight, length of the fila- 
ments. Stigma somewhat three-cornered. Berries ob- 
long, as thick as the largest olive and considerably long- 
er, being about two inches long, and one in diameter, 
smooth, when ripe a deep dark purple, covered with much 
whitish-grey bloom which easily rubs off. Pulp pale 
yellow. Seed solitary, conform to the berry. Integument 
somewhat nuciform, and lined with a thin membrane. 
Perisperm none. Embryo inverse. Cotyledons conform 
to the seed. Plumule of two minute lobes. Radicle round- 
ish, superior. 



ANACARDIUM. Schreh. gen. n. 1582. 

Calyx five-parted. Petals five, reflexed. Germ superi- 
or, one-celled, one-seeded, attachment lateral. Nut reni- 
form, resting on a fleshy receptacle. Embryo erect, with- 
out perisperm. 

1. A. occidentale. Willd. 2. 486. 

Kapa mava. Rheed. Mai. 3, t. 54. 

Cassuvium. Rumpli. Amb. 1. t. 69. 

Hind, and Beng. H^jMlee-b^^dam. 

Acajuba occidentalis, Gcert. sem. 1. 192. t.40.f. 2. 

A tree common in the East and West Indies. In the 
former it is found in the vicinity of the sea only, where 
the soil is almost perfect sand. Flowering time March 
and April. 



Anacardium. enneandria monogynia. 313 

Trunk short, thick and very crooked. Bark considerably 
rough, and in old trees deeply cracked. Branches numer- 
ous, spreading in every direction to a great extent. Young 
shoots round, and smooth. Leaves alternate, rather short, 
petioled, obovate, with a rounded or emarginate apex ; 
smooth on both sides and of a hard texture, from four 
to eight inches long. Panicles terminal, bearing both 
barren and fertile hermaphrodite flowers intimately inter- 
mixed, small, and of the same size and external appear- 
ance. There may be trees which produce barren flowers 
only. Bractes gibbous, lanceolate. Calyx inferior, five- 
cleft nearly to the base ; divisions oblong, conic, acute, and 
pretty smooth. Pe^a/s five, linear-lanceolate, revolute, of 
a pale yellow colour, with longitudinal pink stripes. Fila- 
ments generally nine, united at the base into a ring round 
the germ, one of them particularly in the sterile flowers, 
more than double the length of the others. Anthers, they 
appear to be all fertile, that of the major filament larger. 
Germ in the barren flowers minute, with a very short style, 
in the fertile flowers obliquely obcordate ; one-celled, 
with one reniform seed attached to the side of its cell. 
Style long, becoming convolute, as if to bring the simple 
stigma into contact w ith the large anther of the long fila- 
ment. Fruit as described and figured, by Goert. vol. 1. 
J 92. t. 40. 

2. A. dubium. R. 

A native of Sumatra, and said to be a large and beau- 
tiful tree. 

Branchlets round, and smooth. Leaves alternate, 
short-petioled, lanceolate, entire, smooth, from four to 
six inches long, and about two broad. Stipules none. 
Panicles terminal, thin, pretty large, and composed of 
a few, alternate, compound, and simple corymbiferous 
ramifications. Flowers numerous and small. Calyx 
inferior, one-leaved, bifid. Segments rounded. Petals 

N n 



314 ENNEANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Casijtas. 

four, five, or six, (five most common,) inserted round 
the middle of the clavate receptacle which elevates them, 
the stamina and pistil above the calyx linear-lanceolar. 
Filaments four, five, or six, corresponding with the num- 
ber of petals, inserted on the receptacle below the germ, 
lather shorter than the corol. Anthers oblong. Germ ob- 
liquely obcordate, one-celled, containing one ovula at- 
tached to the up})cr part of the cell a little to one side, 
and immediately under the insertion of the long curved 
btyle. Stigma simple. 

CJSSYTA. 

Calyx three-leaved. Corol three-petalled. Filaments 
pet aliform ; the inner three with glands at the base. Nee- 
iarial glands three, alternate with the appendaged fila- 
ments. Drupe inferior, one-seeded. 

C. filiformis. Willd. 2. 487. 

Filiform, lax, leafless. 

Acatsja valli. Rlieed. Mai. 7. t. 44. 

Sans. Akasbavwli. 

Telini). Paunch tiga. 

A thread-like leafless parasitic plant, found growing 
on, and twisting round the branches of trees, &c. in al- 
most every part of the Coast and in Bengal. 

Spikes lateral, ascending. Flowers small, white, ra- 
ther remote. Bractes three-fold, embracing the fructifi- 
cation, like a calyx, and only a little less than it. Ca- 
lyx three leaved ; leaflets very small, round, permanent. 
Corol ; petals three, oblong, many times larger than the 
calyx. Nectary (1 call what have been termed filaments 
such) composed of nine, stameniferous leaflets and nine 
glands ; the leaflets stand in three series, those of the ex- 
terior series are clubbed, lying immediately over the petals, 
and rather shorter than they are ; on the inside near the 



Butomus. ENNEANDRIA HEXAGYNIA. 315 

apex are two oval pits, where the stamens are lodged till 
the)' are ripe, the second and largest series oblong, stand- 
ing alternate with the petals, length of the exterior series, 
and having their stameniferous pits the same ; inner or 
third series the smallest, each augmented with two yellow 
glands at the sides of the base, swelling out over these 
glands, and then tapering to an obtuse point ; the stameni- 
ferous pits are here on the outside. The three remaining 
glands are cordate, pointed, standing alternate with the 
inner series, embracing immediately the germ. Filaments 
nine pair, most minute, inserted into the upper margins of 
the pits of the nine leaflets of the nectary. Anthers small, 
oval, when ripe they spring with a jerk from their en- 
closures and stand erect, or spreading upon their little 
filaments. 

Style short. Stigma entire. Nut round, covered by the 
increased receptacle. 



ENNEANDRTA HEXAGYNIA. 

BUTOMUS. Schreb. gen. N. 693. 
Calyx none. Petals six. Capsules six, many-seeded. 

B. lanceolatus. R. 

Leaves radical, long-petioled, lanceolate. Scape as 
long as the leaves, bearing from six to twelve long pedi- 
celled flowers in an upright umbel. 

Found by Dr. Buchanan, in the Eastern parts of 
Bengal. 

N n2 



CLASS X. 

DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

SOPHORA. Schreb gen. N. 694. 

Cahjx gibbous, five-toothed. Carol papilionaceous, 
wings length of the vexillum. Legume necklace-shaped. 

1. S. tomentosa. Willd. 2. 500. 

Shrubby. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets about eight pair, 
between alternate and opposite, ovate, obtuse, hoary un- 
dernea.th. Legume necklace-shaped. 

This large shrub, or small tree, is so far as I can learn, 
a native ot" Ceylon. From thence it was introduced into 
the Botanic garden at Calcutta in 1798, by Dr. A. Berry. 
Flowering time in Bengal the rainy season. 

Trunk erect, with expanding branches. Bark of the 
old woody parts somewhat scabrous, of the young 
shoots hairy. Leaves alternate, pinnate, from six to ten 
inches long. Leaflets about eight pair, short- petioled, 
neither alternate nor opposite but between the two; ovate, 
obtuse, entire, of a firm texture, smooth above and hoary 
underneath ; from an inch to an inch and a half long, 
and about one broad. Petioles and petiolets round, and 
villous. Stipules none. Racemes terminal. Flowers nu- 
merous, generally single, bright yellow, fragrant. Bractes 
solitary, one-flowered, caducous. Calyx villous, of a 
short urceolate shape, with the margin slightly five-tooth- 
ed, and incurved. Carol papilionaceous. Legume neck- 
lace-shaped, villous, composed of about five or six near- 
ly round protuberances, with a single, round, brown, 
smooth seed in each. 



Podahjria. decandria monogynia. 317 



PODALYRIA. Lamar k. 

Calyx five-toothed. C'orol papilionaceous. Legume 
veniricose, few, or many-seeded. 

P. bracteata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves simple, oval. Peduncles axillary, 
once or twice bifid ; ultimate divisions flowered, with a 
pair of lari^e, opposite, roundish, many-nerved bractes, 
hiding the calyx, and a similar pair at the forks of the 
peduncles. 

Gopoori, the vernacular name in the Silhet district, 
■where it is found indigenous in the forests, growing to 
the size of a large bushy shrub. Flowering in May and 
June, and the seeds ripening in December and January, 

Tender shoots columnar, and clothed with a few thinly 
scattered hairs. Leaves alternate, bifarious, petioled, 
oval, entire, obtuse, smooth, and beautifully reticulat- 
ed with slender veins ; from three to six inches long, and 
from two to four broad. Petioles from half an inch, to an 
inch and a half long, a little hairy. Stipules ovate, ma- 
ny-nerved. Peduncles axillary, solitary, once or twice 
bifid, each ultimate division, one-flowered. Bractes in 
pairs at the divisions of the peduncles, one pair the 
largest, embracing each flow er ; all round, or oval, and 
many-nerved. Flowers large, white, perfectly papiliona- 
ceous. Calyx bowl-shaped, hairy on the outside. Mouth 
unequally five-toothed, caducous. Banner very broad, 
deeply emarginate, short-clawed. Wings falcate, obtuse, 
five-clawed, the length of the banner, keel two-petalled, 
their lower margins united, of the length and shape of the 
wings. Filaments ten, distinct to their insertion into the 
receptacle round the base of the germ, subulate, smooth, 
nearly as long as the pistillum, ascending in a gentle 
curve. Anthers ovate, oblong, erect. Germ lanceolate, 
smooth, one-celled, containing three ovula attached to the 
upper margin. AS<2//e subulate. Stigma SiCuiQ. Legumes oh- 



318 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Bauldnia. 

liquely oblong, taperin? equally at each end, with the apex 
acuminate, and somewhat recurved, one celled, two-valv- 
ed, smooth, on the outside dark brown, within pretty 
and whitish, from three to four inches long and one and 
a half broad. 6'eeds two, or three, lari^e, and very une- 
qual, of a dark brown colour. Perisperm none. Embryo 
as in other Leguminosce. 

BAUHINIA. 

Calyx a spathaceous border or tubular base. Corol ir- 
regular, five-petalled, expandin;;. Anthers incumbent, 
bursting longitudinally on their sides. 



SECT. I. Trees or Shrubs. 

1. B. Candida. Willd. 2. 510. 

Arboreous. Leaves roundish, downy underneath. Lobes 
obtuse. Panicles iermiaixl. ^'cgf/new/s five, all fertile. Le- 
gume linear. 

Sans. Knyidara, also Yooga-pwtra, double-leaved. 

Hind. Kana-raja. 

A small handsome tree. 1 have only found it in gar- 
dens, where it flowers about the beginning of the hot sea- 
son. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, nearly bifarious suborbicu- 
lar, two-Iobed, froai nine to eleven-nerved, the middle 
one ending in a villous bristle between the lobes, below 
downy ; lobes oval, obtuse, or very obtusely-pointed ; the 
whole leaf is from three to five inches each way. Race* 
mes axillary, and terminal, those of the axils small and 
simple, the terminal ones large, compound, or panicled. 
Flowers numerous, white, large, delightfully fragrant. 
Calyx spathiforra, leathery, not gaping at the base, split- 
ting longitudinally on the under side ; apex minutely 
five-toothed. Filaments five, ascending, the uppermost 
smallest. Anthers linear, incumbent ; there are no ste- 



Bauhinia. decandria monogynia. 319 

rile filaments in this species. Germ long-pedicelled. 
Style short, ascending. Legume linear, compressed 
smooth, many-seeded. 

2- B. variegata. Willd. 2. 

Arboreous. Leaves smooth, subrotund with obtuse 
lobes. Racemes terminal and axillary. Petals broad- 
cuneiform, with waved margins. Stamens ^\e, all fertile. 
Legume linear. 

Chovanna mandaru. Rheed. Mai. 1. p. 57. t. 32. 

Sans. Kwvzdara. 

Beng. Rwcta kanchwn. 

It is one of the most stately of the genus, growing to be 
a tree of considerable size ; I have only found it in gar- 
dens ; where it is indigenous I cannot say. Flowering time 
the mouth of February and March, the seed ripens in 
April and May. 

Trunk tolerably erect, often as thick as a man's body. 
Bark dark ash-coloured and pretty smooth. Branches 
numerous, spreading in every direction, with smooth ash- 
coloured bark. Leaves subifarious, petioled, suborbicu- 
lar, two-lobed ; lobes obtuse, smooth above, somewhat 
villous underneath, from two to three inches each way. 
Racemes terminal, few-flowered. Peduncles clavate, 
round, villous, ^racfes small, caducous. Flowers l?irge, 
of a lively reddish purple. Calyx spathiforra. Petals 
unilateral, pairs equal, and oblong, with somewhat curled 
margins ; the upper one is broader, more deeply colour- 
ed, and with a longer channelled claw. Stamina five, 
all fertile, sometimes there are the minute rudiments of 
from one to five abortive filaments between them. Legume 
straight, linear, compressed, acuminate, pedicelled. Seeds 
from six to twelve, approximate, or often with the anterior 
edge of one resting over the posterior edge of its neigh- 
bour. 

This tree can only be said to differ from B. Candida, 



320 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Bauliinia. 

in the colour of the flowers ; had I met with this first, I 
should certainly have considered the other as a variety 
only. 

3. B. purpurea. Willd. 2. 511. 

Arboreous. Leaves smooth ; lobes obtuse. Filaments 
ten, of which three or four are large and fertile. Panicles 
terminal. Legumes linear. 

Chovanna-mandaru. Rheed. Mai 1. t. 33. 

Hind. Sona. 

Beng. Devrt-kancliMn. 

This I have not only found in gardens, but also wild 
on the mountains, where it grow s to be a large tree. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, nearly bifarious, smooth on 
both sides, from nine to eleven-nerved ; the middle one 
ending between the lobes in a bristle ; lobes oblong, ob- 
tuse, the whole from five to six inches long, and from 
four to five broad. Panicles terminal, ascending, com- 
posed of racemes, similar to, though larger than those of 
B. Candida. Bractes, one embracing the insertion of the 
pedicel, and two pressing the calyx laterally. Flowers 
numerous, of a deep rose colour, very large. Calyx gene- 
rally splits into two ; divisions retlexed, the lower one is 
generally emarginate, and the upper one three-toothed. 
Petals lanceolate, waved. Stamens three or four, large with 
fertile anthers and six or seven small sterile filaments. 

4. B. triandra. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves smooth, subrotund, with lobes ob- 
tuse. Racemes terminal and axillary. Petals cunei- 
form, obtuse, long-clawed, margins waved, and curled. 
Fertile stamina three. Legume linear, many- seeded. 

A native of Bengal. In the Botanic garden at Calcut- 
ta, it blossoms in October and November, the seed ripens 
in March. 

TrMwA: straight, and of considerable size. Branches few, 



Baithinia. decandria monogynia. 321 

with smooth brown bark. Leaves alternate, petioled, sub- 
orbicular, two-lobed, having the lobes obtuse, entire, and 
smooth on both sides, about three inches long and four 
broad, the whole leaf beingnearly the same. Petioles round, 
smooth, swelled at each end, length about one-third of 
the leaves. Racemes terminal or axillary, rarely oppo- 
site to the leaves. Calyx spathiform, &c. as in the 
other species. Petioles cuneiform, obtuse, with the mar- 
gins waved and curled, three of them forming as it were 
an upper, and the other two the under lip of the corol. 
Filaments ten, of which three only are of the length of the 
pistil, and bear fertile anthers^ the other seven very 
small and without the least vestige of an anther. Le- 
gume somewhat sickle-shaped, linear, smooth, from six 
to twelve inches long. Seeds remote, flat, round, from 
eight to sixteen in each legume. 

This when in flowers, is one of the most beautiful spe- 
cies of Bauhinia I have yet met with, and as it blossoms 
when so low as three feet, and when not more than one 
year old, is particularly well adapted for the conservatory. 
It comes nearest to purpiireaia the parts of fruciilication. 

5. B. malabarica. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves transversely broad, oval, smooth, 
nine-nerved, slightly two-lobed ; lobes rounded. Race- 
mes axillary, corymbiform, sessile ; calyx and corol regu- 
lar; stamina ten, all fertile. 

A pretty large tree, a native of Malabar, in the Bota- 
nic garden at Calcutta, young trees four or five years old 
from the seed, are about twenty feet high, their stems 
about as thick as a man's thigh ; coma very ramous, 
with its numerous, smooth, slender, flexuose branchlets, 
drooping. It begins to blossom in October and November. 
This very distinct species is remarkable for the regulari- 
ty of its five-parted calyx, and equally disposed, equal 
petals. 

O o 



322 DECANDRIA MONOGYNlA. Baulwiia, 

6- B. retusa. R- 

Arboreous. Leaves rouadish, reniforin, from two-lobed 
to scarcely emarginate. Panicles terminal. Petals round- 
ish. Stamens three, all fertile. Legume oblong, from five 
to six-seeded. 

I found this species in the Company's Botanic gar- 
den at Calcutta, but could never learn from whence it 
was brought. The trees are about twenty years old. 
Flowering time September ; the seed ripens in March. 

Trunk short and thick, but rarely straight. Branches 
spreading, w ith long, slender, waving, pendulous branch- 
lets. Bark pretty smooth, rust coloured. Leaves bifa- 
rious, alternate petioled, rouud-reniforra ; from two lob- 
ed, to slightly emarginate, with a bristle in the notch, 
from seven to eleven-nerved, smooth on both sides, di- 
mensions from three to six inches each way. Panicles 
terminal, and axillary, composed of many corymbiform 
racemes ; the ramifications a little villous. Flowers nu- 
merous, small, pale yellow, beautifully marked with nu- 
merous, small, purple spots. Filaments three, from the 
under side, nearly as long as the pistil, ascending, they are 
all fertile. On the upper side of the large woolly recep- 
tacle into which these and the pistil are inserted, are 
two large, yellow, bristle-pointed, smooth glands, with 
smaller brownish ones, intermixed ; some, or ail of these 
have also a little bristle issuing from them. Pistilluni 
when the flowers firstexpand, and for sometime afterwards 
recurved, as if to place the stigma below the anthers ; 
afterwards it becomes incurved like the stamens, and in 
that situation the stigma is higher than the anther. Le- 
gume linear-oblong, with the apex rounded, flat, smooth, 
about six inches long, and two broad. Seed from four to 
eight in the legume, obovate, much compressed, smooth 
and of a dark brown colour. 

From wounds made in the bark a brownish mild gum, 
like that of the cherry tree, is produced. 



Bauhinia. decandria monogynia. 323 

7. B. parviflora. Willd. 2. 509. 

Arboreous. Branddets drooping. Leaves subreniforua, 
deeply two-lobed ; lobes obtuse. Racemes solitary. Stamens 
ten, all fertile. Legume linear, ligneous, many-seeded. 

Sans. Vim«-raja. 

Tarn. Areka-marum. 

Teling. Arro. 

A small, uncommonly crooked bushy tree ; a native of 
most forests on the coast of Coromandel. Bark dark and 
scabrous. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, two-lobed, somewhat dow- 
ny; lobes oblono^, rounded at both ends ; size various, the 
whole leaf generally about two inches broad, and not 
quite so long. Petioles round, downy. Racemes simple, ter- 
minal, or leaf-opposed. Flowers scattered, pretty large, 
yellow. Calyx spathiform, bursting on the under side, 
reflected, not gaping at the base. Petals and stamens 
ascending. Anthers fertile on all the ten filaments. Le- 
gume scimitar-shaped, very hard, not opening, inter- 
rupted. Seeds from ten to twenty, oval, smooth, shining, 
brown. Matchlock men make their matches of the bark 
of this tree ; it burns long, and slowly, without the help 
of salt-petre or any other combustible. To prepare the 
bark it is boiled, dried, and beat. Ropes are also made 
of the inner rind, which is fibrous, strong and durable, 

8. B. tomentosa. Willd. 2. 511. 

Shrubby. Leaves roundish, deeply two-lobed, villous 
underneath. Stipules setaceous. Peduncles leaf-oppos- 
ed, two flowered. Petals oval. Stamina ten, all fertile. 
Legume lanceolate, villous. 

Canschena-pou. Rheed. Mai. 1. t. 35. 

A native of Malabar, Coromandel mountains, &c. In 
the Botanic garden at Calcutta, it is in blossom most 
part of the year. 

O o 2 



324 DECANDR[A MONOGYNiA. BauUnia. 

Trunk straight. Branches numerous, forming a close, 
handsome, large shrub. Bark ash-coloured ; young sJioots 
villous ; the general height about ten feet, I mean of large 
plants. Leaves alternate, bifarious, petioled, roundish, 
deeply tvvo-lobed, with a minute bristle between ; lobes 
roundish, villous underneath. Stipules filiform, villous. 
Peduncles solitary, nearly opposite to the leaves, two- 
cleft, two flowered. Flowers large, of a pale sulphur 
colour, drooping. Bractes three on the outside of the base 
of each pedicel. Petals oval, the upper one smaller, and 
in some plants marked on the inside, with an oblong deep 
puiple spot. Filaments ten, ascending, the length of the 
pistillum. Anthers ten, all fertile. Legume lanceolate, vil- 
lous, from five to six-seeded. 

9. B. acuminata. Willd. 2. 511. 

Shrubby. Leaves with lobes somewhat pointed. Ra- 
cemes laterilblius, and terminal. Stamens ten, alternate 
by shorter. Legumes lanceolate. 

Velutta-mandaru. Rheed. Mai. \. p. 61. t. 34. 

Beng. Canchwn. 

Hind. CMchwnar. 

It is a small, ramous tree, or large shrub ; whole height 
from eight to ten feet. It is in flower most part of the 
year. 

Trunk scarcely any, but many large branches spread in 
every direction ; bark greyish brown. Leaves alternate, 
bifarious, petioled ; two-Iobed, nine-nerved, the middle 
nerve ends in a short bristle between the lobes ; smooth 
above, downy underneath ; lobes oblong, somewhat point- 
ed ; from two to four inches long. Petioles channelled, 
swelled, and jointed at the base, downy, one inch long. 
Stipules half-lanced, very acute. Flowers racemed, large, 
pure white, inodorous. Racemes solitary, laterifolious, or 
terminal, short, few-flowered. Bractes a small pointed one 
below each pedicel, with two or more scattered among the 



Bauhinia. decandria monogynia. 325 

pedicels. Calyx above, tapering to a long, fine point. 
Coro/ regular; petals expanding, oblong, concave, obtuse. 
Filaments ten, ascending, five are larger, more spreading 
than and alternate with the five shorter ones. Anthers 
equal. Legume obliquely linear-lanceolate ; upper margin 
three-keeled. Seeds from eight to twelve. 

Note. The pistillum is often minute, and abortive. This 
species differs from Candida in being rarely more than 
a shrub ; in having the lobes of the leaves pointed, and 
inodorous. Flowers with ten fertile stamens. It is a very 
specious plant, well deserving a place in the gardens of 
the curious. 



SECT. II. ScandenL 

10. B. racemosa. Vahl. symbol. S. p. 56. t.62. Willd. 2. 
509. 

Scandent, and of immense extent. Tendrils opposite. 
Leaves subrotund ; lobes obtuse, downy. Racemes corym- 
biform, terminal. Stamina five, three of them fertile. 
Legume linear, ligneous, very downy. 

Hind. Alahwal. 

Nap. Boila. 

Teling. Adda. 

The largest and most extensive creeper T have seen. 
It is a native of the mountainous parts all over India, 
■where it runs over the highest trees. 

Trunk often as thick as a child's waist when only ten 
years old. Bark brown and rough. Branches very ex- 
tensive, I may say from one to three hundred feet; young 
shoots covered with remarkably soft down. Lzaves re- 
markably large, alternate, petioled, two lobed ; lobes 
rounded at both ends, downy with a middle nerve, ending 
in a soft bristle between the lobes ; size often a foot each 
way. Petioles round, downy. Tendrils opposite below 



326 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Bauhuiia. 

the leaves, woody, very strong, simple. Racemes terminal 
coryrabiform. Peduncles round, downy, not very long:, as 
the flowers grow near each other. Pedicels about two 
inches long, thickened near the apex, jointed, and liave 
there two small lanceolate bractes ; besides a downy, 
narrow-lanceolate one below each pedicel. Flowers pret- 
ty large, when they first open white, but gradually be- 
coming yellow. Calyx spathiform, on a tubular base. 
Corol, the superior petals larger, the inferior more dis- 
tant. Filaments on the upper side of the germ three, 
nearly as long as the petals, ascending, bearing oblong, 
incumbent anthers ; on the under side two or three 
very small, and Avithout anthers. Germ oblong, sessile, 
downy. Style subulate, rather shorter than the filaments. 
Stigma headed. Legume pendulous, about twelve or 
eighteen inches long, and from two and a half to three 
broad, compressed, woody, covered with much, dark 
brown, soft velvet-like down. Seedsfrom eight to twelve, 
orbicular, flat, smooth, brown, about an inch in diameter, 
and one-sixth of an inch thick. They are eaten raw, when 
ripe, the taste is like that of Cashew-nuts. 

The leaves are employed to line baskets, and various 
other sorts of packages by the hill people, where the 
plant grows for which they are well adapted not only on 
account of their great size, but also on account of their 
being remarkably firm, tough, and durable. 

11. B. scandens. Willd. 2. 58. 

Scandent. Tendrils opposite. Leaves round cordate, 
apex two-lobed. Racemes terminal, simple, or ramous. 
Flowers triandrous. Legumes linear, from four to five- 
seeded. 

Folium linguae. Rumph. Amb. 5. p. 1. t. 1. 

Gunda-gilla the vernacular name in Silhet, where it 
is indigenous in the forests of that province, running up, 



Bauhinia. decandria monogynia. 327 

and over trees of the first magnitude. Flowering in April 
and the seed ripening in October. 

Branchlets very long, flexuose, sending forth from each 
knee, a small tendril-bearing floriferous twig. The ten- 
drils are generally opposite, slender, flattened and simple. 
Leaves alternate, long-petioled, round-cordate, apex di- 
vided into two lobes, by an open gape ; some few are 
found perfectly entire, smooth on both sides, general size 
from three to five inches each way. Racemes terminal, 
sometimes ramous, but far more frequently simple, co- 
vered with much brown sericeous pubescence. Flowers 
rather small for a Bauhinia, alternate, solitary, long pe- 
dicelled. Bractes acuminate, one under each pedicel, 
sericeous. Calyx clavate, sericeous, having the mouth 
divided into five, small, rouaded segments. Petals five, 
nearly equal, orbicular, short-clawed, densely clothed 
with much soft, ferruginous grey-down. Filaments three, 
ascending, longer than the pistillum. Anthers incumbent. 
Germ short-pedicelled, linear, densely clothed with ferru- 
ginous down, one-celled ; ovula from five to six. Style 
rather short. Stigma capitate. Legume linear-oblong, 
dark brown, somewhat villous, from four to six inches 
long, and two broad. Seeds about two, nearly orbicular, 
or a little compressed, smooth, of a dark brownish-black, 
seven-eighths of the margin is surrounded with the eye as 
in Carpopogon ; they are the size of a chesnut, and sur- 
rounded with a soft, spongy, greyish, yellow substance. 

12. B. piperifolia. R. 

Scandent, smooth. Leaves entire, cordate, from five 
to seven-nerved, lucid. Panicles terminal. Legumes from 
round to oval, one or two-seeded. 

A large scandent species, a native of the mountain 
forests north of Silhet, where it blossoms about the be- 
ginning of the cold season. 



328 DECANDRIA MONOGYNiA. BauJiinia. 

13. B. anguma. R. 

Scandent. Stetii compressed, flexuose ; /eAwres approx- 
imate, regularly and alternately concave and convex 
on the two flat sides. Leaves subcordate, smooth, en- 
tire, or two-lobed ; lobes subtriangular, and acuminate. 
Panicles terminal, flowers triandrous. Legumes oval, 
smooth, from one to two-seeded. 

Naga-ma-valle. Rheed. Mai. 8. t. 30 and 31. 
Folium linga. Riiniph. Amh. 5. t. 1. cannot be this, and 
to it 1 have retained the old Linnean specific name scan- 
dens, though some other might be better, as there are ma- 
ny scandent species now known. 
Nag-poot is the vernacular name in Silhet. 
This is the most extraordinary as well as one of the 
most extensive ramblers I have met with. It is a native 
of the mountainous tracts in the vicinity of Silhet, Chit- 
tagong, &c. and the most regularly serpentine pieces of 
the stems and large branches are carried about by our nu- 
merous mendicants, to keep ofl' serpents. Flowering time 
about the end of the rains, and the seeds ripen in the cool 
season. Stems and large branches flat being from four to 
six inches broad, scarcely half an inch thick, when old the 
margins become double, like the letter V or T, and pretty 
straight, whereas the body, or space between them, is most 
regularly flexuose, with the flexures alternately convex 
and concave. Bark rather rough, and ill defined. Wood 
hard, but porous, and nearly white. Branches and branch- 
lets bifarious, and regularly alternate, from the flexuose 
parts just mentioned. Tendrils simple, or bifid, permanent. 
Leaves bifarious, alternate, petioled ; on the older plants 
entire or nearly so, and round-cordate ; on young plants; 
and on the luxuriant shoots, more or less bifid, with the 
lobes narrow and tapering much to their points ; from five 
to seven-nerved, smooth on both sides, from two to six 
inches each way. Panicles terminal, composed of long, sim- 
ple racemes, of numerous, very small white flowers. Calyx 



Bauhinia. decandria monogynia. 329 

cup-shaped, unequally five-toothed. Petals five, obo- 
vate, short-clawed. Stamina only three, all fertile. 
Ger?n short-pedicelled, oblong, inserted on the under 
margin of a large, two-lobed gland, which occupies the 
centre of the flowers, one-celled, two-seeded. Style short. 
Stigma simple. Legume oblong, thin, with the edges 
even, and the apex a small recurved point, both sides 
smooth, about two inches long, and one broad, one-cell- 
ed. Seeds one or two, oval, with an obtuse point on 
the anterior upper part, which is formed by the radicle 
« compressed, smooth. Integument in the recent state 
single. Perisperm in considerable quantity in the fresh 
seed. Embryo curved, &c. as in the sides. 

14. B. corymbosa. R. 

Scandent. Leaves two-parted ; lobes seraicordate, ob- 
tuse, two or three nerved. Corymbs terminal ; flowers 
triandrous ; petals soatulate, and curled. Legumes linear, 
from six to twelve-seeded. 

This very extensive delicate species, is a native of 
China ; from thence seeds were sent to the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta, where in five years the plants raised 
from them began to blossom abundantly in April, and 
ripened their seed in the rainy season. 

Stem scarcely any thing that deserves the name, but 
many, long, slender branches, and branchlets, climb and 
spread in every direction to an extent of many fathoms, 
running over high trees, &c. Bark smooth, that of the old 
ligneous parts dark-brown ; of the young shoots green,and 
often coloured. Tendrils opposite, simple, short. Leaves 
alternate, bifarious nearly round, smooth, divided for 
about three-fourths down ; length and breadth about one 
inch and a half, lobes semicordate, very obtuse, from 
two to three-nerved. Stipules ensiform. Corymbs ter- 
minal on the short lateral branchlets, short peduncled. 
Flowers of a middling size, white with a faint tinge of 

Pp 



330 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Bouhinia' 

pink, fragrant. Pedicels long, jointed at the middle ; the 
upper portion, or rather tube of the calyx clavate. Brac- 
tes filiform. Calyx, here, and I believe in all our Indian 
species, ought to be described with a long slender tube, 
and five-parted border. Petals five, equal, spatulate, 
elegantly curled, spreading. Filaments from the mouth of 
the tube of the calyx ; three long and fertile, and from 
two to five small, and abortive. Anthers oval, two-lobed. 
Germ linear, curved, smooth, rising on a pedicel, with 
the three fertile stamina, from the lower edge of the mouth 
oi" the tube of the calyx, one-celled ; ovula many, attach- < 
ed to the upper margin. Style short. Stigma large. Le- 
gume thin, from four to five inches long, and three-fourths 
of an inch broad, smooth, dark brown, from six to twelve- 
seeded. 

15. B. semibifida. R. 

Scandent. Leaves subovate, deeply two lobed. Stipules 
broad-falcate. Racemes terminal, i alijx five-leaved. Pe- 
#a/s oblong, claved, »S/flmma three, with two rudiments. 
Legume flat, smooth, few-seeded. 

A native of the Malay Archipelago ; from Sumatra it 
has been introduced into the Botanic garden at Calcut- 
ta where it blossoms in October and November ; the seeds' 
ripen in April. 

Stems and branches ligneous, scandent, much bent in 
various directions. Bark of the young shoots clothed with 
much ferruginous pubescence, ieaff* bifarious, petioled, 
subobovate, deeply two-lobed, from seven to nine-nerved ; 
lobes linear oblong, obtuse, pretty smooth on both sides ; 
length of the whole leaf from three to five inches, and the 
breadth from two to four. Petioles xonn A, villous, half the 
length of the leaves. Stipules broad -falcate, obtuse. Ten- 
drils simple, ligneous, permanent. Racemes terminal, erect, 
solitary, large, many-flowered. Flowers white, changing 
to pale yellow when the stamina drop, pretty large, open- 



Bauhinia. uecandria monogynia. 331 

ing in succession from the base up, fragrant. Peduncles 
and pedicels round and clothed with rust coloured down, 
like the other tender parts ; the latter from one to two 
inches long, ascending; apex clavate, this club or en- 
largement is hollow, with a perforation from the apex 
immediately within the attachment of the pedicel of the 
germ, and as it is common to all, it may very properly be 
called the tube of the calyx. Bractes minute, caducous 
at an early period. Calyx of five linear, thick, fleshy, 
reflexed, caducous leaflets. Petals five oblong ; base ta- 
pering into claws, the exterior two large, the inner 
one very small. Filaments five, the three exterior ones 
fertile, incurved, shorter than the two longest petals, 
smooth, white, the two inner ones minute. Anthers very 
large, incumbent. Germ short, thick and villous. Stig- 
ma very large, and clammy. Legume sublanceolate, thin, 
very smooth, of a dark chesnut colour. Seeds a. few, near- 
ly round, flat, and smooth. 

16. B.ferruginea. R. 

Scandent. Leaves siibrotund, two-lobed. Racemes ter- 
minal, solitary. Tendrils s,o\iia.ry. Pe^a/s lanceolate, ob- 
tuse, downy on the outside. Filaments five, three with 
anthers, and two sterile. 

A very large, woody, scandent species, a native of 
the Malay Islands^ &c. about the straits of Malacca. 

17. B. integrifolia. R. 

Scandent. Leaves subrotund, emarginate ; floral leaves, 
cordate, acute. Corymbs panicled. Filaments five, three 
with anthers, and two sterile. 

A large, woody, climbing species, a native of Pulo Pi- 
nang. 

Stem, and larger branches woody, climbing over trees, 
&c. bark smooth; young shoots covered with dark rust- co- 
loured down. Leaves alternate, petioled, orbicular, emar- 

Pp 2 



333 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA, Cossia. 

ginate, otherwise entire, smooth on both sides ; from 
seven to eleven-nerved, size very various. Floral leaves 
cordate, with downy nerves and petioles. Tendrils gene- 
rally axillary, simple, or two-parted. Corymbs terminal, 
and from the exterior axils, numerous, forming large ter- 
minal panicles ; every part covered with much dark rust- 
coloured down. Flowers very numerous, small, of a pale 
yellowish colour. Bractes solitary, one-flowered, oblong, 
concave, caducous. Calyx with a tubular base. Border 
often divided into five parts. Petals oval, subequal, 
w aved, expanding. Claws hairy. Filaments five, three 
with anthers, longer than the pistil ; two sterile, rather 
shorter than the petals, and very slender; the whole, 
with the style, ascend in an elegant curve. Germ pedi- 
celled, very hairy, from three to four-seeded, inserted on 
the loxAcr margin of the mouth of the tube of the calyx. 
Stigma peltate. 

18. B. cordifolia. R. 

Smooth in every part. Leaves cordate, from three to 
five-nerved. Corymbs terminal. Flowers triandrous, long- 
pedicelled. Stigma peltate. 

A native of the Moluccas. 



CASSIA. Tourn. Gaerl. 

Ca?i/jc five-leaved. PefaZs five, nearly equal. Filaments 
unequal. Anthers opening by two slits on the front. 

Note. The genus Cassia, like many others, is now, more 
extensive than convenient, I have therefore, with Gaertner 
separated the lomentaceous species from the leguminous. 
The former under the old generic name Cassia and the 
latter Senna. 

The first are trees of great beauty, particularly when in 
flower, the leaves pinnate ; no glands on the common pe- 



Cassia. decandria monogynia. 333 

tioles but stipulate at the base. Flowers on axillary ra- 
cemes. Calyx of five equal leaflets. Corol of five nearly 
equal petals. Stamina very unequal; the three lower fi- 
laments much longer than the rest, with a double curve 
below the middle, and in two of them, a large swelling 
at the middle. Loment cortical, cylindric, pendulous, 
man^y-celled, with one seed in each. Embryo straight, 
furnished with a hard perisperm, large, roundish Cotyle- 
dons, and a centrifugal radicle. 

1. C. fistula. Willd. 2. p. 518. 

Leaflets about five pair, ovate oblong. Racemes pendu- 
lous. Loment cylindric, pendulous ; partitions lined with 
soft sweet pulp. 

Sans. SoovMrnwlca. 

Beng. Soondah'. 

Hind. Umultuss. 

Teling. Rela, 

Conna. Rlieed. Mai 1. t. 22. 

A native of various parts of the East Indies, as well, I 
presume, as of the west ; as young trees reared from 
West India seed, now ten years old, do not in any 
respect difier from these of the East, both are now, April, 
in full flower, and the seeds are ripe about nine, or ten 
months afterwards. 

Trunk short. BarArsmooth,ofa light ash-colour. Branch- 
€s numerous, spreading in every direction; general height 
of full grown trees from twenty to thirty feet. Leaves al- 
ternate, bifarious, pinnate, from twelve to eighteen inches 
long, deciduous in the cool season, and appearing with 
the blossoms in April. Leaflets from four to eight pair, five 
the most common, opposite or nearly so, short petioletted, 
the inferior ones broad-ovate, the superior ones oblong, 
entire, generally obtuse or emarginate, polished on both 
sides, from two to six inches long and from one and a half 
to three broad. Petioles round, without glands. Petiolets 



334 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. CctSSia. 

vermicular. Stipules minute, conic. Racemes pendulous, 
simple, from one to two feet long. Flowers large, bright 
yellow fragrant, diverging on long slender, smooth pedi- 
cels. Calyx of five, nearly equal, oval, smooth leaflets, 
which are much shorter than the corol. Petals equal in 
shape ; viz. oval, but differing in size. Filaments the three 
lower much longer than the others and having a double 
curve, but no swelling, as in some of the other species with 
cylindric filaments. Anthers on the three long filaments 
oblong, opening by two lines on the face, the other seven 
clavate, with pores at the small end. Germ pedicelled, 
filiform, smooth, one-celled, containing numerous seeds, 
which at this period are without any sign of separation, 
that appearing in the advanced state, attached to the up- 
per margins. Style short, incurvate. Stigma conic, 
smooth. Loment cylindric, pendulous, &c. as described 
by the accurate Goertner,vol. 2. p. 313 1. 147. 

The tree is uncommonly beautiful when in flower, few 
surpassing it in the elegance of its numerous long, pen- 
dulous racemes of large, bright yellow flowers, intermix- 
ed with the young, lively green foliage. 

2. C, rhombifolia. R. 

Leaflets about five-pair, rhombiform, polished. Racemes 
pendulous. Loment cylindric, partitions lined with soft 
bitter pulp. 

A native of Ceylon, from thence General Hay Mac- 
dowall sent seeds to the Botanic garden at Calcutta in 
1802. In 'six years the plants therefrom have attained to 
the height of twenty feet. It blossoms during the months 
of May and June, and the seed ripens in February, 
March, and April. 

Trunk straight. Bark light ash-coloured, and smooth. 
Branches spreading, with bark like that of the trunk. 
Branchlets bifarious, flexuose, round, and smooth. Their 
base often remains, and resembles rude thorns. Leaves 



Cassia. decandria monogynia. 335 

alternate, bifarious, pinnate, rather more than a footlon^. 
Leaflets from three to seven pair, opposite, short petiolet- 
ted, tapering equally ai both ends, rhombiform, entire, 
obtuse, polished ; from two to four inches long, and from 
one to two broad. Petioles round, slender, no glands. 
Petioles vermicular. Racemes from the leafless branch- 
lets of the former year, also axillary, solitary, or in fasci- 
cles, pendulous. Flowers large, bright yellow, on long 
slender diverging pedicels. Bractes tern, lanceolate, very 
early caducous. Calyx of five, nearly equal, oblong, ob- 
tuse, concave, smooth leaflets. Petals five, nearly equal, 
spreading ; oblong, obtuse, concave. Filaments the lower 
three as. long as the pistillum. They have a double 
curve at the base and ascend in a semicircle. Anthers 
on the three long filaments, oblong, and opening in two 
lines on the face, those of the other seven clavate, with 
two pores at the small end. Germ pedicelled, filiform, 
smooth, ascending in a semicircular curve, with the three 
long filaments, one-celled, in which are numerous seeds 
attached to the upper margin. Style short. Stigma minute. 
Lament cylindric, pendulous, above two feet long, and 
scarcely so thick as the little finger, having the sutures 
sometimes strongly marked with Cortex dark brown, 
smooth, and hard,and the bristle as in C.^5<M/a,many-celI- 
ed, about four in every inch, but not opening spontaneous- 
ly. Partitio7isl'me(\ with soft, black, bitterish pulp. Seeds 
one in each cell, round, obcordate, the size of a small pea. 
Integument simple, hard, and polished. Perisperm con- 
form to the seed, of a bard tough texture, and pale ash- 
colour, even while fresh. Embryo straight, pale yellow. 
Cotyledons nedLTly round, and so large as to extend to the 
integument all round, dividing the perisperm. Plumula 
of one pectinate lobe. Radicle roundish, immediately 
within the umbilicus. 

It differs from C. fistula in the shape of the leaves, 
more slenderloment, and general habit of the trees. 



336 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Cassia. 

3. C. nodosa. Buck. 

Leaves bifarious ; leaflets ten-paired, oblong. Stipules 
obliquely crescent-shaped, with a bristle at each angle. 
Racemes lateral. Three lower filaments with a globular 
swelling near the middle. 

A native of Chittagong. In the Botanic garden at 
Calcutta it flowers in April. 

Trunk short; in one tree twelve years old, it is thirty- 
eight inches in circumference. jBarAr smooth, Branchesnu- 
merous, bifarious, spreading much ; young shoots slightly 
pubescent, grooved, and flexuose. Leaves bifarious, 
spreading, about a foot long or more. Leaflets from eight 
to twelve pair, toward the apex narrower and sub-lance- 
olate ; the lower pairs ovate and ovate-lanceolar, all are 
smooth and entire, from two to three inches long. Petioles 
round, slightly villous, without glands. Stipules obli- 
quely crescent-shaped, with the extremities lengthen- 
ed into long subulate spurs. Racemes lateral, on the 
naked, two or more year-old branchlets, simple. Bractes 
three-fold, one-flowered, narrow-lanceolate, the lateral 
pair smaller. Pedicels slender, villous, diverging, about 
two inches long, one-flowered. Flowers large, of a beau- 
tiful pale pink colour. Leaflets of the calyx equal, 
ovate. Petals lanceolate, nearly equal, eight or ten times 
longer than the calyx. Filaments ten, very unequal ; the 
lower three much longer, each with a globular swell- 
ing near the middle and a double curve below it. Anthers 
on the three long lilaments opening on the sides, the rest 
opening by two pores at the base.C?erm pedicelled, incurv- 
ed, cylindric, one-celled, containing numerous seeds at- 
tached to the upper suture or concave side. Style very 
short. Stigma minute, green. Loment cylindric, pendu- 
lous, about two feet long, more than eighty-celled, with 
transverse partitions, lined with a dry substance. Seed so- 
litary. Perisperm in small quantity, and particularly yel- 
low. Embryo as in C bacillus, &,c, see Gcert. sem. 2. p, 
313. 



Cassia. decandria monogynia. 337 

4. C. bacillus. Gwrt. sem. 2. p. 313. 

Leaflets from ten to twelve pair, oblong, or oval, ob- 
tuse. Stipules crescent-shaped, adnate. Racemes termi- 
nal, on short lateral branclilets. The three lower fila- 
ments with an oval, swelling near the middle. 

Cassia fistula silvestris. Rumph. Amb- 2. t. 22. 

A nativeof the Malay Islands. From seed received from 
Sumatra into the Botanic garden at Calcutta many trees 
have been reared. They blossom during the hot season 
and ripen their seed in February. When in llower it is 
by far the most beautiful cassia I have yet seen. 

Trunk of our young trees rather crooked and leaning 
to one side. Bark smooth, dark brown, spreading almost 
horizontally, with alternate, bifarious spreading-flexuose 
branclilets. Spines, the base of many of the branchlets 
become such, and of great strength, and size. Leaves al- 
ternate, bifarious, pinnate, from six to twelve inches 
long. Leaflets generally from eight to fourteen pair 
though on the small lateral floriferous branchlets they are 
often only from tw'o to three or four pair, all very short 
petioletted, oval, or oblong, entire, very obtuse or even 
marginate and smooth ; from one to two inches long 
and about half that in breadth. Petioles without glands. 
Stipules crescent-shaped, lower half narrower, and less 
obtuse, the upper half much broader and emarginate, 
with a bristle. Racemes terminal, on short lateral branch- 
lets. Bractes ten, cordate, cuspidate, one-flowered. Pe- 
dicels long, and slender. Calyx of five, ovate, dull red- 
dish leaflets, many times smaller than the corol. Petals 
oblong, difi"ering in size only, of a lovely pink or rose 
colour. Stamina all fertile, the three lower filaments 
much longer, and having each an oval swelling near the 
middle and a double curve below it. Anthers on the three 
long filaments ovate; on the other seven incumbent, 
with pores at the small end. Germ long-pedicelled, su- 
bulate, one-celled, containing numerous seeds attached 

Qq 



338 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. CasSia. 

to the upper suture. Lament cylindric, from eighteen to 
twenty-four inches long and about three quarters of an 
inch in diameter, covered with very dark brown, rather 
smooth, torose bark, &c. as in cassia fistula, which it re- 
sembles so exactly that the soft sweet pulp of fistula is 
the only distinguishing mark. In this species the cells 
between the seventy or eighty partitions are tilled with 
a spongy substance in which is a roomy cell for each 
seed. Seed solitary, obovate, a little compressed, the size 
of a pea, smooth, of a shining brown cof'ir. Integument 
simple, when fresh rather soft and tough. Perisperm 
of a tough, soft, horny texture, and brownish colour. 
£'ni6r7/o straight, yellowish. Cotyledons two, oval, cor- 
date, three-nerved- P/»/»j?//a two lobed, one large, and 
pinnatifid, the other a minute point. Radicle oval, lodged 
immediately within the umbilicus. 

5. C. marginata. R. 

Leaflets fifteen pair, oblong, margined. Stipules semisa- 
gittate. Racemes axillary. 

A native of Ceylon introduced into the Botanic gar- 
den at Calcutta by General Macdowall in 1802, where 
it blossoms during the rains, and ripens its seed in March 
and April. The tree is at all times uncommonly beauti- 
ful and particularly so when in flower. 

Trunk tolerably straight, in trees six years old about 
two feet in circumference, and covered with deeply crack- 
ed, dull, light brow n-coloured bark. Branches spreading 
much, secondary branches, and branchlets bifarious and 
horizontal. Bark of the larger branches greenish, ash-co- 
lour, spotted with brownish spongy excrescences ; tender 
shoots flexuose, furrowed and Aillous. Leaves alternate, 
bifarious, drooping a little, pinnate, from six to ten inches 
long. Leaflets from ten to twenty pairs, linear- oblong, 
often emarginate, a little villous underneath, having the 
margins coloured,and somewhat thickened, about one inch 



Senna. decAndria monogynia. 339 

long and half an inch broad. Petioles channelled, villous, 
with glands upon them. Stipules semisagittate, both barbs 
and the apex cuspidate and curved. Racemes axillary, so. 
litary, much shorter than the leaves. Bractes tern, lanceo- 
late, the inner two on the base of the pedicel, and much 
smaller. Flowers of a middling size, pink colour, marked 
with greenish nerves and veins. Petals nearly equal, three 
on the upper side and two on the under. Stamina all se- 
mifertile ; the three lower ones much the longest and with 
a double curve below the middle, but no swelling as in 
C. nodosa, and some of the other species, the anthers on 
the three long filaments, are ovate and erect, all the 
others are incumbent, with pores at the small end. Lo- 
ment cylindric, from eight to twelve inches long, and as 
thick as a man's little linger, covered with a dark brown, 
torose, somewhat ligneous bark; divided by transverse 
partitions, into thirty or forty cells, in which is lodged, a 
soft, white, spongy substance which involves the seeds. 
Seeds solitary, obovate, size of a small pea. Integuments 
single, smooth, light brown. Perisperm conform to the 
seed, soft, and tough, divided to the base into two lobes 
by the large cotyledons. Embryo straight, green. Cotyle- 
dons oval-cordate, three-nerved, transversely curved like 
the letter S. Plumula of two very unequal lobes, the 
largest pinnatifid ; the smallest a mere point. Radicle 
roundish, immediately within the umbilicus. 



SENNA. Goert. 
Ca?i/x five leaved. CoroHrregular, five-petalled. Fer- 
tile anthers beaked, opening by two pores at top. 

1. S. exigua. R. 

Leaflets two pair, oval. Stipules and bractes filiform. 

Flowers tetrandrous. 

Qq2 



340 DECANDRIA MpNOGYNiA. Senna. 

A minute, erect, flexuose, hairy plant, with small yel- 
low flowers, in small subterminal racemes. A native of 
Bengal ; it flowers about the close of the rains. 

2. S. absus. R. 

Biennial, clammy. Leaflets two pair, obovate. Flow- 
ers pentandrous. Stamens five, equal, iegfumes straight, 
hairy, six-seeded. 

Cassia absus. Willd. 2. 514. 

A small bi- or triennial, ramous species, every part of 
which, the leaves excepted, is covered with glutinous 
hairs. 

Leaves alteraate, bifarious, twice-paired. Leaflets obli- 
quely-oval,obtuse, somewhat hairy on the under side; about 
an inch long. Petioles the length of the leaflets. Glands 
an awled one between each pair of leaflets. Stipules acute. 
Racemes either opposite to the insertion of the leaves 
or nearly so, or terminal, few flowered. Flowers yellow, 
small. Pedicels bracted at the middle. Calyx glandular. 
Stamens five, equal, no rudiments of more ; the anthers 
opening by a slit on each side of the pointed apex and not 
by round lobes in the apex. Legumes hairy, six- seeded. 
Seeds black. 

3. S. Tora. R. 

Annual. Branches spreading. Leaflets three-paired, 
obovate-cuneate, a subulate gland between each of the 
lower two pairs, ^^ipw/es subulate. F/owers in axillary 
pairs. jLet/wmes long, recurved, subcylindric, Seeds nu- 
merous. 

Cassia tora. Willd. 2. 515. 

Sans. Pn(sni pwrai. 

Seng. Chak^^nda. 

Teling. Tantim. 

A little more robust than the last, and a native of the 
same country. In flower and seed great part of the year. 



Senna. decandria monogynia. 341 

4. S. toroida. R. 

Annual. Leaflets three pair, cuneate, obovate, a subu- 
late gland between the lower pair only. Flowers in axil- 
lary pairs on a short common peduncle. Stipules subu- 
late. Legume linear, four-sided. 

The seeds of this plant were sent from Mysore to the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta by Dr. Buchanan in 1800, 
and about the close of 1801 the plants blossomed. 

Stem annual, erect, somewhat woody branches ; spread- 
ing, height of the whole plant about six feet. Leaves 
pinnate, spreading or drooping. Leaflets three pair, oc- 
cupying the exterior half of the petiole, obovate-cuncate, 
sessile, entire, villous ; the lower pair smaller ; all some- 
what acuminate, with a small soft bristle, from one 
to two inches long. Glands, a single, yellow, subulate 
one between the lower pair of leaflets only. Stipules 
subulate, villous. Flowers axillary, in pairs, large, yel- 
low, on long pedicles, inserted on a short common pedun- 
cle, with some small bractes about the insertion, one of 
the two uniformly proves abortive. Petals, the upper one 
obcordate, the rest oval. Filaments, the three upper ones 
minute, and abortive ; the lower seven nearly equal and 
fertile. Legume long, straight, four-sided, with a dou- 
ble groove, or three keels on each margin, from six to 
nine inches long. Seeds numerous, from twenty to thir- 
ty, trapeziform, smooth, pale brown. 

This plant is allied to C Tora. The best specific dif- 
ference is one gland only, and that between the lower 
pair of leaflets, in Tora there are always two, that is 
one between each of the two lower pairs. But in appear- 
ance and smell the difl'erence is very great. This grows 
nearly erect, to the height of six or more feet, and has 
little or no smell whereas in the same soil, and with the 
same treatment. Tora is diffuse, rarely more than one or 
two feet high, the flowers and legumes are much smaller, 
and the smell very different. 



342 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Senna. 

5. S. aurata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaflets three pair, ovate-oblong, pointed, 
smooth, having a conic gland between each pair. Stipules 
and bractes ensiforni. Racemes corymbose. Legumes cy- 
lindric, obtuse, pendulous. 

A stout, lucid, very handsome shrub, with many large, 
bright gold coloured flowers ; a native of the countries 
and islands to the eastward of the Bay of Bengal. In the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta it blossoms freely during 
the rains and the seed ripens in the cool season. 

6. S. bicapsularis. R. 

Shrubby, with long, weak, slender, smooth, subcandent 
branches. Leaflets four-pair, obovate ; a globular yellow 
gland between the lower pair. Stipules subulate. Ra- 
cemes axillary:, as long as the leaves. Two of the anthers 
much larger. Legume torulose, many- seeded. 

Cassia bicapsularis. JVilld. 2. 516. 

Probably not a native of India ; how it came into the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta is uncertain, but there it is 
now common, and blossoms about the close of the rains 
in September and October. 

7. S. purpurea. R. 

Annual, erect, smooth. Leaflets from four to six pair, 
lanceolar, on hemispheric glands at the base of the 
petiole, the lower one and three superior stamens sterile. 
Legumes turgid, many-seeded. 

Beng. Kala-Kalkashinda. 

Teling Conda kashinda. 

A large, erect, ramous, annual species, a native of the 
mountainous parts of the Coast. I have raised it from 
seeds in my garden, and from these plants this descrip- 
tion is taken. Flowering time the cold season, the whole 
plant is about three feet high. 

Stem erect, as thick as the little finger, round, smooth. 



Senna. decandria monogynia. 343 

somewhat woody, purple coloured. Branches numer- 
ous, ascending:, a little flexuose, very smooth ; of a deep, 
clear, reddish purple colour. Leaves remote, from four to 
six-paired. Leaflets oblong^, lanceolar, smooth, entire, 
ending in a soft bristle, the interior one generally the 
largest ; in breadth nearly equal, from one to one and a 
half inches long, and about half an inch broad. Petioles 
smooth, purple, channelled. Glands a semiglobular one 
near the base of the petiole. Racemes axillary, solitary, 
shorter than the leaves, few-flowered. Flowers pretty 
large, bright yellow. Bractes broad lanceolate, falling. 
Stamens as in the genus, except that, as in C. sophora 
and esculenta, the inferior one is small, and sterile. Stig- 
ma incurved, perforated. Legumes sub-cylindric. Seeds 
very numerous. 

8. S. occidentalis . R. 

Annual, erect, ramous. Leaflets four or five pairs, ovate 
lanceolate, acuminate, having a dark brown, polished, 
hemispheric gland on the tumid base of the petiole. Le- 
gume linear, subcylindric. 

Cassia occidentalis. Willd. 2. 518. 

A native of Bengal. Flowering time the rainy season. 
The smell of every part heavy and oftensive in the extreme. 

Stem erect, smooth, rather polished, somewhat ligne- 
ous, though generally annual. Branches many, ascend- 
ing, flexuose, smooth, coloured with a mixture of dark 
purple and green ; height of the whole plant from three 
to six feet. Leaves alternate, pinnate, from four to eight 
inches long. Leaflets four or five pair, the lowermost 
ovate, and smallest, the superior ones ovate-oblong and 
much larger, all smooth, entire, and acuminate, from one 
to three inches long, and from one to one and a half 
broad. Petioles nearly round, and smooth; on the green 
tumid base is a polished, dark brown, henfispheric 
gland. Stipules semi-ovate, acuminate, curled, cadu- 



344 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Senna. 

coiis. Flowers terminal and axillary, when terminal they 
form an uninterrupted raceme ; when axillary they are 
tliree, four, or five, on a very short, common peduncle. 
Pedicels much longer than the peduncle. Calyx, scarcely 
half the length of the corol. Corol, the lower two petals, 
rather smaller than the other three, and closer together. 
Filaments, the lower one small and abortive, the next pair 
largest, the next two pairs smaller, and with the large 
pair, fertile, the upper one small, and barren. Legume 
nearly straight, when full grown about as thick as a rat- 
tan and nearly cylindric. Seeds numerous. 

9. S. obtusa. R. 

Diffuse, Leaflets five-pair, obovate obtuse. Petioles 
without glands. Stipules cordate-lanceolate. Racemes 
axillary. Legume lunate. 

Cassia senna. Burm. H. Lid. t. 33. /. 2. 

A native of the high, dry, uncultivated lands of My- 
sore, where the leaves are used as a substitute for senna. 
The seeds were sent by Dr. Buchanan from Seringapa- 
tara to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where the plant 
thrives well, flowering and ripening its seed most part of 
the year. 

Root perennial. Stems scarcely any, but many strag- 
gling branches resting on the ground. Leaves nearly bi- 
farious, five or six inches long. Leaflets from four to six 
pairs, linear-oblong, with the exterior pair more cuneate, 
all obtuse, and somewhat villous, about one inch long. 
Petioles slightly channelled without any appearance of 
glands. Stipules tapering, from an ovate-cordate base. 
Racemes axillary, solitary, shorter than the leaves, bear- 
ing a few small, yellow, short-pedicelled flowers. Bractes 
ovate-cordate, acuminate, concave, one-flowered. Calyx 
about a third shorter than the corol. Filaments, the two 
uppermost small and sterile. Legumehrosid, thin, lunate, 
transversely grooved, in other respects smooth ; about 



■Senna, decandria monogynia. 345 

two inches long and three quarters of an inch broad. 
Seeds from six to eight, wedge-shaped, rugose, &c. as in 
Cassia senna. 

10. S. arborescens. R. 

Arboreous. Leaflets five or six pairs, oblong, with a 
pedicelled gland between eadh of the lower two or three 
pairs. Stipules falcate. Racemes axillary. Legumes linear, 
thin, pendulous, many seeded. 

Cassia arborescens. Willd. 2. 520. 

C. glauca. Lamarck's EncycL 1. 647. 

Wellia tagera. Rheed- Mai. 6, t. 9, and 10. 

It is a native of various parts of India, and in blossom 
in the Botanic garden at Calcutta most part of the year. 

Trunk rarely straight and in length and size very vari- 
ous. Branches numerous, spreading in every direction. 
Bark of the trunk, and larger branches of a brownish ash 
colour, and tolerably smooth ; that of the young shoots 
smooth and green. Leaves scattered, pinnate, from six to 
ten inches long. Leaflets from four to six pair, elliptic ; the 
inferior pairs smallest, and broader in proportion to their 
length ; smooth on both sides, and of a pale green colour, 
the superior pair about three inches long, and about one 
and a quarter broad. Pe^io/es round, smooth having apedi- 
celled, brown, round gland between each of the lower two 
or three pairs of leaflets. Stipules falcate, incurved. /?«- 
cemes axillary, solitary, about half the length of the leaves 
erect, bearing near the apex, many, large, pale yellow, 
long-pedicelled flowers. Bractes solitary, one-flowered, 
elliptic, revohite, caducous. Calyx, leaflets very unequal, 
pale yellow, smooth. Petals nearly equal, expanding. 
Anthers all fertile, and nearly equal, though the inferior 
two have much longer filaments than the other eight. 
Legumes linear, thin, contracted between the seeds, 
smooth, pendulous, from six to eight inches long, and 
about three quarters of an inch broad. 

R r 



346 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Senna. 

11. S. officinalis. Gcert. 

Biennial, rainous. Leaflets six-paired, lanceolar, no 
glands. 5'^ipM/(?s acute, expanding. JRacemei axillary. Le- 
gumes oblong, incurved, thin. 

Cassia Senna. Willd. 2. 520. 

Arab, Suna, or Sena. 

A native of the interior of India, as well of Arabia, &c. 



12. S. esculenfa. R. 

Annual, erect. Leaflets seven or eight pair, lanceo- 
late, acute. Racemes terminal, panicled. Legumes linear, 
turgid, many-seeded. 

Teling. Ni/tee-kashinda-kwra. , 

A large, erect, annual, much like cassia sopliora, but 
not so very offensive in its smell. It grows about 
hedges, rubbish, &c. with that plant, but is not so com- 
mon. Flowers during the cold season. 

Stem eject, flexuose, a little furrowed, commonly from 
two to three feet high. Branches few, nearly erect, axilla- 
ry, in form like the stem. Leaves alternate, abruptly- 
pinnate, six or seven inches long. Leaflets Irom six to 
nine pair, lanceolate, acute, entire, smooth, soft, when 
young a little downy ; two or two and a half inches 
long, and three-fourths of an inch broad. Petioles chan- 
nelled, ending in a brown bristly point. Glands a club- 
bed one near the base of the petiole. tS/ipw/es small, ca- 
ducous. Racemes terminal, and from the exterior axils, 
the terminal one a large, compound pannicle, the axil- 
lary ones smaller and simple. Flowers middle-sized, 
yellow. Stamens, the lower one small and sterile, the next 
two large ; the next four middle-sized ; the upper three 
small and sterile. 

The smell of this plant is heavy, and disagreeable. Its 
leaves are eaten in curries by the natives. 



Senna' decandria monogynia. 347 

13. S. sophora. R. 

Annual, erect. Leaves from eight to ten-paired, lance- 
olar, smooth ; the lower much smaller, a clavate gland 
at the base of the petiole. Upper petal retuse. The 
lower and three upper stamina sterile. Legume linear, 
turoid, many-seeded. 

Cassia sophora. Willd. 2. 525, 

Beng. Kwl-kashinda, and the dark purple variety, 
which is as common as the green, they call Kala-kul ka- 
shinda. 

Ponnam-tagera. Hort. Mai. 2. f. 5*2. 

Gallinaria acutifolia. Rumph. Amb. 6. t. Q7.f. 1. 

A native of Bengal, &c. Flowering in the rainy and 
cold season. 

14. S. speciosa. R. 

Arborescent. Leaflets from eight to nine-paired, oblong, 
obtuse, having a smooth pedicelled gland between the 
lower two, or three pairs. Racemes axillary, long-pedun- 
cled. Legumes leafy, linear. 

This species I have only found in gardens ; there it is 
a most shewy plant, and in flower most part of the year. 

Trunk erect. Branches many, ascending. Leaves nu- 
merous, about six. inches long. Leaflets from eight to 
nine pair, oblong, obtuse, smooth, the interior pairs larg- 
est ; a pedicelled gland between each of the lower two 
or three pairs. Stipules ensiform, inflexed. Racemes axil- 
lary, solitary, long-peduncled. Flowers numerous, large, 
yellow. Bractes solitary, one-floweretl, lanceolar oblong. 
Stamens, all the len feriile. Legumes thin, leafy, about six 
inches long, and less than one broad. 

15- S. Sumatrana. R- 

Arboreous. Leaflets from six to ten pairs, oblong, emar- 
ginate, smooth, glands none. Stipules minute, subulate. 
Panicles tenuinal. Legumes linear, compressed, many- 
seeded. 

R r 2 



348 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Senna, 

The seeds of this quickly growing, beautiful, stately, 
useful species were sent to me from Bencoolen by Dr. 
C. Campbell in the beginning of 1800, and in two years 
the young trees reared from them, were not less than from 
ten to twenty feet high, and stout in proportion. In 
August, 1801, they blossomed for the first time and ripen- 
ed their ssed in April, 1802. Now, 1809, they have grown 
to a very great size for their age, w ith a trunk thirty-six 
inches in circumference and four feet above ground. 

Trunk straight and covered with smooth, olive-colour- 
ed bark. Branches few, spreading. Leaves numerous, 
alternate, pinnate, from six inches to a foot long. Leaf- 
lets from four to fourteen pair, opposite, short-petioletted, 
oblong, entire, smooth, polished, of a deep, shining green, 
the exterior pairs largest ; are entire, more or less emar- 
ginate, with a small bristle at the apex ; from two to 
three inches long and from half an inch to an inch broad. 
Petioles smooth and channelled, no glands. Stipules 
minute, subulate, caducous. Panicles terminal, very 
large, erect, ovate, composed of many alternate, corym- 
biform racemes. Flowers numerous, large, bright yellow. 
Bractes lanceolate, concave, one-flowered. Calyx of 
five, unequal, pale yellow, roundish, concave reflexed 
leaflets, about one-third the length of the corol. Corol the 
superior petal small, longer-clawed, and obcordate ; the 
other four nearly equal, and almost round. Filaments se- 
ven fertile ones, but as in the genus, diff^ering much in size; 
the three uppermost barren, and small. Legumes linear, 
thin, swelled a little at the seed, smooth, both margins 
rounded, of a dark brown, from six to eight inches long. 
Seeds many, thin, oval, of a dark shining brown colour. 

Dr. Campbell says that it is one of their most useful 
trees in Sumatra, is of rapid growth, and the wood not 
inferior to Ebony when old. I may add that in Bengal 
its growth is also uncommonly rapid and the tree one of 
the most beautiful the country can boast of. 



Senna. decaisdria monogynia. 349 

16. S. auricidata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaflets ten-paired, oblong. Stipules ear- 
shaped. Racemes terminal, corymbiform. Legumes mem- 
branous, from ten to twelve seeded. 

Cassia auriculata. Willd. 2. 526. 

Teling. Tangheroo. 

It is one of the most common shrubs on the coast of 
Coromandel, looks well, and is in flower during the whole 
of the year. 

Stems trifling, crooked. Branches spreading in all direc- 
tions ; bark dark-coloured, and pretty smooth ; the whole 
plant is ill general from four to eight feet high. Leaves 
scattered, from eight to twelve-paired. Leaflets oblong, 
entire, mucronate, a little downy. Glands a subulate 
one between each pair of leaflets. Stipules kidney-tbim, 
behind is a long spur on the side next the petiole. Ra- 
cemes terminal, and from the exterior axils, sometimes 
compound, corymbiform. Bractes three-fold at the in- 
sertion of the pedicels. Flowers large, numerous, bright 
yellow. Calyx, the two exterior leaflets small. Stamens 
as in the genus. Legume linear, membranaceous, waved, 
from ten to twelve-seeded. 

With the bark the natives commonly tan and dye their 
leather of a buff colour. It is a pretty strong, simple as- 
tringent. 

The caterpillar of a large species of silk w^orm feeds on 
the leaves of this plant. 

17. S. alata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaflets from ten to twelve pair, linear-ob- 
long ; no glands. Racemes terminal. Bractes coloured, 
caducous. Legumes enlarged on each side with a broad 
crenulated wing. Seeds numerous. 

Cassia alata. Willd. 2. 523. Herpetica. Jacq. obs. 2. 
24. t. 45 /. 2. 

Herpetica, Rumph. Amb. 7. t. 18. 



350 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Senna. 

Satis. Dadrooghna. 

Hind, and Beng. T)a.d-murdun. 

Tarn. Wandu Rolli. 

Teling. Mitta tamara. 

The English, and I believe all other Europeans on this 
coast, call it also Mitta tamara. 

It is a large shrub found in our gardens ; where it is 
indigenous 1 cannot say. In a cultivated state it flowers 
during the latter part of the wet season, and beginning 
of the cold. The seeds ripen during the latter part of the 
cold season. 

Stem erect, often as thick as a man's leg, marked by the 
cicatrices of the fallen leaves, and the permanent stipules, 
which appear like prickles. Leaves scattered, abruptly 
pinnate, two feet long. Leaflets opposite, from eight to 
fourteen pair, the exterior largest, linear-oblong, obtuse, 
or eraarginate, with a point, smooth, entire, veined ; 
from three to six inches long, and from two to two and a 
half broad ; the lower pair more distant from the next 
pair than the others above, nearly round and reflexed 
back on the stem or branches. Petioles channelled ; the 
channel large and formed by two thin, firm yellow bor- 
ders ; there is a cross-bar between each pair of leaflets, co- 
vered with small dark-coloured bristles and no other 
gland, each of them terminates in a cordate point. Sti- 
pules ear-shaped, rigid, pointed, lasting. Racemes ter- 
minal and from the exterior axils, long, sometimes two- 
forked, nearly erect. Flowers numerous, simple, large, 
yellow. Bractes large, one-flowered, oval, concave, yel- 
low, caducous. Calyx coloured like the corol. Legume 
horizontal, from five to six inches long, enlarged with a 
broad crenulated wing on each side which runs the 
whole length. Seeds numerous. 

The Telinga and Tamul Physicians say it cures all 
poisonous bites and other venereal outbreakings, and al- 
so strengthens the body. The fresh leaves are very of- 



Senna' decandria monogynia. 351 

ten employed to cure ring-worms. They are well rubbed 
into the parts affected, once or twice a day, and generally 
with great success. 

Seeds from the West Indies received into the Bo- 
tanic garden at Calcutta, under the name Cassia herpeti- 
ca produced this very plant. 

18. S. glauca. R. 

Arboreous. Leaflets as far as sixteen pair, linear, ob- 
tuse, smooth, no glands. Stipules minute. Panicles ter- 
minal, composed of distinct corymbs. Legume linear, 
from eight to ten-seeded, having a conical gland on the 
upper edge of its pedicel which is particularly conspicu- 
ous in the germ. 

A pretty large tree, a native of the Carnatic, from hence 
Dr. Berry sent seeds to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, 
where it blossoms in November and December, with 
Senna Sumatrana which it much resembles, but differs in 
the number, and shape of the leaves, the shape of the pe- 
tals, and the pale glaucus colour of the whole foliage, the 
seed ripens in March. 

Trunk of young three-years-old trees in the Botanic 
garden erect, thick as a man's leg, with smooth brownish 
bark. Branches spreading ; young shoots smooth and 
coloured, whole height of the trees about fifteen feet. 
Leaves alternate, pinnate, from six to twelve inches long. 
Leaflets from eight to sixteen pair, linear-oblong, smooth, 
obtuse, with a slender bristle at the apex, from one to 
two inches long, and about half an inch broad. Petioles 
channelled, and destitute of glands. Stipules minute, ca- 
ducous. Panicles terminal, composed of simple, expand- 
ing corymbs. 

A single, simple, similar corymb is generally found in 
the axil of each of the exterior leaves. Flowers pretty 
large, yellow. Petals the lower pair larger, and more re- 
mote from each other. Stamens simple, seven are near- 



352 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Senna. 

ly equal and fertile, the superior three small and sterile. 
Legume linear, very thin ; smooth, somewhat pedicelled, 
with a gland, or conical process on the upper edge of the 
pedicel. This is particularly conspicuous in the germ, 
and is a good specific mark and immediately distinguish- 
es it from S. Sumatrana which has no such gland and is 
the only species known to me, for which it can be mistaken. 
Seeds generally about fifteen, separated by very finn dis- 
tinct partitions, and attached by convolute slender cords 
to the upper margin. 

19. S. prostrata. R. 

Perennial, prostrate. Leaflets minute, twenty-paired, 
daggered. Pec?Mwc/es from two to three-flowered. Sta- 
mens five ; all fertile- Legumes straight, six-seeded. 

Teling. Nalla Jeelooga. 

A native of pasture ground. Flowers during the wet 
and cold seasons. 

Root woody, perennial. Stems perennial, numerous, 
spreading every way and pressing close upon the ground, 
round, a little hairy, about a foot long. Leaves pinnsite, al- 
ternate, bifarious. Leaflets from twelve to twenty- six pair, 
minute, linear, acute, the lower margin ciliate. Glands, 
a long pedicelled, peltate one between the lower pair of 
leaflets. Stipules serailanced, very acute. Flowers above 
the axils, peduncled, small, yellow, from one to three. 
Calyx. Leaflets equal, daggered. Stamens five, nearly 
equal ; no sterile filaments. Legumes linear ; partitions 
obliquely-transverse, as is Galega, smooth. Seeds from 
six to seven, shining, dark brown. 

Cattle eat it. 

20. S. dimidiata. Buck. 

Annual, slender, erect. Leaflets thirty pair, with aflat 
gland between the lowermost. Peduncles above the axils 
from two to four-flowered- Stamens four, or five, all fer- 



Senna. decandria monogynia. 353 

tile, but two coloured. Legume straight, from ten to fif- 
teen seeded. 

A native of Nepal, from thence seeds were sent by Dr. 
Buchanan, to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where the 
plants thrive luxuriantly, and are in blossom and seed 
most part of the year. It is a beautiful, delicate species. 

Root sometimes biennial. Stems and branches straight ; 
the lower parts round, and smooth, the superior and more 
tender parts clothed with a few curved hairs ; the gene- 
ral height of the plants in the Botanic garden is about 
three feet. Leaves alternate, bifarious, pinnate, from two 
to three inches long. Leaflets numerous, serailanceolate, 
smooth. Glands a pretty large one between, or rather 
under the lower pair of leaflets. Stipulets fine taper-point- 
ed. Peduncles solitary, rather above the axils, very 
short, each producing in succession, three or four long- 
pedicelled, small, yellow flowers. Stamina four or five, 
all fertile, two of the anthers are always coloured. Stigma 
large, w4th a sharp ciliate margin. Legumes straight, 
smooth, containing from six to twelve, or even fifteen 
seeds. 

21. S. sensitiva. R. 

Perennial, procumbent. Leaflets minute, from forty to 
fifty pairs. Peduncles from one to two flowered. Stamens 
ten, all fertile. Legumes straight, many-seeded. 

A small, elegant, procumbent plant, growing on pas- 
ture ground. It flowers during the wet season. 

Root perennial. Stems or branches many, procumbent, 
alternate, bifarious, a little hairy, with the extremities 
ascending, from twelve to eighteen inches long. Leaves 
pinnate, alternate, bifarious, from one to two inches long. 
Leaflets from thirty to sixty pairs, minute, obliquely- 
oblong, pointed. Glands, a round, peltate, sessile one be- 
tween the lowest pair of leaflets. Petioles upper side ridg- 
ed, notched, with a minute bristle in each of the notches 

s s 



354 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. SeWia. 

Stipules at the base cordate, tapering to an acute point. 
Peduncles above the axils, one or two, one-third the 
length of the leaves, one-flowered. Bractes one or more 
embracing the base of the peduncle, and two opposite 
near the apex. Flowers yellow, the stamens being much 
shorter than the pistil, bow till the germ is impregnated. 
Stamens ten, nearly equal. Legume erect, linear, flat, 
from fifteen to twenty-seeded. 

Note. It is at first sight very much like S. prostratahxit 
on examination they prove very different. The leaves are 
considerably more sensitive than any other of this genus 
that 1 know. 

22. S. tenella. R- 

Biennial, erect, ramous. Leaflets from fifty to sixty 
pair, minute, linear-lanceolate mucronate, a flat gland 
between the lower pair. Pet ivies sharp-edged and crenu- 
late on the upper side. Flowers one or two, rarely three, 
above the axils. Anthers ten, all fertile. Legume from 
ten to twelve-seeded. 

It is a native of the interior parts of Bengal, and from 
thence was introduced into the Botanic garden at Cal- 
cutta, by Dr. W. Carey in 1799, w here it blossoms during 
the rains, and the seeds ripen during the cold season. 

Root about biennial in the Botanic garden at Calcutta. 
Stem erect, slender, with many expanding, slender, bifa- 
rious, somew hat hairy branches, height of the whole plant, 
in a good soil from tw o to three feet. Leaves alternate, 
bifarious, pinnate, from two to three inches long. Leaflets 
from forty to sixty pairs, very small, lanceolate, mucro- 
nate, and smooth. Petioles villous, with the upper-edge 
sharp and crenulate, and a large flat gland at the lower 
pair of leaflets, ^fipw/es semilanceolate, acute. Peduncle, 
common, a little above the axils, short, each bearing in 
succession two or three, pretty large, bright yellow flow- 
ers on long pedicels. Bractes one at the base of each 



Poinciana. decandria monogynia. 355 

pedicel and two below the flowers near the apex of the 
pedicels. Calyx ; leaflets lanceolate, rather shorter than 
the petals. Petals orbicular, the two lower ones smaller 
than the others. Anthers ten, all fertile, alternately larger. 
Legumes linear-cuneate, much compressed, suberect, 
smooth, from one to two inches long, containing from six 
to twelve or even more seeds. 



POINCIANA. Schreb. gen. n. 701. 
Calyx five-leaved. Petals five, unequal, the highest 
longer clawed, more beautifully coloured, and fringed. 
Stamina long, ascending, naked, all fertile. 

1. P. pulcherrima. Linn. 

Shrubby, armed. Leaves bipinnate. Leaflets oblong, 
emarginate. Racemes terminal, corymbiform. Claw of 
the upper petal tubular. Stamina much longer than the 
petals. 

Cdd&di\^\i\m pulcherrima. Ed. sp. Willd. 2. b'^^ . 

Tsetti-raandarum. Rheed. Mai. 6. t. 1. 

Sans. Krishna choora. 

Beng. Kreshna-choora. 

Tatn. Komri, 

Common in gardens all over India, and in flower and 
seed the whole year. Plants reared from seed from the 
West Indies do not in any respect difibr from those of 
India. 

The trunk of this little tree or large shrub, when old, 
I bave found constantly hollow, and occupied by a large 
red dark brown ant. From these, when disturbed, they 
issue forth in numbers, and by their bite inflict a severe 
and painful punishment on their disturbers. 

2. P. elata. Lin. Spec. 544. 

Arboreous, unarmed. Leaves bipinnate. Leaflets linear. 

S s 2 



856 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Caesalpitiia. 

Caesalpinia elata. Willd. 2. p. 532. 
A native of Coromandel, where it blossoms during the 
dry season. 

Trunk erect, though rarely straight, often as thick as a 
man's body. ^arA: pretty smooth, ash-coloured. Branches 
numerous, spreading much, the general height of full 
grown trees from twenty to thirty feet. Leaves alternate, 
bipinnate, about six inches long. Pinnce from six to 
seven pair, opposite. Leaflets from ten to twenty pair, 
sessile, opposite, linear, smooth ; about four lines long, 
and one in breadth. Petioles common, grooved on the 
upper side, smooth, and without glands. Stipules mi- 
nute, subulate. Racemes terminal, coryrabiforra, simple, 
few-flowered. Flowers large, very gaudy, inodorous, 
yellow^ Bractes small, one-flowered, caducous. Calyx 
divided to its fleshy base, into five, equal, lanceolate 
segments, which are villous on the inside. Petals five, 
inserted on the fleshy base of the calyx, of which the up- 
per one is smaller, and deeper coloured, all nearly 
round, and much curled round the edge. Filaments ten, 
equal, ascending, -afterwards recurved, twice the length 
of the petals, thick and villous at the base, inserted on 
the calyx, within the petals. Anthers incumbent. Germ 
sessile, linear, villous, one-celled, with from fifteen to 
twenty ovula attached to the upper suture. Style as long 
as the filament.s, for some time after the flower expands 
modestly, recurved from the filaments, which have then 
a diflerent direction, afterwards ascending, when the fila- 
ments become declinate. Stigma small, turbinate. 



CAESALPINIA. Schreh gen. n. 703. 

Calyx, base permanent ; border five-parted, and deci- 
duous. Corol irregular, (ive-petalled, the upper one 
smaller. Filaments woollv. Anthers all the ten fertile, 
and open om their sides. 



Caesalpinia. decandria monogynia. 357 

1. C. Sappan. Wiltd. 2. 533. R.Corom. pi. 1. />.17. t.l6. 

Arboreous, armed. Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce from ten 
to twelve pair ; leaflets from ten to twelve pair, some- 
what dolabriforra. Panicles terminal. Legumes ligneous 
sub trapeziform, from three" to four-seeded. 

Lignum sappan. Rumph. Amb. 4. t. 21. 

Sans. Patanga. 

Teling. Beng. and Hind. Bukkum. This is also said to 
be fhe Arabic and Persian name. 

Tjsam-pangam. Hort. Mai. 6. t. 2. 

Found in most parts of India, and its islands. It flow- 
ers in the hot season. 

2. C. Bonduccella. R. Fleming in Asiat. Res. 11. 159. 
Scandent, armed. Leaves bipinnate ; pinn{e seven pair ; 

leaflets eight pairs, ovate-oblong. Stipules large, and 
pinnatifid. Bractes lanceolate, reflected. Racemes sim- 
ple, above the axils. Legumes armed, two-seeded. 

Puticaraja. Adat. Res. 2. p- 351 ; also 4. p, 276, and 
11.159. 

Guilandina bonduccella. Linn. Lamarck, &c. 

Globuii majores. Rumph. Amb. 5. t. 49./. 1. 

Caretti. Rheed. Mai. 2. t. 22. 

Beng. Nata. 

Hind. Katkarunja, Katk^hja. 

The plants reared from seed from the West Indies, 
proved to be exactly the same. The seed is a powerful 
tonic- 

3. C oleosperma. R. 

Scandent, prickly. Leaves bipinnate ; pinncB and leaf- 
lets eight paired. Stipules subulate. Legumes unarmed, 
from tAvo to three-seeded, and swelled at the seeds. 

Beng. f/mwl koochi. 

Teling. Noonee giika. Noonee means oil, oily. 

This seems to me to be an undescribed species, has 



358 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Caesolpinia. 

much the habit of Bonduccella. It flowers during the wet 
season. The seeds ripen in March and April. 

Stem and branches climbing, woody, armed with many 
small, sharp, recurved prickles. Lcat;es alternate, abrupt- 
ly-bipinnate, oblong, from eight to nine inches long, and 
about four broad. Pinnce opposite, seven, eight, or nine 
pairs. Leaflets opposite, from six to ten pair, linear-ob- 
long, smooth, entire, about one-third of an inch long, 
and one-fifth broad. Petioles common, are frequently 
armed with some, small, scattered prickles, and there 
is generally a pair below each pair of pinnas. Stipules 
subulate. Racemes rather above the axils, simple, some- 
what shorter than the leaves. Pedicels diverging, about 
an inch and a half long. Flowers many, pretty large, yel- 
low. Petals orbicular, the lower end smallest, and striated 
with red. Filaments woolly, alternately shorter. Legume 
smooth, oblong, obliquely-jointed, very protuberant at 
the seeds ; about two and a lialf inches long, and one 
broad. 6'eerfs two or three, oval, smooth, shining, hard, 
about the size of a large pea. 

From the seeds, an oil is expressed, in some part of the 
country, which is used to burn in lamps. 

4. C cucullata. R. 

Scandent, armed. Leaves bipinnate ; pinnoi from four 
to six pair ; leaflets from four to five pair, ovate, polished. 
Panicles terminal, and axillary, thin. Upper petal two- 
lobed and vaulted. Legume thin, smooth, meihbrane 
margined on the back, one or two-seeded. 

A native of the Delta of the Ganges where it was found 
by Dr. William Carey, and by him introduced into the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta where it blossoms in Febru- 
ary and March. 

Trunk ligneous, stout, scandent, which together with 
the scandent branches are armed with numerous, strong, 
very sharp, dark-coloured, recurved prickles, which by 



Caesalpinia. decandria monogynia. 359 

age acquire a large conic base. Bark smooth, and polish- 
ed in the young shoots. Leaves bipinnate, from one to two 
feet long. PinncB opposite, from three or four to six or 
seven pair. Leaflets generally four or five pair, opposite, 
ovate, entire, taper-pointed, firm, and polished on both 
sides, from one to three inches long. Petioles common 
and partial, round, smooth, and armed with recurved 
prickles. Stipules minute, falling long before the leaves 
are full grown- Pan?c/es axillary, and terminal, composed 
of a few simple, ascending, rigid racemes. Bractes small 
caducous. Flowers numerous, solitary, drooping, green- 
ish yellows Calyx as in the genus, yellow, and smooth, size 
of thecorol. Co/or greenish, the upper petals two-lobed, 
the Zo6es large, and at all periods folded down like an arch, 
over the base, and the insertion of the stamina and pistil ; 
lateral pairs nearly round, at first greenish, becoming 
yellow by exposure to the air and light. Filaments scarce- 
ly downy at the base, much longer than the corol- 
Germ short-pedicelled. Stigma obliquely funnel-shaped. 
Legume linear-oblong, thin, pointed and often twisted 
near the apex, smooth and unarmed, a thin membranace- 
ous, scariose wing runs along the whole length of the 
back. Seeds one or two, smooth, light brown- 

5- C- Simora. Buck. 

Scandent, armed, the tender parts coloured and glan- 
dular. Leaves bipinnate ; pinuce from twelve to twenty- 
four pair ; leaflets from eight to sixteen pair. Stipules 
ensiform. Racemes simple, leaf-opposed and terminal. 
Legume dolabriform, turgid, two-seeded. 

A native of Mysore, from thence Dr. Buchanan sent 
seeds to the Botanic garden at Calcutta where the plants 
grow luxuriantly, and blossom during the cold season; the 
seeds ripen four or five months afterwards. Stem and lar- 
ger branches stout, and ligneous, climbing over trees to a 
considerable extent. Bark brown, and armed with very 



360 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Caesalpinia. 

sharp, straight prickles ; young shoots of a bright reddish 
colour, armed, glandular, and somewhat hairy. Leaves 
alternate, bipinnate, from one to three feet long. PinncB 
from twelve to thirty pairs, opposite, about two inches long. 
Leaflets from eight to sixteen pair, opposite, linear-ob- 
long, smooth, entire ; nearly half an inch long. Petioles 
common, nearly round, armed, and chiefly with three 
larger prickles at or near the insertion of the partial pe- 
tioles, tw o of them below, and recurved ; one above, and 
incurved. Partial petioles also armed. Stipules ensi- 
form. Racemes nearly opposite to the leaves, and some- 
times terminal, single, and simple, very long. Peduncles 
armed near the base ; the rest and the diverging long pe- 
dicels dotted with many, clammy dark-coloured glands, 
interspersed with a few hairs. Bractes solitary, one- 
flowered, at the base ovate-cordate with subulate apices, 
caducous. Flowers solitary, pretty large, colour a bright 
yellow. Legumes turgid, of an irregular kidney-shape ; 
acuminate, somewhat hairy ; more than an inch and 
a half long, and about one inch broad near the apex. 
Seeds two, oblong, smooth, of a shining dark brown. 
Emhnjo without perisperm. Cotyledons two. Radicle 
directed to the umbilicus. 

G. C. sepiaria. R. 

Scandent, prickly. Leaves bipinnate ; piniiee eight pair; 
leaflets ten pair, linear oblong. Stipules semisagittate. 
Racemes axillary. Calyces coloured. Legume unarmed, 
daggered, six-seeded. 

The Mysore thorn, was introduced into Bengal from 
that country by General Martin, where it is now as com- 
mon as it is in the Mysore country, and is used to make 
fences. Flowering time in Bengal the cold season. 

Trunk and branches stout, and ligneous, spreading, 
or climbing to a considerable extent, if not checked; 
all armed with strong, sharp prickles. Leaves alter- 



Caesalpinia. decandri\ monogynia. 361 

nate, bipinnate, from tea to eighteen inches long. Pinnce 
opposite, generally from six to ten pair, from one to four 
inches long. Leaflets opposite, from eight to twelve pair, 
subsessile, linear-oblong, rounded at both ends, smooth 
on both sides, about three-fourths of an inch lon^ and 
one quarter broad. Petioles common, armed in the same 
manner with minute prickles. Stipules ca.dvicous, oi' st 
broad, waved, sub-semi-sagittate form. Racemes axillary, 
solitary, nodding, from the weight of the great number of 
large, beautiful, yellow flowers. Peduncles armed, and 
having often a small leaf or two below the flowers. Brac- 
tes solitary, ovate-lanceolate, caducous, one-flowered. 
Calyx with the divisions reflexed, coloured like the. co- 
rol, and about half the size thereof. Carol, the two pairs 
of lateral petals equal, nearly round; the upper one 
much smaller, with a longer claw, all of a bright yel- 
low colour. Filaments woolly below the middle, about 
as long as the larger petals, and with them inserted on 
the permanent base of the calyx. Germ oblong, villous. 
Style as long as the stamens. Stigma simple", perforated. 
Legume linear-oblong smooth, with along subulate point. 
Seeds from four to eight, obovate, oblong, smooth, uark 
coloured, variegated, the size of a large pea. 

This, when in full blossom, is ornamental and well de- 
serving a place in the gardens of all such as are fond of 
showy productions. It also makes an excellent fence, 
and as such was much employed by Hyder-Alh* in the 
bound-hedges of his forts, and other strong holds. 

7. C, chinensis. R. 

Scandent, armed. Leaves bipinnate ; pinncB and leaflets 
from two to four pairs, the latter oval and oblong, both 
ends obtuse lucid. Petioles and petiolefs armed. 

Introduced from China, into the Botanic garden at 

Calcutta, where it has now been for these five or six 

years and has not yet blossomed. 

T t 



362 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Caesalpinia. 

8. C. bonduc. R. 

Scandent, armed. Leaves bipinnate. Pinncc from four 
to eight pair ; leaflets from six to seven pair, ovaU lucid, 
mucronate. 

Guilandina bonduc. Willd. 2. 534. 

From Sumatra this very large species has been intro- 
duced into the Botanic garden at Calcutta without hav- 
ing blossomed, though in perfect health, and of great ex- 
tent. 

9. C. resupinata. R. 

Arboreous, subscandent, armed. Leaves bipinnate ; 
piuniB, and leaflets many-paired ; common petiole armed 
on the underside. Stipules minute, caducous. Racemes 
axillary. Flowers resupine. Legume two-seeded, 

A native of the Moluccas, and reared in the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta from seed received from those islands 
in 1798. It blossomed for the first time in the month 
of September, 1800, and ripened its seeds the March fol- 
lowing. 

Trwn^ tolerably erect, though rather too weak to support 
itself at its present age, every part thickly armed with 
numerous, short, very sharp prickles. Branches numer- 
ous, some scandent, some spreading or drooping ; height 
of the whole plant at present about twelve feet. Leaves 
alternate, bipinnate, from six to twelve inches long. Pin- 
noe about twelve pair, opposite, from one to two inches 
long. Leaflets opposite, from eight to twelve pair, oblique- 
ly oval, entire, smooth on both sides ; about one-third 
of an inch long. Petioles common, round, villous, arm- 
ed with recurved prickles between the pinnas on the 
under side, and a gland between each pair on the upper. 
Stipules filiform, very small, caducous. Racemes axilla- 
ry, solitary, and generally simple, spreading, shorter 
than the leaves. Pedicels solitary, one-flowered, round, 
smooth, slender, about an inch long. Flowers resupine, 



Caesalpinia. decandria monogynia. 363 

numerous, bright yellow, and though not small, they are 
more so than any other Indian species of this genus I 
have yet met with. Bractes most minute, one-flowered. 
Calyx smooth, coloured on the inside ; lower division of 
the border much larger than the rest ; the base only 
permanent. Carol the two lateral pair of petals nearly 
equal, roundish, expanding, short-clawed. The superior 
one smaller, ovate-cuneate, with a curled margin, and on 
the centre a tuft of wool, coloured with reddish veins. 
Legumes oblong, thick, fleshy on the margin, protuberant 
where the seeds are lodged. Seeds from one to three, 
round, smooth, brown, size of a marrow-fat pea. 

10. C. enneaphylla. R. 

Shrubby, scandent, armed. Leaves bipinnate. Pin- 
nee and leaflets from eight iv> t^n-paired. Panicles termi- 
nal. Legume unarmed, winged on the back, five-seeded. 

A native of the eastern parts of Bengal, where it blos- 
soms about the beginning of the cold season. Trunk 
and larger branches stout, ligneous, climbing up and over 
large trees, and wiiatever else they meet with, armed with 
numerous, curved, sharp, black prickles, each inserted 
over the old woody parts, on a large, transversely oblong, 
subsolid tuberosity. Bark of the young shoots smooth, 
shining, deep green, armed with numerous smooth, 
sharp prickles. Leaves alternate, bipinnate, from nine 
to ten inches long. Pinnce opposite, generally eight, 
nine, or ten pairs. Leaflets from eight to ten pairs, 
cuneate-oblong, rounded at both ends, entire, smooth 
on both sides ; from half an inch to one inch long. Petioles 
common, armed underneath ; with many, recurved, sharp 
prickles ; a pair of which is always placed at the inser- 
tion of the pinnas, and sometimes a single straight one 
on the upper side between them. Stipules scarcely any. 
Panicles terminal, composed of many large, ascending 
racemes, of numerous, beautiful yellow fragrant flowers. 

T t2 



364 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Caesolpinia. 

Calyx of five, subequal coloured, reflected, caducous di- 
visions inserted on a permanent base. Corol papilionace- 
ous ; the upper three petals placed on the upper side re- 
sembling the banner, the lower pair resembling the wings, 
while the lower division of the perianth before it becomes 
quite reflected is not unlike the keel. Filaments ten, de- 
clined, woolly, alternately shorter. Anthers incumbent, 
brown. P/sfi/ hid amongst the stamens, ie^fwrne unarmed, 
smooth ; broad-lanceolate, thin on the back, enlarged by 
a membranous wing which is united by an elevated suture. 
Seeds five or six, oval, smooth, flattened. 

11. C. paniculata. R. 

Scandent, armed. Leaves bipinnate; pinnce and leaflets 
three or four-paired. Stipules minute. Fanicles ter- 
minal. Legumes obliquely oval, smooth, cuspidate, one- 
seeded. 

Kaku-mullu. Rheed. Mai. 6. 1. 19. 

Guilandina paniculata. Willd. 2. 535. Lamarck. En- 
c?/c/. 1. p.430. 

A native of various parts of India. It blossoms dur- 
ing the dry months of February and March. The seeds 
ripen in August and September. 

Stem and branches ligneous, climbing up and over trees, 
&c. Bark smooth and green until the plants are several 
years old ; every part armed with dreadfully sharp, 
strong, recurved chesnut coloured aculei which acquire 
an immense base like the point of the finger on the trunk 
and large branches of old plants. Leaves bipinnate, 
from six to twelve inches long. Pinnce three or four 
pair, remote. Leaflets three pair, ovate-lanceolate, ob- 
tuse, entire, of a firm texture, polisfied on both sides, 
from one to two inches long. Petioles common and par- 
tial, armed on the underside, smooth, round, generally 
coloured on the upperside. Stipules very minute and 
soon failing ofi". Jnflorencence, generally one terminal 



Caesalpinia. decandria monogynia. 



365 



panicle, or compound raceme, and one or two simple, 
single racemes from the axils next the panicle. Bractes 
ovate-lanceolate, but dropping long before the flowers ex- 
pand. Flowers numerous, pretty large, yellow and fra- 
grant. Legume obliquely oval, smooth, cpmpressed, cus- 
pidate. Seed solitary. 

12. C. tortuosa. R. 

Armed, subarboreous, with a long, weak, straggling 
trunk, and branches. Leaves bipinnate ; pinncB and leaf- 
lets numerous ; common petiole armed. Racemes axil- 
lary. Legume from three to four-seeded, twisted, and 
contracted between the seeds. 

This dreadfully armed species is a native of the Island 
of Sumatra. From thence the seeds were sent by Dr. 
Campbell, to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, in 1796. 
Now, October 1800, the trees are about fifteen feet high, 
with weak, slender trunks, and few still weaker subscaa- 
dent branches, armed with numerous very sharp some- 
■what incurved, subulate prickles. It blossoms in October 
and the seeds are ripe in February. 

Leaves bipinnate, a foot or more long. Pinnce from 
fifteen to twenty pair, opposite. Leaflets from twenty to 
forty pairs, opposite, tapering from the base to an obtuse 
point, smooth, firm, and shining, about half an inch 
long, and one-eighth of an inch broad. Petioles common, 
keeled on the upperside, and armed with small recurved 
prickles underneath. Racemes axillary, erect, solitary, 
generally simple, subcylindric, rather longer than the 
leaves. Flowers scattered, very numerous, large, yel- 
low, slightly streaked with red near the base of the pe- 
tals. Bractes minute, caducous. Calyx herethe lower 
division is uncommonly large. Corol the two pairs of 
lateral petals nearly equal, and almost round, the upper 
one much smaller, deeply emarginate, coloured, hav- 
ing a long claw. Filaments woolly, alternately smaller 



366 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Caesalpiuia. 

and shorter. Legume linear-oblon«f, swelled at the seeds, 
considerably twisted. Seeds from two to five, hard, 
smooth, of a dark blackish brown, size of a large pea. 

13. C. Sumatrana. R. 

Scandent, armed. Leaves bipinnate, no stipules ; pe- 
tioles armed on the under side. Racemes cauline, axilla- 
ry, or terminal. Calyx cylindric, confining the petals. 
Filaments naked. Legume winged on the back. 

Introduced into the Botanic garden at Calcutta from 
Sumatra where it is held in as much dread as the Kan- 
tuffu is in Abyssinia. 

TVmwA: scarcely any, but many stout, woody branches 
climbing up and over trees to a great extent. These are 
covered with dark brown bark, and armed w^th numer- 
ous, strong, sharp, recurved prickles, the largest of them 
are generally in stipulary pairs. Leaves alternate, bipin- 
nate, from one to two feet long. Pinnce from three to six 
pair, opposite. Leaflets from six to twelve, short-petio- 
letted, alternate, oval, entire, smooth on both sides, from 
one to two inches long. Petioles common, and of the pin- 
nce armed on the underside with sharp, recurved prickles 
otherwise smooth and polished like every other young 
part of the plant. Stipules none, but a brown smooth 
gland in their place. Racemes very large, compound, or 
simple, from the naked ligneous branches, or from the 
axils, or they are terminal. Flowers numerous, drooping, 
pretty large, of an orange colour tinged w ith pink. Bractes 
minute, caducous, large before the flowers expand. Calyx 
subcylindric, the inferior division a little longer, base per- 
manent. Petals subclavate, the superior one rather larger 
and more beautifully coloured, all are only a little long- 
er than the calyx and inserted with the stamina a little 
above its base. In this species the great length of the ca- 
lyx prevents the petals from expanding. Filaments ten, 
alternately a little shorter, ascending, smooth. Anthers 



Caesalpinia. decandria monogynia. 367 

« 

ovate, two-lobed. Germ obliquely ovate. Style the length 
of the stamina. Stigma simple. Legume oblong, thin, with 
a broad membranaceous margin along the upper edge, 
this wing is about one-third the breadth of the whole 
and united to the seed-bearing body of the legume by a 
suture which is somewhat elevated like the nerve of a 
leaf. Seeds from one to three or four, small, ovate, com- 
pressed, coloured and smooth. 

14. C. inermis. R. 

Unarmed. Leaves bipinnate ; pinn<s as far as ten pair ; 
leaflets as far as twenty. Panicles terminal, ferruginous. 
Pefa?s base of the filaments, and germ very woolly. 

A native of the Moluccas. The legume not seen. 

15. C. lacerans. R. 

Shrubby, scandent, dreadfully armed. Leaves bipin- 
nate. CaZyces coloured like the corol. Le^wmes unarm- 
ed, winged, one-seeded. 

Teling. Walekadooda. A large climbing species, most 
completely armed. It is common in wild, woody, uncul- 
tivated places, and flowers during the first part of the wet 
season. 

Stem and longer branches climbing, woody, covered 
with scabrous, ash-coloured bark ; the smaller branches 
less so, and armed with innumerable, large, strong, sharp, 
recurved prickles ; the tender shoots purple. Leaves alter- 
nate, abruptly bipinnate, from five to six inches long 
and three broad. Pinnce opposite, from four to eight pair. 
Leaflets opposite, from four to eight pair, oval, entire, 
smooth, half an inch long and a quarter of an inch broad. 
Petioles common, smooth, armed with a pair of recurved 
prickles below each pair of pinnee, and a single erect 
one opposite to them on the upper side. Racemes axil- 
lary, and only from the extreme leaves, which gives them 
the appearance of a large terminal leafly panicle. Flowers 



368 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. GcBttnera. 

middle sized, numerous, white, beautifully tinged with 
red. Calyx coloured, as large as the corol. 

HYPERANTHERJ. Vahl 
Calyx five-cleft. Corol irregular, five-petalled. Sta- 
mina unequal. Capsule superior, one-celled, three-valv- 
ed. Seeds winged. 

H. moringa. Willd. 2. 536. Asiat. Res. 11. 168. 

Arboreous, ieates supradecompound. Half the sta- 
mina sterile. 

Guilendina Moringa. Linn. Jacq. ^c. 

Anoma Moringa. Lourier. Cochin Ch. 343-4. 

Mouringou. Rheed. Mai 6- /. 11. 

Sobhanjana. Asiat. Res. 4. p. 277. 

Beng. SMJwna. 

Tarn, and Teling. Morunga. 

Common in a cultivated state all over India. The 
leaves, flowers, and tender seed-vessels, are eaten by the 
natives in their curries. 

A red flowered species, or variety is found in the vici- 
nity of Malda, its Sanscrit name Mudhoo-shigroo. 

GARTNER A. R. 

Calyx five-leaved. Corol irregular- Petals five, re- 
flexed. Germ three-celled, cells one-seeded, attachment 
subsuperior. Capsules three, superior, each three-wing- 
ed, and one-seeded. Embryo inverse, without perisperm. 

1. G. racemosa- Willd. 2. 551. R- Coram, pi 1. p. 19. 
M8. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, acute- Two exterior petals ob- 
long. 

Antimucta. Asiat. Res. 4. p. 282. 
Banisteria Bengalensis. Linn. sp. pi. 611. 
Madab lota. Sonnerat. N. 2. p. 238. 1. 135. 



Caesalpinia- decandria monogynia. 360 

INTolina raccmosa. Lamarck. Encyclop. 4. 227. and Ca- 
van. Diss. 9. t. 2()3. 

Sida pou. Rheed. Mai. 6. t. 59. 

Teling. Vedal-tshittu. 

Beng. Madlueva htta, or MadhubwlMta, also Mai tee. 

Found in various parts of India. It flowers durini? the 
rainy and cold season. The blossoms are uncommonly 
beautiful, and exceedingly fragrant. 

2. G. obtusifoUa. R. 

Leaves oblong, obtuse. All the petals round, the low- 
er two expanded, the upper three reflex. 

A native of China, and from thence brought to the Bo- 
tanic garden at Calcutta, prior to 1793. Lii<e racemosa, 
it is a large, scandent, somewhat twining shrub ; running 
over trees of considerable size. Flowering time the month 
of March. Its blossoms are smaller, less beautiful, and 
not so fragrant, as those of G. racemosa. 

Flowers of five petals, the lower two, more expanded, the 
upper three completely reflexed, all elegantly fiinged round 
the margins, the uppermost one has a rosy tinge round a 
yellowish base, where two curved hornlets project in to- 
ward the stamina, the other four are white. Filaments un- 
equal, ascending in a beautiful curve ; the lower one much 
larger, and longer. Germ superior, three-lobed, each lobe 
crowned With one larger, and two smaller,semilunar,hairy 
processes, which in the fertile lobes become wings ; each 
lobe contains a single seed attached to the inner and 
upper anjile of the cell. Style ascending, nearly as 
long as the long filament. Stigma simple, incurved. 
Samara, rarely more than one of the three come to ma- 
turity, globose, villous, of a soft chafly texture, three- 
winged ; wings lanceolate, scariose, one of them larger, 
betw een it and the base is a small scar, the mark of the 
attachment of the style. Seed single, round. Integument 
single, tender, brown, attached to the samara under the 

U u 



370 DECANDRiA MOMOGYNiA. Adenatithera. 

remains of the style. Perisperm none. Embryo inverse, 
yellowish. Cotyledons conform to the seed, unequal, 
and sometimes divided. Plumida two-lobed. Radicles 
oval, curved up, and pointing to the vertex of the seed. 



ADENANTHERA. Schreh. gen. n. 707- 

Calyx five-toothed. Corol five-petalled ; a globular 
gland crowns the apex of each anther. 

1. A. pavonina. Willd. 2. 550. 

Unarmed. Leaves bipinnate ; leaflets smooth. Ra- 
cemes axillary. 

Sans. Koochunduna. 

Beng. Rwcta chwndan, RMUjj^na, which means red san- 
dal, whereas we consider Pterocarpus Santalinus to be 
the tree which yields that wood. 

]Mandsjadi. Rheed. Mai. G. t. 14. 

Corollaria parvifolia. Rumph. Amb. 3. t. 109. 

Found in various forests over most parts of India. It 
grows to be a very large tree with an erect trunk, and 
when old, dark-coloured scabrous bark; while young, 
smooth. The interior wood of large trees is of a deep red 
colour, very hard and durable. 

Leaves alternate, abruptly bipinnate, from one to three 
feet long. Pm/?<E opposite, generally from four to six pair, 
each from four to twelve inches long. Leaflets alternate, 
short-petioletted, from four to ten or twelve pair, oval, with 
the margins waved, smooth on both sides, from one to two 
inches long. Petioles round, smooth, coloured. Racemes 
terminal and froq? the exterior axils, solitary, cylindric, 
about a span long. Flowers numerous, small, yellow, 
fragrant. Bractes minute and caducous. Calyx, &c. 
parts of fructification as in the genus, only the petals ad- 
here slightly at the base, and there the filaments are in- 
serted. 



Adenanthera. decandria monogynia. 371 

The coloured wood of this tree is used for a variety of 
economical purposes. The smooth, oval, bright scarlet 
coloured, hard seeds are strung on a thread and worn 
by the women round their necks in many parts of India. 
The wood yields a dye, and is employed by the Brah- 
mins after religious bathing in marking their foreheads; 
for which purpose it is obtained, by rubbing the wood on 
a wet stone. 

2. A. aculeata R- 

Arboreous, prickly. Leaves bipinnate, smooth? Legumes 
cylindric, replete with a farinaceous substance, in which 
the seeds are found. 

Prosopis spicigera. Willd. 2. 547. R. Corom.pl. 1. N. 63. 

Somi, Wilford in Asiat. Res, 4, p. 3G3. Sir William 
Jones's Sami of the same vol. page 307, is very differ- 
ent ; viz. Mimosa farnesiana, a plant he never intended 
for Sami. 

Prosopis aculeata. Asiat. Res, 4. p. 405. 

Prosopis aculeata Kon. Mss. 

Teling. Chanee. 

This grows to the size of a tree. It is a native of most 
parts of the coast of Coromandel, chiefly on low lands 
at a considerable distance from the sea ; it is also found 
in some parts of Hindoostan. It flowers during the cold 
and beginning of the hot seasons. 

Trunk tolerably erect. Bark deeply cracked, of a dirty 
ash colour. Branches irregular, very numerous, forming 
a pretty large, very shady head. PricHes scattered over 
the small branches, in some trees wanting. Leaves alter- 
nate, generally bipinnate, from two to three inches long. 
PinncB from one to four, when in pairs, opposite, and hav- 
ing a gland between their insertions. Leaflets opposite, 
from seven to ten pair, obliquely lanceolate, smooth, en- 
tire, about half an inch long, and one-sixth broad. Sti- 
pules none. Spikes axillary, several together, filiform,^ 

U u2 



372 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Petaloma, 

nearly erect. Braites minute, one-flowered, caducous. 
Flowers numerous, small, yellow, single, approximate. 
Calyx below, iive-toothed. Filaments united at the base. 
Anthers incumbent and white, with a gland on the apex of 
each which falls off soon after the llower expands. Style 
crooked. Stigma simple. Legume \on^, pendulous, not in- 
flated. Seeds m-diny , lodged in a brown mealy substance. 

The pod of this tree is the only part used; it is about 
an inch in circumference, and from six to twelve long ; 
when ripe, brown and smooth, containing besides the seeds 
a large quantity of a brown mealy substance which the 
natives eat. Its taste is sweetish and agreeable ; it may 
therefore be compared to the Spanish Algaroba, or Lo- 
cuU tree ( Ceratonia siliqua.) 



CYNOMETRA. Linn. 
Calyx four-leaved. Curol five-petalled. Legume fleshy, 
lunate, one-seeded. Embryo centripetal, no perisperm. 

C. polyaiidra. R. 

Leaves phmate. Branchlets floriferous. Floivers po- 
lyandrous. 

Peng is the vernacular name in Silhet, where it grows 
to be a very large and useful timber tree. Flowering time 
March and April. The seeds ripen in July and August. 

PETALOMA. Schreh. gen. n. 1750. 
Calyx iive-toothed. Petals five, the stamina inserted 
on the calyx. Berry inferior, one-celled. Seeds from one 
to four. 

P. alternifoUa. R. 

*Xeaves alternate, obovate-cuneate, emarginate. Spikes 
axillary. 



Rata. i)ECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 373 

Kada Kandel. Rlieed. 3Ial. vol. 6. t. 37. 

Beng. Kripa. 

A pretty hiri;e treo, a native of the Delta of the Ganges, 
where the sprin<j-tides rise so high as to overflow the 
ground on uhich they grow. Flowering time the hot season. 
Irunk straight, bark scabrous. Branches numerous, 
erect, and ascending, with dark brown, smooth, bark. 
Leaves alternate, subsessile, obovate, emarginate, slight- 
ly crenate, almost veinless, smooth on both sides, and 
fleshy, about two inches long, and one broad. Stipules 
none. Spikes axillary, solitary, generally simple, about 
as long as the leaves, each bearing from six. to twelve, 
alternate, small, white flowers. Bractes, a very minute 
one at the base of each germ, and two growing on the 
opposite sides of its middle. Calyx five-toothed ; teeth 
rounded and frequently unequal. Petals five, inserted 
within the fissures of the calyx, oblong, entire, first ex- 
panding, then recurved. Filaments ten, alternately a 
little longer, about the length of the petals. Anthers 
ovate. Germ inferior, ovate, compressed. Style awled, 
as long as the stamens. Stigma acute. Pericarpium a 
small ovate, oblong, compressed, drupaceous berry, with 
a single linear, oblong seed. 

The wood is remarkably strong and durable; it is much 
used for posts and other parts of the houses of the na- 
tives, but its chief consumption about Calcutta is for fuel, 
large quantities being brought daily from the Sunder- 
bunds (low parts of the Delta,) for that purpose. 

1 doubt if this can with propriety be considered a Pe- 
taloma. The habit does not by any means agree. It 
will probably form a genus. 



RUT A. Schreh. gen. n. 725. 

CfJyjc five-parted. Pcfa/s concave. Receptacle oi the 
germ impressed with ten melliferous pits. Capsule lohsite. 



374 DECANDRiA MONOGYNfA. Murvaya. 

R, graveolens. Willd. 2. 542. 

Leaves supra-decompound ; leaflets oblong, the termi- 
nal ones obovate. Petals entire. 

Arab. Sudal. 

Sans. Somalata, also Brabraee. 

Hind. Saturi, also Arooda. 

It is I presume a native of Persia, and the western 
parts of Asia. In Bengal, it is found in gardens only 
where it flowers during the cold season. 



MURRAY A. Schreh. gen. n. 717- 
Calyx five-toothed. Corol campanulate, five-petalled. 
Germ two-celled, with two subpcndulous ovula in each, 
attached to the top of the axis. Berry superior, two- 
celled. Seeds solitary, woody. Embryo inverse without 
perisperm. 

1. M. exotica. Mant. 393. Willd. 2. p. ^\%. 

Leaves alternately pinnate ; leaflets from five to seven^ 
obliquely obovate, oblong. Corymbs terminal, globular, 
crowded. 

Chalcas paniculata. Mant. 68. 

Camunium Sinense. Rumph. Amb. 5. t. 18. f, 2. 

Marsana buxifolia. Sounerat it. 3. 192. t. 139. 

Teling. Naga goJMnga. 

It grows to be a small tree, though in general found in 
the state of a large, erect, very ramous shrub, with a light 
ash-coloured bark. It was brought from China to this 
coast many years ago, where it continues to be cultivat- 
ed in gardens ; but I have found it very common wild, 
amongst the mountains in the Circars. It is from the 
■wild plant I take my description. It flowers chiefly dur- 
ing the hot season. 

Leaves scattered, pinnate with an odd one. Leaflets 
generally three pair, alternate, obovate-oblong, emargi- 



Bergera. decandria monogynia. 375 

nate, smooth, of a shining deep green, from one and a half 
to two inches long, and about one broad, the inferior 
smallest. Petioles glandular, round. Corymbs terminal, 
globular, crowded with pretty large, beautiful, pure 
white, exquisitely fragrant flowers. Calyx one-leaved, 
five-parted, glandular, divisions erect, acute. Carol five- 
petalled, carapanulate. Petals lanceolate, spreading at 
top. Nectary a fleshy ring surrounding the base of the 
germ. Filaments ten, alternately longer, and larger. An- 
thers oblong. Germ superior, oblong, glandular, two-cell- 
ed, with two ovula in each vertically attached to the upper 
half of the partition. Style thick, length of the stamens. 
Stigma large, glandular. Seeds one, or two, oblong, 
pointed above, flat on one side, woolly. Embryo inverse, 
and without perisperm. 

2. M. Sumatrana. R. 

Leaves alternately pinnate ; leaflets from five to seven, 
ovate and ovate-oblong, emarginate. Flowers terminal. 

A large shrub, a native of Sumatra, and from thence 
sent to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, by Dr. C. Camp- 
bell, under the name Chalcas ; it is much thinner of 
branches, has larger leaves, and fewer but much larger 
flowers, than exotica, and when growing together most 
conspicuously difl'erent in habit. Flowers, and ripens its 
seed at various times through the year. 



BERGERA. Schreb. geyu n. 718. 
Calyx five-toothed. Carol five-petalled, expanding. 
Germ two-celled, one ovula in each attached to the axis. 
Berry superior, one or two-seeded. Embryo inverse, 
without perisperm. 

1. B. KbnigiL Willcl 2, 549. 
Leaflets obliquely lanceolate, serrate. 



376 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Bevgera. 

Beng. B^^rs^^ne:<I. # 

Teling. Kari-Vepa. 
Tarn. Kaniwepila. 

This grows to be a small tree. Is a native of the 
mountainous parts of the Coast, and is also cultivated in 
gardens for the sake of its leaves; they beino^ a princi- 
pal ingredient in the country stews called curries. Its 
flowering time is the hot season. 

This tree is so well described by the late Dr. Koniff, 
in the genera and species plantarum of Linnaeus, that it is 
unnecessary for me to say any thing on that head. 

The leaves, as observed above, are a very principal in- 
gredient in curries; and when they cannot be had fresh, 
are used dry, for they retain their flavour very Avell in 
that state, and are to be had in every market. They 
have a peculiar flavour, which I cannot describe ; at first 
it is rather disagreeable, but most people soon become 
perfectly reconciled to, if not fond of it. 

The bark and root are used as stimulants by the na- 
tive physi( ians. Externally they are also used to cure 
eruptions and the bites of poisonous animals. 

The green leaves are prescribed to be eaten raw for the 
cure of dysentery ; they are also bruised and applies' 
externally to cure eruptions. 

2. B. integerrima. Buck, 

Arboreous. Leaflets entire, with long taper points. 

Bun kooncha of the natives of the eastern banks of the 
mouth of the Megna, where the tree grows. It was in- 
troduced into the Botanic garden by Dr. Buchanan in 
1797 ; now, January 1800, they have advanced to the size 
of small ramous trees, and are at present in blossom. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, pinnate, with single termi- 
nal leaflets, from six to eighteen inches long. Leaflets 
opposite or subalternate, short-petioletted, obliquely lan- 
ceolate, oblong, waved, ending in long,fine,taperingpoints, 



Limonia. decandria monouynia. 377 

tolerably smooth above, and somewhat villous under- 
neath, differing in size, the exterior or largest above six 
inches long and two broad. Pefiolets and petioles round, 
and a little villous. Corymbs terminal, decompound, 
large, ramifications villous, Flowera short pedicelled, 
erect, numerous, white, emitting a strong, heavy, offen- 
sive smell, ^racfes very minute. Permw/^ five-toothed. 
Petals five, lanceolate, expanding. Stamens alternately 
longer. Gt'rm superior, oval, resting on a fleshy receptacle. 
Style clavate. Stigma subrotund. Berry the size of a large 
pea, oval, when ripe yellow. Seed solitary, nearly as 
large as the berry. 



LIMONIA. Sckreb. gen. 7i. 720. 

Calyx four or five- toothed. Corol four or five-petalled. 
Germ from two to five-celled ; cells from one to two seed- 
ed, attachment interior. Berry superior, few-seeded. 
Embryo inverse, without perisperra. 

1. L. bilocularis. R. 

Shrubby, armed. Leaves elliptic, emarginate, glossy. 
Flowers axillary, and terminal, subsessile, decandrous. 
Germ and berries two-seeded. 

A very ramous, well armed, rigid shrub, very like Li- 
monia monophylla, but always smaller; a native of Coro- 
mandel. Flowers in June; the seed ripens in September. 

Spines axillary, solitary, long, strong and sharp. Leaves 
alternate, short petioled, reflexed, elliptic, somewhat 
crenulate, emarginate, firm and glossy, abounding in 
minute cells, and odorous like the leaves of the orange, 
&c. when bruised ; about an inch and a half long, and three 
quarters of an inch broad. Stipules axillary, solitary, by 
the base of the spines, subulate. Flowers axillary and 
terminal, in little, subsessile clusters, small, pure white. 

Bractes minute, subulate. Calyx cup-shaped, five-tooth- 

v V 



378 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LimOUia* 

ed. Petals five, oblong. Nectary a crenulate, white 
fleshy cup, round the lower half of the germ. Filaments 
ten, alternately shorter, lanceolar, thick, and distinct, 
inserted between the nectary and petals. Anthers ovate. 
Germ superior, two, very rarely three-lobed ; two, rarely 
three-celled with one ovula in each, attached to the mid- 
dle of the partition; 5<*//e short and thick. Stigma large, 
nearly round, and clammy. Berries spherical, of the size 
and appearance of a ripe sloe, succulent, two-celled. Seed 
solitary. Integument single, thin, and clear. Perisperm 
none. Embryo inverse, green. Cotyledons conform to the 
seed. 

2. L. monophylla. Willd. 2. 571. Corom. pi. 1. N. 83. 

Shrubby, aimed with straight spines. Leaves simple. 
Nectary campanulate, antheriferous. 

Trichilia spinosa. Willd- 1.2- p. 554. 

hivnonm pumila. Biirm. zeyl. 143, t. 65. 

JVlal-Naregam. Rlieed. Mai. 4. 1. 12. 

Teling. Adni-nima, (wild lime.) 

This plant is a native of our large, extensive forests 
over the Coast of Coromandel, where it often grows to be 
a small tree, though oftener found in the state of a large 
shrub. Flowering time about the rainy season. 

Trunk irregular. Bark pretty smooth, of a greenish 
ash colour. Branches numerous, very irregular, and very 
rigid. Thorns single, axillary, very strong and sharp ; 
in some plants entirely wanting. Leaves alternate, short- 
petioled, oblong, emarginate, smooth, firm, two or three 
inches long, and one or one and a half broad. Sti- 
pules subulate. Racemes axillary, short. Brqctes subu- 
late, small. Ca/yx from four to five-parted, permanent. 
Corol four or five-petalled ; petals equal, oblong, expand- 
ing. Nectary cylindric, mouth ten-toothed', teeth alternate- 
ly larger. Filaments none ; anthers resting on the teeth of 
the nectary. Germ superior, globular, generally four-celled, 



Limonia. decandria monocynia. 379 

with two ovula in each, attached to the axis. Style length 
of the nectary. Stigma three or four-lobed. Berry the 
size of a nutmeg, very much like a lime (hence the Telinga 
name, wild lime) generally four-celled. Seeds generally 
solitary, that is one in each cell. 

The flowers of the above described plant agree with 
those of Melia, Trichilia, Turraea, and Swietenia ; their 
pericarps must be depended on to distinguish the genera. 

3. L. citrifolia. R. 

Shrubby ; armed with recurved spines. Leaves simple, 
elliptically oval, entire, obtusely acuminate. Flowers 
axillary. Berries ovate, few-seeded. 

A very ramous, rigid, well-armed shrub, of five or six 
feet in height, a native of the forests of Chittagong, and 
with the other armed species, well adapted for fences. 
Flowering time the hot season. 

Young shoots polished. Thorns axillary, solitary, 
short, somewhat recurved. Leaves alternate, round-pe- 
tioled, elliptic, with an obtuse, somewhat lengthened 
point, entire, smooth, but marked with numerous pellucid 
points, as in many Aurantice ; from four to five inches 
long, and from two to three broad. Stipules none. Flow- 
ers small, white, short-peduncled, axillary. Bractes mi- 
nute, about the insertion of the peduncles, and on them. 
Calyx five-toothed, having its substance marked with pel- 
lucid points. Pe/a/s five, oblong, smooth. Filaments len, 
distinct, short, inserted round the base of the germ. An- 
thers linear, erect. Germ ovate-oblong, five-grooved, on 
the outside five-celled, each cell containing two ovM/a at- 
tached to the axis. Style thick and short. Stigma sub-pel- 
tate. Berry ovate, of the colour and appearance of a lime, 
even to the little green cells in the cortex. Seeds from one 
to four, separated by some few small fibres only, which 
are scarcely to be traced when dry, oblong, having the 
sides agreeing in shape with the number in the berry. Jn- 

v T 2 



380 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. LmOTlia. 

tegument single, membranaceous. Perisperm none. Em- 
bryo inverse. Cotyledons conform to the seed. Radicle 
superior. 

4. L. scandens. R. 

Shrubby, scandent, armed. Leaves ternate ; leaflets lan- 
ceohir, entire, smooth. Berries three seeded. 

Sans. LMV?/nga Iwta. 

Lnng-phool oi" the natives about Silhet. 

A very extensive, powerful, scandent shrub, a native 
of the hills about Silhet and Chittagong, where it blos- 
soms in March and April, and the seeds ripen in Sep- 
teml er. 

Trunk or branches several from the same root, long, 
thick, stout, ligneous, scandent, armed. Bark pretty 
smooth and ash coloured. 77<orns axillary, solitary, strong, 
long, acute, and a little recurved. Leaves alternate, ternate. 
Li'oflets lanceolate, entire, smooth, shining and fi;m, from 
six to seven inches long, having both surfaces marked with 
minute, dark green, glandular dots, or cells, though the 
smell, as in most leaves of this conformation, has nothing 
particular in it; when the plants are young, the leaves are 
simple. Petioles channelled, smooth, deep green like the 
leaves. Peduncles axillary, or from the naked branchlets 
below the leaves, each supporting from four to twelve, 
pedicelled, pretty large, white, fragrant flowers, in form of 
a raceme. Calyx one-leaved, cylindric, with the mouth cut 
into four short, truncate divisions. Peta's tour, linear ob- 
long, fleshy, recurved. Filaments ehj,ht; \hd lower half unit- 
ed into a tirm fleshy tube. Au'hers linear, incumbent. 
Germ conical, elevated on a fleshy receptacle, three-cell- 
ed with two vertical ovula in each, attached to the axis. 
Style cjlindric. Stigma entire, roundish. Berry ob- 
long, somewhat three-lobed, size of a pigeon's egg, pretty 
smooth, pulp of are.sinous nature, and odoriferous, three- 
celled. Seed solitary, oval, somewhat pointed at the a- 



Limonia. decandria monogynia. 381 

pex, covered with a sini^le oreenish-veined integument. 
Perisperm none, Eiiibryo conioroi to the seed, inverse. 
Cotyledons obling green, fleshy. Plumiila tvvo-lobed. 
Radicle ovate, superior. 

Previous to having seen the pericarpium of this plant, 
an incomplete description and drawing were sent to 
the Honourable the Court of Directors, under the name 
Aitonia spitiosa The discovery of the seed vessel, toge- 
ther with its structure, &,c. convinces me it cannot be- 
long to that genus, and seems to associate best with Li- 
monia, Murraya, and Triphasia, and no doubt belongs 
to the seed, and divisions of Jussieu's natural order Au- 
rantia. 

5. L. petitaphylla. Willd. 1. 572. R. Corom. pi. l.pl 60. 
^84. 

Unarmed, shrubby. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets about five, 
subalternate, oblong, entire, smooth. Berries with one 
or two, rarely three, perfect seeds. 

Teling. Gu\uiv^a. 

Beng. Ash-shoura. 

A very common shrub every where, and in flower and 
ripe seed all the year. The small white flowers are 
sweetly iragrant. 

6. L. arborea. R. Corom. pi. 1 . 60. t. 85. 
Unarmed, arboreous. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets about 

five, oblong, serrate, smooth. Berries with one or two 
perfect seeds. Teling. Konda Gulwnga. 
A native of the Circar mountains. 

7. L crmidata. R. Corom. pi 1. p. 60. t. 86. 
Arboreous, armed. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets from two 

to three pair, oblong, crenulate ; petioles winged. Corals 
four-petalled. Berries with from one to four cells^ and 
one seed iu each. 



382 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA, CooMa. 

Limonia acidissima. Mant. 380. Willd. 2. 572, 
Tsjerou-katou narigam. Rheed. Mai 4. t. 14. 
Teling. Torelega. 

An elegant small tree, a native of Cororaandel, Mala- 
bar, &c. Flowering time the hot season. 

8. L. pentagyna. R. 

Arboreous. Leaflets from five to nine, sublanceolate. 
Racemes axillary, compound. Nectary short, crenulate. 
Berry with from one to five lobes, and as many seeds. 

Teling. Chitreka. 

A large timber tree, a native of the Circars, Bengal, &c. 
and in flower during the hot season. . 



COOKIA. Retz. 
Calyx five-toothed. Corol five-petalled. Germ elevat- 
ed on a receptacle, five- celled ; cell two-seeded ; attach- 
ment interior. Sfrry superior, five seeded. Embryo in- 
verse, no peri.sperm. 

1. C, punctata. Willd. 2558. Sonnerat. if. 2. 181. t. 130. 

Sonneratia punotata. Syat. 1. 675. 

Quinaria lansiwn. Lour. Cochin Ch. 334. 

Chin. Whwng-p?. 

A Chinese fruit tree, now common in Bengal, and vari- 
ous other parts of India. Flowering time the beginning of 
the hot season ; the fruit ripe in three or four months 
after. 

Trunk straight; branches numerous, suberect ; bark 
pretty smooth, ash-coloured, that of the young shoots 
green, and scabrous. Leaves alternate, pinnate, with an 
odd one. Leaflets three or four pairs, nearly opposite, 
short-petioletted, obliquely oblong-oval, entire, of a firm 
texture, smooth on both sides, while the under side of 
the veins are scabrous. Petioles round, hairy, and 



Boswellia. decandria monogynia. 383 

scabrous. Stipules none. Panicles terminal, large, erect, 
composed of many, suberect, compound racemes, covered 
with rough, glandular excrescenses. Flowers numerous, 
small, white. Bractes small, falling. Calyx inferior, 
cup-shaped, five-toothed, outside glandular. Petals five, 
lanceolato-oblong, spreading, concave. Filaments ten, ra- 
ther shorter than the petals, recurved, inserted with broad 
bases round the bottom of the receptacle. Anthers round- 
ish, incumbent. Germ superior, short-pedicelled, five- 
celled with two ovula '\n each, attached to the thickened 
middle of the axis. Style short, and thick. Stigma of five 
obtuse lobes. Berry the size and appearance of a goose- 
berry, skin tough, and replete with cells filled with a 
fragrant green balsam, five-celled. Seed solitary, oblong. 
Integument single, thin, colourless. Perisperm none. 
Embryo inverse, green. Cotyledons conform to the seed. 
Plumula conical, bidentate. Radicle cylindric, superior- 

The fruit, and indeed every part of the tree, possess 
a peculiar kind of agreeable fragrance, which is something 
of a Terebinthinaceous nature- 



BOSWELLIA. (R.) 

CaZi/j: five- toothed. Coro/ five-petalled. Nectary dL cre- 
nulated fleshy, staminiferous cup, surrounding the lower 
part of the germ. Germ superior, three-celled, cells two- 
seeded, three-valved. Seed solitary, membrane winged. 
Embryo inverse, folded, without perisperm. 

Note. The genus is so named, in memory of the late 
Dr. John Boswell, Physician in Edinburgh. 

1. B. thurifera. Colebrooke in Asiat. Res. 9. 317- and 11. 
158. 

Leaflets serrate. Racemes simple, axillary. Filaments 
inserted on the exterior margin of the nectary, 
Canarium hirsutum. Willd. 4. 760. 



384 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA* Buchaiiania. 

Canarium odoriferitm ; hirsutum. Rumpk. Amh. 2. t. 51. 

Sans. Salaci the tree, and Kooiidooroo the drug, or in- 
cense. 

Beng. Salai the tree, and Koondooroo, or GifudhwrMs the 
drug. 

Hind- Lwban. 

A large timber tree, a native of the mountainous parts 
of Coromandel, Bundelkhuud, &c. Flowering time the 
hot season, March and April, and the seeds ripen about the 
end of the year. From the researches of Mr. Colebrooke, 
above quoted, in the 11th Vol. of (he Asiatic Researches 
it appears that the oblibcnium or Frankincense of the an- 
cients is the produce of this tree, and not of Juniperus 
lycia, as hitherto thought. 

2. B. glabra. R. Corom. pi. 3. N. 207. 

Leaflets smooth, serrulate, or entire. Racemes termi- 
nal, subpanicled. F*7awe«fs inserted into the base of the 
nectary on the outside. 

Canarium odoriferum IcBve. Rumph. Amh. 2. t. 50. 

Canarium hahamiferum. Willd. 4. 760. 

Teling. Googoolwpoo-chittoo. 

This as well as thurifera juelds a resin, which is used 
as incense, and for pitch, in some parts of India. It is a 
native of the mountainous districts of Coromandel where 
it blossoms during the dry season. 



BUCHANANIA. CRj 

Ca/yjc five-toothed. Petals fv\e. iViecfari/ double ; the 
exterior a crenulatecup between the filaments and germ ; 
the inner four subulate bodies arc one side within the 
former. Ge^m superior, one-celled, one-seeded ; attach- 
ment from the bottom of the cell to the apex of the ovula. 
Drvpe with a one-seeded nut. Embryo transverse, no pe- 
risperm. 



Buchanania. decandrii monogvnia. 385 

1. B. latifolia. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves oval. 

Sans, and Beng. P^■yala, the name of the tree. 

Hind. Peeyar, Peeyal, Piyala. 

Sans. Chirika, the name of the fruit. 

Beng. Chirongi, the name of the fruit, as sold in the 
Bazars. 

Teling. Charoo-maraudee. 

Mowdo, or Kat^■ mango-marura of the Tarauls. It 
must have been the Teliuga and Taraul names, which in- 
duced Konig to call this tree Mangifera silvestris. 

Larmzon. Buck, in Asiat. Res. 5. p. 123. 

A large tree, a native of the mountainous parts of the 
coast. It flowers in January and February. 

Trunk strait, thick, and of a great height. Bark sca- 
brous. Branches numerous, spreading in every directi- 
on. Leaves alternate, though sometimes three-fold, short- 
petioled, oval, oblong, or obovate, obtuse, entire, of a 
hard texture, pretty smooth, above scabrous, below soft-* 
er, six or seven inches long, and about four broad. Sti- 
pules none. Panicles terminal, and from the exterior 
axils, erect, branchy, conical._ Bractes small, caducous. 
Flowers very numerous, small, of a whitish green. Calyx 
inferior, five-toothed, permanent. Petals five, oblong, 
spreading. Nectary double ; exterior^ a fleshy, ten-notch- 
ed yellow ring surrounding the base of the germ ; interior, 
consisting of four subulate bodies, placed on one side of 
the germ, aiid within the exterior ring ; they are about as 
long as the whole pistil, and look like four additional 
styles. Filaments ten, equal, spreading, nearly as long 
as the petals, inserted into the outside of the base of the 
exterior nectary. Anthers ovate. Germ conical, hairy, 
one-celled, containing one ovula, attached to the bot- 
tom of the cell by a long curved cord, which takes near- 
ly a turn round the ovula, and enters it on the middle of 
the opposite side. Style subulate. Stigma simple. Drupe 

W rr 



386 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Walsurtt. 

size of a cherry, a little compressed, smooth, when ripe, 
black. Nut very hard, one-celled, two-valved. Seed so- 
litary covered with a double integument. Perisperm 
none. Embryo transverse. 

The wood of this tree is used for various purposes, 
and the kernels are a very general substitute for almonds, 
amongst the natives. 

2. B. angustifolia. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves linear-oblong, apex rounded. 

A native of the south end of the Peninsula of India^ 
Flowers in June, and the fruit takes nearly one year to 
come to maturity. 

3. B. lancifolia. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves lanceolate, obtuse pointed, lucid, 
entire. Panicles terminal. 

A large, and tall tree, a native of Chittagong. The ten« 
der, unripe fruit is eaten by the natives in their curries. 



WALSURA. (R.) 

Calyx five-toothed. Corol five-petalled. Nectary 
double ; exterior subcylindric, bearing the anthers in its 
mouth ; interior a fleshy ring round the germ. Germ 
superior, two-celled ; cells two-seeded ; attachment inte- 
rior. Berry one-seeded. Embryo erect, no perisperm, 

1. W. robusta. R. 

Leaves quinate-pinnate ; leaflets lanceolate. Panicles 
terminal and axillary. Filaments distinct, (consequent- 
ly the exterior nectary is not found.) 

C/pphing, the \ernacular name in Silhet, where it grows 
to be one of their largest timber trees ; having a trunk 
seven feet in circumference, and other parts in propor- 
tion. 



Walsura. decandria monogynia. 387 

It flowers in March and April, and the seed ripens in 
June, 

Young shoots rough with scabrous specks, but void 
of pubescence. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, 
some ternate ; from six to nine inches long. Leaflets 
generally five. The pairs opposite, from oblong to lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, entire, smooth ; from four to five 
inches long, and from one to two broad. Petioles marked 
with the same sort of elevated rough white specks that 
are to be found on the young shoots. Panicles terminal, 
and from the exterior axills, length of the leaves, much 
crowded, and very dense ; their numerous ramifications 
scarcely villous. Bractes minute. Flowers numerous, ra- 
ther small, and white. Calyx five-parted ; segments 
nearly equal, small, and oval. Petals five, oblong, 
spreading, a little villous. Nectary a large fleshy crenate 
ring round the base of the germ, within the filaments. 
Filaments ten, broad towards the base, but not in the 
least united, tapering regularly to the apex, which is 
very slender ; they are inserted under the exterior part of 
the nectary, and are alternately a little shorter. Anthers 
small, oval. Germ superior, ovate, two-celled ; ovula 
two in each cell, attached to the middle of the partition. 
Style short. Stigma peltate. Berry oval, size of a small 
olive, resting on the permanent corol, calyx, and stamina, 
one-celled. Cortex rather thin, and bright grey. Seed so- 
litary, conform to the berry, before maturity or when im- 
perfectly ripe, a pretty large quantity of a clear, very 
succulent exterior envelope, or aril isfound,but when ripe 
it is scarcely to be seen. Integuments besides the aril, 
single. Perisperm none. Embryo straight, inverse. Co- 
tyledons conform to the seed. Radicle obovate-truncate, 
superior. 

2. W. piscidia. R. 

Leaves subteruate; leaflets subternate oblong, obtuse, 
w w 2 



388 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Walsura. 

Tellng. "Wallursi. 

Tarn. Walsura. 

A tree, a native of the mountainous parts of the Circars. 
It flowers during: the cold season. Specimens of this, 
in the Banksian herbarium, are referred to Trichilia. 

Trunk erect. Bark ash-coloured ; in old trees deeply 
cracked. Branches very irregularly scattered, formino: a 
thin head. Xeafes alternate, petioled, subpinnate. Leaflets 
from two to four, alternate, oblonsr, entire, frequently 
eraarginate, above smooth, of a deep, shining green, below 
whitish, from two to three inches long, and about one 
broad. Stipules none. Flowers numerous, small, of a dirty 
yellowish white colour, collected on small terminal pani- 
cles. Bractes minute, falling. Calyx interior, five-cleft, 
permanent. Petals five, equal, lanceolate, expanding. 
Nectary double; exterior cylindric, half the length of the 
petals, ten-cleft for two-thirds of its length ; divisions 
emarginate, staminiferous ; interior, a fleshy ring sur- 
rounding the base of the germ. Filaments ten, short, in- 
serted into the notches of the divisions of the exterior 
nectary. Anthers oblong, erect. Germ roundish, sunk 
deep into the interior nectary, two, rarely three-celled with 
two ovula in each, attached to the partition. Style the 
length of the exterior nectary. Stigma large, iarbina.ie. 
Berry oblong, downy, pulpy, one-celled. Seed one, large, 
oblong. 

This tree has nearly the flowers of Melia, Trichilia, 
and Swietinia, but the fruit of Murraya ; it may there- 
fore constitute a new genus. 

The wood serves for various economical purposes, I 
am informed by the natives, that if the bark in quantity 
is thrown into fish ponds, it soon kills the fish, which I 
believe is true, for it is rare to meet with a tree that has 
not been deprived of its bark. They do not esteem the 
fish the less wholesome, and it renders them easily 
caught, as they soon float, probably before they die ; as 



Heynea. decandria monogynia. 389 

is the case when cocculus Indicus is employed. This is 
the second species of fish poison, employed by the na- 
tives of this country, to enable them to catch fish, with 
little or no trouble. The fruit of Gardenia dumetorum, 
was the first which has been already taken notice of. 

3. W, ternata. R. 

Leaves ternate ; leaflets narrow-lanceolate. Panicles 
axillary. Nectary gibbous, with divisions alternately 
rounding and, bidentate. 

Tarn. Kaka-walsura. 

Teling. Chinna-wallursi. 

A small tree growing on the sides of hills. It flowers 
during the hot season. 

Trunk erect; bark smooth, rust colour. Leaves alter- 
nate, petioled, ternate. Leaflets narrow-lanceolate, equal, 
entire, above smooth, of a deep shining green, whitish un- 
derneath ; from four to five inches long, and one broad. 
Petioles semicylindric, rust-coloured, two inches long. 
Stipules none. Panicles axillary, middle-sized. Bractes 
single, small, caducous. Flowers very numerous, small, 
milk white. Calyx and coral as in W. piscidia. Nec- 
tary, the exterior one gibbous, and having only the a- 
pex of every other division bifid ; the intermediate one, 
rounded, and a little shorter. hiterior salver- shaped, 
with a large, high, callous margin. Stamens as in the 
former species. Style half the length of the gibbous necta- 
ry. Stigma large ; apex two-lobed. 

I have not seen the pericarp, but from the structure, 
and contents of the germ, I imagine it will be a one-seed- 
ed berry. 



HEYNEA. (R.) 
Calyx five-toothed. Petals five. Nectary cylindric 
with the anthers attached round the inside of its mouth- 



390 DECANDRIA MONOGYNiA. Heynea. 

Germ two-celled ; cells two-seeded ; attachment interior. 
Capsule superior, one-celled, two-valved, one-seeded. 
Seed arilled. Embryo inverse, without perisperm. 

1. H. trijuga. R, 

Leaves unequally pinnate ; leaflets three pair. Pani- 
cles axillary, lonj;-peduncled. 

Kapyakooshee. 

A native of Nepal ; from thence, in 1802, Dr. Bucha- 
nan sent seeds of this tree, to the liotanic garden at Cal- 
cutta, under the vernacular name yakooshee, where in se- 
ven years, the young trees were about fifteen, and twenty 
feet high, with much the habit of the Walnut tree. Flow- 
ering time in the Botanic garden, March ; the seed ripens 
in October. 

Trunk straight, in our young trees about as thick as a 
man's thigh. Bark dark ash-coloured, and pretty smooth. 
Branches few ; young shoots marked with scabrous spots. 
Leaves unequally pinnate, alternate, from one to two feet 
long. Leaflets opposite, short-petioletted, two or three 
pair, ovate-oblong, acuminate, entire, smooth, from four 
to eight inches long, and from two to four broad. Peti- 
oles round, smooth, swelled at the insertion of the leaflets. 
Petioles channelled, less than an inch long. Stipules 
none. Panicles axillary, solitary, long peduncled, smooth, 
erect. Flowers numerous, small, white. Bractes minute, 
caducous. Calyx one-leafed, five-toothed, permanent. 
Petals five, cuneate-lanceolate, spreading. Neciarium 
subcylindric, shorter than the petals, half ten-cleft, divi- 
sion alternately a little shorter, bifid. Filaments scarcely 
any. Anthers ten, ovate, three-lobed, crowned with an 
obtuse point, attached to the inside of the divisions 
of the nectary. Germ superior, immersed in a large 
fleshy ring, two-celled, with two ovula in each, attached 
to the middle of the partition. Style short. Stigma 
large, nearly round, with a two- toothed apex which is ra- 



Ekebergia, decandria monogynia. 391 

ther within the mouth of the nectary. Capsule round, 
the size of a small cherry, ileshy, one-celled, two-valved, 
opening roilnd the apex. Seed solitary, round, invested 
in a complete, thin, white, sebaceous aril, which with 
the seed, as in the germ, are attached to what was the 
partition, now pressed to one side by the abortion of 
three-fourths of its original contents. Integument single, 
•when recent orange, but soon changing to a chesnut co- 
lour, smooth, and strong, with a long white umbilicus 
strongly marking the side of attachment. Perisperm none. 
Embryo inverse. Cotyledons two, hemispheric, conform 
to the seed, firm, green. Plumula small, two-lobed. Ra- 
dicle superior, small. 

The back, leaves, and tender parts possess a consider- 
able share of a peculiar bitter taste ; and the cold infusi- 
ons thereof, with the addition of a little sulphate of iron, 
becomes black ; two principles very generally found 
amongst the plants of this natural order, which grow in 
India. 

Specimens of another species were received from the 
Molucca Islands where the tree grows, but I have no 
drawing thereof. I however add a short definition below. 

2. H. qiiinquijuga. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves unequally pinnate ; leaflets five 
pair. Panicles, the length of the leaves. 

A tree, native of the Moluccas, with the perfect habit 
of a Melia. 



EKEBERGIA. Schreb. gen. n. 619. 
Calyx from four to five-toothed. Corol tive-pe tailed. 
Nectary cylindric, ten-cleft, antheriferous. Germ supe- 
rior, five-celled, cells one-seeded. Embryo inverse, and 
furnished with a perisperm. 



392 - DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Sandoriciim, 

1. E. indica. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets grossly serrate. 
Nectaries ten-cleft to near the base. Panicles axillary. 

Teling. Pooroodona. 

Common throughout the Circars. It delights chiefly 
in the lower, sloping barren lands, about the bottom of 
mountains, where it grows to be a small tree. It flowers 
all the year round. 

Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, from six to nine 
inches long. Leaflets from four to six pairs, opposite, 
oblong, grossly serrate, smooth ; the most exterior al- 
ways largest, about three inches long, and one and a half 
broad. Panicles axillary, small, long-peduncled. Flow- 
ers small, white, inodorous. Nectary ten-cleft, cyliridric; 
segments bifid. Filaments exceedingly short, inserted 
into the divisions of the ten segments of the nectary. 
Germ superior, five celled, with one ovula in each, at- 
tached to the upper end of the axis. Berry, the size 
of a pea, round, smooth, when ripe red and somewhat 
succulent, five-celled. Seed solitary, reniform. Integu- 
ments two ; exterior hard, thin, and elastic ; inner mem- 
branaceous, and brown. Perisperm conform to the seed, 
soft and juicy. Embryo a little curved, inverse. Coty- 
ledons oblong. Radicle oblong, superior. 

1 have not found that this species is employed in any 
shape except for fuel. 



SANDOmCUM. Schreh. gen. n. 1751. 
Calyx five-toothed. Corol five-petalled. Nectary cy- 
lindric, bearing the ten anthers in its mouth. Germ su- 
perior, five-celled, cells two-seeded, attachment subsupe- 
rior. Berry five-seeded. Embryo inverse, no perisperm. 

1. S. indicum. WiUd.2.55e. 
Sandoricum. Rumph. Amb. 1. p. 167. t. 64. 



Sandoricum. decandria monogynia. 393 

A most elegant tree, having a straight trunk, about ten 
or twelve feet in height, covered with smooth, greenish 
bark; the tree this measurement is taken from is in the 
Company's Botanic garden at Calcutta, about twenty-four 
years old, eighty inches in circumference, four feet above 
the ground, supporting a large, globular, dense head ; it 
flowers in February, and the fruit ripens in the rainy sea- 
son. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, ternate, about a foot long. 
Leaflets ovate, entire, having the upper side smooth, ex- 
cept when young, and the lower one doAvny, the veins pa- 
rallel, from five to seven inches long, and from three to 
four broad. Pe/2o/es round, when young downy. Stipules 
none. Panicles axillary, diflfase, shorter than the leaves. 
Bractes oblong. Flowers numerous, small, yellow. Calyx 
beneath, campanulate, five-parted; divisions rounded, dow- 
ny. Petals five, linear oblong, expanding. Nectary dou- 
ble ; the exterior one cylindric, with a ten-toothed mouth ; 
the interior one is one-fourth the length of the exterior one, 
enveloping the germ and base of the style, with its mouth 
about ten-toothed. Filaments none. Anthers ten, linear, 
afiixed to the inside of the exterior nectary. Germ supe- 
rior, five-celled, with two ovula in each, attached to the 
upper end of the axis. Berry nearly round, size of a 
small orange, slightly villous, when ripe yellow ; pulp in 
large quantity, fleshy, acid, and edible, five-celled, but the 
partitions are often incomplete, when the seeds come to 
maturity. Seeds one in each cell, oblong, each enveloped 
in its own proper aril, as in the guttiferte ; aril replete 
with tough woolly fibres, which adhere firmly to the exte- 
rior, tough, parchment like integument ; the inner integu- 
ment brown, polished and spongy ; attachment from the 
upper and inner edge to the upper end of the axis, as in 
the germ. Perisperm none. Embryo straight, inverse. 
Cotyledons two, conform to the seed. Plumula two-lobed. 
Radicle short, clavate, superior. 



DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Melia. 



MELIA. Schreb. gen. n. 724. 
Cahjx five-toothed. Corol five-petalled. Nectary cy- 
lindric, beariii!? the anthers in its mouth. Germ superior, 
five-colled ; cells from one to two seeded ; attachment sub- 
superior. Drupe with from a one-to a five celled nut. Seed 
solitary. Embryo inverse, with little or no perisperm. 

1. M.azadiracta. Willd. 2. 559. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets falcate. Drupe one seeded. 

Sans. Nimba. 

Te/ing. Vepa. 

Beyig. Neem, or Niaib. 

Tarn Vcpam. 

Azedarach. Bvrm. Zeyl. 40. 1. 15. 

Aria-bepou. Rheed. Mai 4. /. 52. 

A middling sized, very common, beautiful, and very 
useful tree. Flowering time the hot season. It diflTers 
flora all the other species known to me in having a one' 
celled, one seeded nut, though the germ has uniformly 
five-cells, with one or two ovula in each. 

2. M. fomentosa. R. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets ten paired, entire. Thryses 
axillary, solitary, long peduncled, simple. 

Mai. I3arang babee. 

A native of Pulo Pinang, where it grows to be a large 
tree. 

Leaves alternate, pinnate, six feet, or more in length. 
Leaflets opposite, ten or more pairs, subsessile, lanceo- 
late, entire, fine pointed, of a firm, leathery texture, re- 
ticulated, and very downy underneath ; exterior pairs 
largest, often a foot in length. Petioles round, very 
downy. Stipules none. Racemes axillary, solitary, long- 
peduncled, thyrsiform, compound. Flowers pretty large, 
very numerous, crowded. Bractes subulate, downy. 



Melia. DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 395 

Calyx cup-shaped, almost entire, downy. Petals five, 
wedge-shaped, expanding. Nectary cylindric, nearly 
the length of the petals, the ten divisions of its mouth 
linear, and ragged on the inside ; exceedingly haiiy. Sta- 
mens as ill the genus. Germ ovate, hairy. Style as Icng^ 
as the nectary, hairy. Stigma globular. 

The ripe fruit has not been found, but the germ has 
five cells, with one seed in each. 

3. M . sempervirenS' Willd. 2 559. 

Leaves bipinnate; leaflets ovate cordate, gashed, with 
taper, entire apices, smooth on both sides but not shin- 
ing. 

Melia foliis duplicato-pinnatis. Flor. Zzyl. 162. 

Sans. Mi<ha-nimba. 

Hind. Bakarjrt. 

Arab. Ban. 

Teling. Turka vepa. 

A native of Persia, now common throughout India. 
Plants reared in Ihe Botanic garden at Calcutta from 
seed received from the West Indies, did not in any res- 
pect difibr from our own Asiatic sort. It blossoms the 
greater part of the year in our gardens, and is perfectly 
distinct from Azedarak which is a robust, deciduous 
timber tree, and this a small, delicate,ever grcea, ot' short 
duration, compared with the other. 

4. M. azedarak. Willd. 2. 558. 

Leaves bipinnate; /f'o^e^A- obliquely ovate-lanceolate, 
serrate, taper pointed, of a deep shining green. 

Shum-shu of the Chinese ai Canton. 

Melia azadiracta. Gcert. sent. 2 p. 474. 1. 180. / 9. 

A native of China, &c. In the B;)tanic garden at Cal- 
cutta it flowers during the hot season, thrives luxuriant- 
ly and quickly becomes a large useful timber tree, of very 

X X 2 



396 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Melia. 

great beauty. Its flowers are like those of the i^7ac, and 
are sweetly fragrant. 

5. M. superba. R. 

Leaves bi-tripinuate ; leaflets ovate-cordate, serrate, 
acuminate, lucid. Drupe ovate ; nut perforated at both 
ends. 

A native of Soonda, where Dr. Berry found it, a forest 
tree of immense size. In the Botanic garden at Calcutta 
where it has been raised from the seed, sent by Dr. B. it 
has, in six years from the time the seed was sown, at- 
tained the height of forty or fifty feet, with a most state- 
ly trunk, of about four feet in circumference, at four feet 
above ground. Flowering time February and March, 
and tlie seed ripens in December and January. 

Trunk nearly straight. Bark dark brown, dotted with 
small white specLs. Branches generally trichotomous, 
their bark like that of the trunk. Young shoots mealy. 
Leaiws alternate,in luxuriant young trees tripinnate, when 
older generally bipinnate ; from two to four feet long, (in 
M- rohusta they are only from twelve to eighteen inches 
long). PiuncB from three to six pair, opposite. Pinnulce 
ternate. Leaflets from three to seven pair to each pinna, 
generally opposite, petiolated, cordate, and ovate-cordate, 
crenate, smooth, acuminate ; from three to five inches 
long. Petioles round, while young mealy. Panicles 
axillary, and lateral, round the base of the present annu- 
al shoots, large, ascending, very ramous, and of an ovate 
form, while young mealy. Flowers numerous, small, of a 
dull white, and offensive smell. Bractes small, lanceolate, 
nearly caducous. Calyx five leaved ; leaflets ovate-lan- 
ceolate, incurved, mealy. Petals linear, concave, recurv- 
ed. Nectary subcylindric, raiher gibbous at the base, 
ten-ribbed, hairy on the inside ; the ten teeth of its mouth 
divided into three, four, or five short, subulate segments. 
Germ five-celled, with two seeds in each, attached from 



Melia. decandria monogynia. 397 

their upper and inner angle, to the axis. Sfyle cylindric. 
Stigma hirge, with a five-toothed apex. Drupe ovate, the 
size of a pigeon's egg, smooth, fleshy, when ripe yellow. 
Nut oblong, perforated at both ends; apex five- toothed 
round the perforation, five- celled. Seeds solitary, lanceo- 
lar, attached from the apex. Perisperm in small quantity. 
Embryo straight, inverse, pale green. Cotyledons ]iin- 
ceolate. Radicle oval, superior. 

6. M robusta. R. 

Leaves bipinnate ; leaflets obliquely ovate, polished, 
entire, or with the anterior margins crenulate, acuminate. 
Panicles axillary. Drupes ovate. Nut with a quinque- 
denfate apex. 

A large tree, a native of Malabar, and introduced into 
the Botanic garden at Calcutta by Dr. Berry, where in 
seven years the trunk of the largest tree was forty-four 
inches in circumference, four feet above ground, and the 
total height for*^y-six feet. Flowering time March and 
April. The seed ripens in December. 

Trunk very straight. Bark clean, smooth, dark 
brown. Branches large, not very numerous, but spread- 
ing considerably, their bark like that of the trunk, with 
some light grey, scabrous specks. Young shoots dow- 
ny, with minute stellate pubescence. Leaves alter- 
nate, unequally bipinnate, from twelve to eighteen inch- 
es long. Pinnce about three pair. Leaflets three, five, 
seven, or nine on each pinna, the pairs obliquely-ovate, 
and oblong ; the terminal one biform, all are smooth, 
or rather polished, entire, or crenulate, acuminate, from 
two to three inches long. Panicles axillary, scarcely 
half the length of the leaves. Flowers numerous, small, 
white, inodorous. Bractes below the ramifications of 
the panicle, solitary, filiform, and often very long. Calyx 
five-leaved ; leaflets ovate-oblong. Petals linear-lan- 
ceolar, recurvate. Nectary gibbous at the base; seg- 
ments of its mouth minute and filiform. Filaments 



398 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Sivietenia. 

none. ^w/Aers sessile, round the inside of the mouth 
of the nectary. Gt^r/n ovate, five- celled, with two seeds 
in each, attached from their apex to (he aril. Style 
the length of the nectary. Stigma large, with a tive-poiat- 
ed apex. Drupe ovate, the size of a large olive, smooth, 
of a yellowish green wiihin, when ripe, one- celled. Nut 
oblong, a perforation at each end, which passes through 
the centre ; apex deep'y five-toothed, thiclc and hard, five- 
celled, five-valved, for by age and exposure they divide 
spontaneously- Seed solitary, lanceolar. Integuments 
two ; the cjcf^rior one hiuhly polished, black; the inner 
one membranaceous. Perisperni none. Emhrijo inverse. 
Cotyledons lanceolar. Plum?ila two-lobed. Radicle short, 
superior. 



SIVIETENIA. Schreh. gen. n. 723. 

Calyx five-toothed. Corol five-petalled. Nectary sub- 
cylindric, bearing the anthers in its mouth. Germ supe- 
rior, from three to five-celled ; cells many-seeded ; attach- 
ment interior. Cuj sule from three to five-celled, ftoni 
three to five-valved. Seeds imbricated, and winged. Ejii- 
bryo inverse, no perisperm. 

1. S. febrifuga. Willd. 2. 557. R Corom. pi. 18. t. 17. 

Leaflets from three to four pair, opposite, oval, and ob- 
long, obtuse. Panicle terminal, difi'use. Capsules five- 
celled, opening from the apex. 

Teling. Soymida. 

Beng. Rohina. 

Tarn. Wond-marum. 

A native of the mountains of India. It flowers during 
the hot season. The bark is a powerful febrifuge, and an 
excellent substitute for Peruvian bark, which was one of 
Sir William .Tones's desiderata; see Asiaf. Res. vol. :iLi, 
180. 



Swietenia. decanuria monogynia, 399 

2, S. CJiickrassa. R. 

Leaflets from six. to ci<?ht-pair, sub-alternate, oblique- 
ly oblong, pointed. Panicles terminal, diffuse. Capsules 
three-celled. 

Beng. Chikrassee. 

A native of the mountainous parts near Chittagong, &c. 
to the eastward of Bengal. Flowering time the hot sea- 
son, viz. April, and May. It is a timbertreeof great size, 
with a thick, strai. ht trunk, and dark rust-coloured bark, 
which is pretty de ply cracked, but inwardly very firm 
and of a pretty deep reddish brown colour, which is pow- 
erfully astringent, but without bitterness. 

ieai;e4' alternate, abruptly-pinnate, in luxuriant plants 
often bipinnate, from six to eighteen inches long- Leaf- 
lets subopposite, from two to ten pair, subsessile, ob- 
liquely-ovate ; with a pretty long tapering point, entire, 
smooth on both sides, increasing in size towards the apex 
of the leaf. Petioles round, with here and there a small 
scabrous speck. Stipules none. Panicles terminal, erect, 
pretty large. Flowers numerous, pretty large. Bractes 
small. Calyx inferior, small, five-parted, the divisions ex- 
panding, linear, wedge-formed, slightly emarginate. Nec- 
tary nine-leaved, subcylindric, rather shorter than the pe- 
tals, striated ; mouth most slightly ten-toothed. Filaments 
minute, inserted into the top of the toothlets of the necta- 
ry. ^w//te>s cordate. Germ oblong, striated, a little hairy. 
67i//€ just long enough to raise the large peltate. Stigma 
even with the mouth of the nectary. Capsule oval, some- 
what pointed, scabrous, the size of a small pullet's egg, 
three-celled, three-valved, with double integuments, and a 
three-winged receptacle. Seeds numerous, winged and 
imbricated in a double series across the cells. 

The wood of this tree is greatly admired for its beauty, 
being of alight colour, and most elegantly \eined ; at 
the same time very close in the grain. It is employed to 
make furniture of various kinds. 



400 DECANDRIA MONOGYNlA. TribulltS. 

3. S. diloroxijlon. Willd. 2. 557. R. Corom. pi. p. 49. t. 64. 

Leaflets alternate, from ten to twenty-paired, semicor- 
date, oblong. Nectary a fleshy rinff, \\ith the stamina in- 
serted round its base. Panicles terminal. Capsules three- 
celled. 

Telia g. Billoo. 

Cing- Boorootch gata. 

Tani. Moodwdad-marum. 

This is our beautiful East Indian, satin wood tree, 
which grows in raountainous districts chiefl)', and blos- 
soms during the hot season. 



GARUGA. (R.) 
Calyx campanulate, five-toothed. Corol fivc-petalled 
inserted into the mouth of the calyx, alternate with five 
stamina, and just above the other five. Germ superior, 
five-celled ; cells two-seeded ; attachment subsuperior. 
Stigma five-lobed. Drupe with from one to five one-seed- 
ed nuts. Embryo inverse, no perisperra. 

G. pinnata. R. Ind, pi. 3. N. 208. 

Teliug. Garuga, or Garugoo. 

Katou-Kalesjam. Rheed. Mai 4. ^33. 

Beng. Joom. 

A tree of great size, a native of various parts of India. 
It flowers during the hot season. The fruit is eaten by 
the natives, both raw and pickled. 



TRIBULUS. Schreb.gen. n. 732. 
Calyx five-leaved, or five-parted. Corol five-petalled. 
Style none. Germ, five-celled ; cells about three or four- 
seeded ; attachment central. Capsules or nuts superior, 
five or more united, thorny, many-celled, cells one-seed- 
ed. Embryo centripetal, Avithout perisperm. 



Jussieua. decandria monogynia. 401 

T. lanuginosus. Willd. 2. 566. 

Prostrate amongst grass, &c. Leaves about five-pair, 
oval, hairy. Nuts two-horned. 

T. terrestris zeylanicus. Burm.zeyl.l.lQG.f.h 

Sans. Gokshooruka. 

Beng. Gokhoor or Gokhooree. 

Common on pasture land in many parts of India, pro- 
ducing flowers and ripe seed great part of the year. 



JUSSIEUA. Schreb.gen. n. 741. 
Calyx from four to five-parted. Corol from four to 
five-petalled. Capsule inferior, from four to five-celled, 
opening at the angles. Seeds numerous. 

1. J. repens. Willd. 2. 574. 

Annual ; floating by vescicles round the insertion of the 
alternate, obovate-cuneate leaves. Flowers axillary, five- 
petalled, decandrous. 

Nir-carambu. Rheed. Mai. 2. t. 51. 

Sans. BhoolziVMngga, also Langwlee. 

Teling. Neer batsalla. 

Hind. Kanchana. 

Beng. Kesara-dam. 

It is found in most parts of India, floating on lakes, 
and pools of fresh water ; in flower during the rainy sea- 
son. 

2. J. exaltata. R. 

Perennial, erect. Leaves alternate, sessile, narrow, 
lanceolate, downy. Flowers solitary, four-petalled, oc- 
tandrous. Capsule nearly as long as the leaves. 

Catta-carambu. Rheed. Mai. 2. 1. 50. 

Beng. Bun-lwng, or Lal-bim-lwag. 

Teling. Neeroo-agheendrapakao. 

Yy 



402 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Melastoma. 

This species is perennial, it delights in moist places 
overgrown with small jungle. Flowering time the wet 
season. 

Stem erect, when old woody. Young parts slightly 
four-sided, and downy. Leaves alternate, sessile, linear- 
lanceolate, entire, downy, from two to four inches long. 
Stipules minute, semilanceolate. Peduncles axillary, 
solitary, very short, one-flowered. Calyx four-cleft. Pe- 
tals four, orbicular, clawed. Stamens eight, erect. Cap- 
sule four- celled. 



MELASTOMA. Schreb. gen. n. 742. 

Calyx campanulate, five-toothed. Corol five-petalled, 
inserted into the mouth of the calyx. Germ five-celled ; 
cells many seeded ; attachment to a cuneiform recepta- 
cle projecting from the axis. Capsules five-celled, in- 
volved in the calyx. Seeds numerous. 

Note.. All the species examined by me, have the seeds 
regularly attached to a cuneiform semilunar, receptacle 
in each cell, vertically united to the axis, as in Osheckia 
hirta Gart. sent. 2. L 126. I make this remark because 
Gaertner describes them to be nidulent ; his seed vessels 
may have been old, and the receptacles decayed. 

1. M.. ferruginea. R. 

Shrubby, all the tender parts, except the upper sur- 
face of the short-petioled, ovate-cordate, acuminate, en- 
tire leaves, covered with ferruginous, stellate pubescence. 
Panicles terminal. Flowers octandrous. Calyx with 
ample, obtusely four-lobed borders. 

A native of Pulo Pinang. 

2. M . crinita. R. 

Shrubby, all the tender parts very hairy. Leaves pe- 
tioled, lanceolate, from three to five nerved, entire. Pa- 



Melastoma. decandria monogynia. 403 

nicies terminal \ flowers octandroiis ; border of the calyx 
eig^ht-parted ; segments ensiform, four of them minute, all 
ciliate. 

A native of the most moist, and shaded parts of the 
rocky coast of Chittaoong where it blossthns in April and 
May. It is remarkable for its great quantity of long, dis- 
tinct, appressed, pale coloured hair, and large beautiful 
red flowers. 

3. M. pulchella. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves short-petioled, lanceolate, entire ; 
margins and nerves with a few appressed bristles. Pa- 
nicles terminal ; bractes cordate, bristle-ciliate. Flow- 
ers octandrous, in the bud, bristle-ciliate, and ramentace- 
ous. 

A native of Chittagong. 

4. M. geniculata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves subsessile, lanceolar, entire, sca- 
brous, bristly, with three strigose nerves. Flowers ter- 
minal, triple, octandrous, alternate, filament jointed. 

A large ramous shrub, a native of many parts of In- 
dia. 

Bark of the old branches pretty smooth, of the young 
very strigose ; all round. Leaves opposite, short-pe- 
tioled, lanceolar, entire, three-nerved, scabrous on both 
sides, not only from numerous, short, bristly hairs point- 
ing forward, but also from a natural harshness ; the under 
side of the nerves, and petioles strigose. Flowers termi- 
nal, generally three-fold, short-peduncled. Peduncles 
very strigose, Bractes solitary, or in pairs to each flow- 
ers, ovate-concave, and falling off with, or soon after the 
petals, leaving the tube of the calyx for an envelope to 
the capsule. Calyx four-parted, very strigose ; divisions 
cordate, acute. Corol four-petalled. Filaments alter- 

Yy2 



404 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Mclastoma- 

nately enlarged with a second curved joint. Anthers re- 
curved, linear. Capsule four-celled. 

5. M. cermia. I. R. 

Scandent. Ledves ovate lanceolate, five-nerved, smooth. 
Panicles terminal, long, thin, drooping, with the ramifi- 
cations four-winged. F/oM;ers octandrous. 

A native of Chittagong. It flowers in October and 
November ; and the seed ripens in February, and March. 

The leaves in this elegant large rambling species that 
occupy all bat the base of the panicle are rather long- 
petioled, remarkably large, often a foot long, and from 
three to four inches broad ; with the nerves particularly 
large ar.d distinct to the very apex ; those close to the 
panicles are sessile, and very exactly cordate; the pa- 
nicles are also uncommonly long, as far as two feet, or 
more, and droop elegantly when loaded with its profusi- 
on of middling sized, bright red flowers. 

6. M. vagans. R. 

Scandent. Leaves ovate-cordate, bristle-serrulate, acu- 
minate, three or five-nerved ; petioles and nerves hairy. 
Panicles terminal, large and decussated, powers octan- 
drous. 

Beng. Jwy-phutkee, 

An extensive, beautiful scandent shrubby species, a 
native of tlie hilly countries immediately east of Bengal 
where its numerous, small, bright red flowers appear in 
October, and the seed ripens during the ensuing hot sea- 
son. The young shoois, petioles, and nerves of the leaves 
are the only hairy parts, and but in a small degree, all 
the rest are smooth ; the leaves are large, about six 
inches long, and three broad. 

7. M. impuher. R. 

bmooth in every part. Leaves long-petioled, ovate- 



Melasfoma. decandria monogynia. 406 

cordate, entire, three-nerved, (beside the marnjinal rib.) 
Panicles terminal, divaricate. Flowers octandrous. Ca- 
lyx subcylindric, with the mouth obscurely four-toothed. 
Capsule hid in the bottom of the calyx. 

A native of the Moluccas. The flowers in this pretty, 
smooth species, are uncommonly small, with the oval pe- 
tals shorter than the filaments, which are all simple, and 
shorter than their anthers. 

8. M. ccrdifoUa. R. 

Scandent, every part smooth. Leaves short-petioled, 
cordate, entire. Panicles terminal. Flowers octandrous. 
Petals ovate. Calyx with an ample, obtusely four-lobed 
border. 

A native of Chittagong and Pulo Pinang. 

9. M. maJabathrica. Willd. 2. 692. 

Shrubby, tender parts strigose. Leaves entire, broad- 
lanceolar, from three to five-nerved, scabrous, with ap- 
pressed, short, sharp, flat bristles. Flowers terminal, 
and surrounded with ovate-cordate bractes, divisions of 
the calyx cordate, acute. 

Kadali. Rheed. Mai. 4. t. 42. 

A large shrub, or small tree, a native of our Circar 
mountains, Chittagong, &c. It flowers in March. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, broad lanceolar, from 
three to five-nerved, entire, scabrous, particularly above ; 
about four and a half inches long, and one and a half or 
two broad. Flowers terminal, short-peduncled, large, 
red. Calyx and Coral as in the genus. Filaments ten, 
yellow, five are short, tapering, ending in a crescent-shap- 
ed gland, in which the anthers sit ; five others are alter- 
nate with those five, double their length, have a bend, 
with a crescent-shaped process on their middle. Anthers 
linear, erect. Germ hairy, five-celled, with numerous 
ovula in each cell, attached to their semi-ovate cuneate 



405 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Melastoma, 

receptacles, -which adhere vertically to the axis, as repre- 
sented in Osbeckia hirta. Gert. sem. 2. t. 126. 

10. M. decemfida. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves petioled, lanceolar, three or five- 
nerved, entire, smooth, except a few bristles on the 
nerves. Flowers terminal, decandrous. Calyx len-cleft, 
and very shagg^y, with long stiff hairs. 

A native of hills on Pulo Pinang, in flower and seed 
in July and August. 

11. M. curia. R. 

Shrubby ; all the tender parts strigose. Leaves petio- 
led, ovate-cordate, from five to seven-nerved, finely ser- 
rulate. Panicles terminal, corymbiform, supradecom- 
pound. Flowers decandrous. Petals cordate, ciliate. 

A native of Chittagong. 

12. M. furcata. R. 

Shrubby, tender parts a little bristly. Leaves short- 
petioled, oblong, three-nerved, entire. Flowers terminal, 
long-pedicelled, decandrous. Calyx covered with bifid 
strigoe, the segments of its border subulate, and decidu- 
ous. 

A native of the Moluccas, a slender, delicate species. 

13. M. dodecandra. R. 

All the tender parts more covered with bristles than 
the lanceolate, entire, three-nerved leaves are. Flowers 
in terminal fascicles, dodecandrous, twelve segments of 
the very bristly calyx deciduous. Filaments alternately 
doubled. 

A native of the Moluccas, and by far the largest-flow- 
ered species 1 have yet met with ; when full blown 
they expand from four to five inches. The capsule has 
only five cells. 



Gastonia. decandria monogynia. 407 



GASTONIA. Juss. gen. n. 242. 

Calyx obscurely from eight to ten-toothed. Petals 
from eight to ten. Germ inferior, from eii^ht to ten-cell- 
ed ; cells one-seeded ; attachment superior. Stigma from 
eight to ten-rayed. Capsule evalvular, from eight to 
ten-celled. Seed solitary. Embryo inverse, and furnish- 
ed with a perisperm. 

1. G. palmata. R. 

Sub-arboreous, armed. Leaves palmate, serrate ; pe- 
tioles armed. 

An erect, stout shrub, or small tree ; every part well 
armed with numerous, short, straight prickles. A native 
of the moist vallies of Chittagong, where it blossoms in 
January and February, and the seeds ripen in May and 
June. 

Stem, in luxuriant plants in the Botanic garden at 
Calcutta now three years old, straight, nearly simple, 
about as thick as our largest walking canes, from six to 
seven feet high, completely armed with numerous, small, 
straight and incurved prickles, toward the leaves, round, 
the top intermixed with appressed, feruginous, stiff 
bristles. Branches only two or three from the lower 
parts of the stem, where it is thicker, and more ligneous, 
in every respect like the stem. Full grown trees in 
their native vallies, are from ten to twelve feet high, 
with stems twelve inches in circumference, bearing only 
a few branches at the top. The leaves round the top of 
the stem and branches are nearly round, alternate, ap- 
proximate, petioled, palmate ; from five to nine-lobed, 
from five to nine-nerved, of a hard texture, the upper sur- 
face pretty smooth, the under one rather rough ; /062s lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, acutely serrate; sinuses round ; the 
length and breadth from twelve to thirty-six inches. 



408 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Gastouia. 

Petioles often as long as the leaves ; base somewhat 
sheathing with one bidentate, acute, stipulary process 
on the inside ; from thence to the thickened incurved apex 
columnar, and armed with small prickles ; which are 
more numerous about the apex, and ramentaceous. Pa- 
nicles axillary and terminal, composed of a few, lon^-pe- 
duncled, simple umbellets ; the whole much shorter 
than the leaves. Involucres a few, ensiform, feruginous 
scales. Bracies solitary at the division of the panicles, 
sheathing, tapering, acute, feruginous. Flowers numer- 
ous, pretty large, white. Calyx superior, small, with a sub- 
truncate margin, being only obscurely marked with from 
eight to ten denticles, clothed on the outside with meally 
feruginous down. Petals from eight to ten, generally ten, 
lanceolate, spreading. Filaments from eight to ten, gene- 
rally ten, alternate with the petals, and about the same 
length, or rather longer. Anthers of two very distinct 
linear-oblong lobes, which separate more at the base. 
Germ turbinate, from eight to ten-celled, with one ovula 
in each cell, attached to the top of the axis. Style short, 
conic, from eight to ten grooved, permanent. Stigma con- 
cave, with its margin marked with as many elevations, 
as there are cells in the germ. Berry or capsule, nearly 
round, crowned with the remaining calyx, the size of a nut- 
meg, somewhat mealy, thin, and of a soft ligneous tex- 
ture, from eight to ten-celled, evalvular (never, by any 
mode yet observed, opening spontaneously ) Seed soli- 
tary, conform to the cell, consequently very thin, parti- 
cularly the inner edge. Perisperm conform to the seed. 
Embryo inverse. Cotyledons two, lanceolate. Radicle 
oblong, superior. 

2. G. sasuroides. R. 
Unarmed. Leaves simple. 

A native of the Moluccas, and nearly allied to Rum- 
phius's Sasuru or Pseudo-sandalum, vol. 2. 1. 12. Here the 



RJiododendron. decandria. monogynia. 409 

umbelets are decompound ; the first rays numerous ; the 
second dichotomous ; and the third many-fold, and short. 



RHODODENDRON. 

Calyx five-parted. Corol infunbuliform. Stamina de- 
clined. Cap&ule five-celled. 

1. R. punicevm. R. 

Arboreous, Leaves lanceolar, coriaceous, hoary un- 
derneath. Racemes terminal. Bractes enslform, serice- 
ous. Corol campanulate ; segments retuse. Capsules ten- 
celled. 

Boorans, Hardw. in Trans. Asiat. Soc. 6. 359. 

A large tree, a native of the mountains north of Rohil- 
khund, &c. It flowers in April and May. 

Trunk from twenty to thirty feet high, in large trees 
about two feet in diameter. Bark suberous, light, scaling 
ofl" in irregular pieces, of an inch in thickness, and com- 
posed of numerous, reddish cinnamon-coloured lamina of 
about half a line in thickness ; the exterior one of a burnt- 
brown. Branches numerous, very crooked. Leaves al- 
ternate, about the ends of the branchlets, short-petioled, 
lanceolate, entire, coriaceous ; smooth above, hoary un- 
derneath ; about six inches long. Stipules none. Germs 
terminal, imbricated. Racemes terminal, sessile, subglo- 
bular, much shorter than the leaves, crowded with large, 
beautiful, deep crimson flowers. Bractes ; exterior, before 
the flowers expand, imbricated, strobiliform ; large, of a 
shape from oval to cuneiform, solitary, one-flowered cloth- 
ed on the outside with much, long, beautiful, sericeous, pale 
yellow pubescence ; the interior two, filiform, inserted on 
opposite sides of the pedicells near the base. Calyx small, 
unequally five-toothed. Corol campanulate, somewhat 
oblique. Border of five, nearly equal, broad, retuse seg- 
ments, the undermost one more highly coloured, ifpos- 

Z z 



410 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Rhododendroti* 

sible, and rather the largest. Filaments ten, shorter than 
the corol, unequal, declining. Anthers open with two 
pores at the top. Germ superior, ovate-oblong, serice- 
ous, ten-grooved, ten-celled. Style longer than the sta- 
mina, curved. Stigma, large, infundibuliform, with a ten- 
notched margin. Capsule linear-oblong, pretty smooth, 
and void of pubescence, ten-celled, ten-valved. Becep- 
tacles very thin, vertically attached to the axis, and pro- 
jecting far into the valves. Seeds numerous, minute, 
somewhat winged. 

Colonel Hardwicke informs us that the wood is in es- 
timation among the natives, for making gun stocks, or the 
stocks of their match-lock pieces. 

To introduce this beautiful tree in the Botanic garden 
at Calcutta, many attempts have in vain been made ; the 
seeds are exceedingly minute, and have always proved 
abortive. 

Dr. Rutherford, of Mooradabad, who has just sent 
me seed and specimens, writes that he had at last pene- 
trated to the second range of Hills in the neighbourhood 
of Chipea, and there had an opportunity of seeing this 
most lovely of all trees in its glory, and says, " On the 
" leaves of the accompanying specimens, you will observe 
" a substance encrusted like sugar, or honey. I was 
" much struck with this appearance, for the trees on 
" which it was first observed, glistened in the sun as if 
" they had been just moistened with rain, and my sur- 
'' prise was not a little encreased when I discovered 
" that this substance was sweet as the most delicious ho- 
*' ney. It existed in various degrees of density, from the 
" thinest varnish, to a crust of several lines in thickness ; 
" while from some leaves it hung, in drops, that were 
" sometimes soft and pellucid, at others opaque and so- 
" lid like candied sugar ; what is remarkable, the south- 
'* ern face of the trees only presented this appearance, 
" nor was it observed in any but those at the very sura- 



Feronia. decandria monogynia. 411 

"mit of the mountain. To us, parched with thirst, and 
" exhausted with fatigue it proved extremely grateful ; 
** though afterwards, a somewhat different feeling was 
"excited. On discovering that the underside of the 
" leaves was covered with thousands of insects, of a faint 
" green colour, and so minute as to be barely distin- 
"guishable by the naked eye, at first I supposed that the 
"honied substance must have been a formation of these 
*' insects ; but I was afterwards able to correct this no- 
" tion, by observing that some of the stems and branch- 
" es, which were hoary with lichens, were likewise cover- 
^' ed with it, though no traces of the insects could be ob- 
" served. The nectaries of the flowers were plentifully 
" supplied with honey j but in them it was fluid, and tran- 
" sparent as water." 

FERONIA.' 

Correa in Trans, of Linn. Soc. 5. 224. 

Calyx from four to five-toothed. Corol from four to 
five-petalled. Germ superior, one-celled ; ovula numer- 
ous, attached to five parietal receptacles. Berry spheri- 
cal, covered with a hard cortex, one-celled. Seeds nu- 
merous, immersed in pulp. Embryo vaga without peris- 
perm. 

1. T. elepJiantim. Willd. 4. 973. R. Coram, pi 2. N, 
141. 

Crateva valianga. Kou. Mss. by some written balanga, 
or balangas. 
Capittha. Asiat. Res. 4. p. 280. 
Anisifoiius. Rumph. Amb. 2. t. 43. 
Beng. Kath-bel. 
Teling. Yellanga. 
Tarn. Valianga, or Vola-marum. 
Eng Elephant, or wood apple. 

z z 2 



412 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Cerafostema, 

A large tree, yielding very hard, durable timber, found 
in most parts of India. Flowering time the beginning 
of the hot season. The germ is one-celled, containing 
numerous ovula attached to five parietal receptacles. 
The fruit edible, and much esteemed by many. 



ARBUTUS. Schreb. gen. n. 750. 

Calyx five-parted. Corol ovate, diaphanous at the base. 
Berry superior, five-celled. 

A. herpetica. C. 

Arboreous. Leaves ovate, entire, pointed. Racemes 
terminal, drooping. Berries many-seeded. 

Found by Colonel Hardwicke, amongst the mountains 
on bis tour to Sirinagur. See Asiat. Res. vol. 6. p. 360. 



CERATOSTEMA. Juss. 
Calyx five-parted. Ccrol tubular, subcylindric ; mouth 
five-cleft. ilw^Aer* long-horned. Germ inferior, five-cell- 
ed ; cells many-seeded j attachment central. Berry five- 
celled, many seeded. Embryo centripetal, and furnish- 
ed with a perisperm. 

1. C. vaccinacea. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves subverticelled, narrow-Ianceolar, ser- 
rate. Racemes axillary, the length of the leaves. 

An elegant, very ramous shrub, a native of the Garrow 
hills, where it is cal'ed Kesaproom, the flowers have an 
acid taste, and are eaten by the natives in their curries. 
Flowering time April ; the seed ripens in J uly. 

Branches and branchlets numerous, and very erect ; 
the young twigs rough with the withered permanent sti- 
pule, lilie ensiforra scales ; general height of the shrub 
about six ft^t. Leaves tending to be verticelled, subses- 



Cerafostema. decandria monogynia. 413 

sile,narrow-lanceolar, serrate, acute, smooth, three inches 
Ion?, and half an inch broad. Racemes axillary, the length 
of the leaves. Flowers numerous, droopinoj from the ex- 
terior side of the raceme, small, white, tinged with green. 
Bractes two, small, on each pedicel near the base. Ca- 
?i/:c superior, five-toothed, permanent. The base is join- 
ed to the cnlcir^ed apex of the pedicel by a contracted 
articulation. Corol tubular. Tube considerably gibbous. 
Mouth five-toothed, and contracted. Filaments ten, in- 
serted on the base of the tube of the corol. Anthers li- 
near, ending in a linear, brown scariose flat arista, as 
long as the anthers themselves, the whole shut up with- 
in the corol. Germ inferior, five-celled, with two ver- 
tical rows of ovula in each, attached to the axis. Style 
the length of the corol. Stigma five-lobed. Berries inferi- 
or, globular, succulent, the size of a small pea, smooth, 
of a greenish-yellow when ripe, five-celled. Seeds many 
in each cell, oblong, rugose. Perisperm soft, and white. 
Embryo straight, cylindric, green, nearly as long as the 
jjerisperm. Cotyledons oblong. Radicle cylindric^ the 
length of the cotyledons, centripetal. 

2. C. variegata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves lanceolar, entire. Racemes axillary, 
few flowered, drooping. 

Beug. Jalctraoot. 

A stout shrubby plant, a native of mountain forests 
near Chittagong, Silhet, and on the Garrow hills, where it 
blossoms during the cool season, when its numerous, 
most beautiful, large, variegated, rosy flowers are highly 
ornamental ; the seed ripens in July. 

Branches thick, ligneous, and of a stunted appearance, 
covered with rough, ash-coloured bark. Young shoots 
smooth, and coloured. Leaves alternately crowded about 
the ends of the branchlets, subsessile, lanceolar, entire, 
firm and smooth ; from five to six inches long, and one 



/ 

414 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Stj/rOX. 

and a half or two broad. Stipules none. Peduncles axil- 
lary, but chiefly from the old axils on the two to three 
year old branches, solitary, or in pairs, very short, from 
five to twenty flowered, smooth. Pedicels much long- 
er than the peduncles, smooth, clavate, highly coloured, 
pendulous, having the apex enlarged into a saucer-shap- 
ed receptacle for the germ. Flowers large, (two inches 
long,) pendulous, of a variegated pink and red colour, 
with the mouth greenish. Bractes some triangular scales 
at the base and divisions of the peduncle. Calyx supe- 
rior, five-parted. Segments smooth, conical, and acute. 
Corol one-petalled. Tube considerably gibbous toward 
the middle ; the shades of colour appear imbricated, and 
acuminate ; mouth five-cleft ; segments taper, rather ob 
tuse, and greenish. Filaments ten, short, scariose, some- 
times slightly united at the base, inserted partly on the 
crown of the germ, and the base of the tube of the corol 
on the inside. Anthers linear, of a bright rust colour, two- 
celled, crowned with a very long, scariose, bright, gold 
coloured horn, which reaches to the mouth of the corol, 
and united their whole length into a tube round the style. 
Germ inferior, um-shaped, five-celled, with many ovulain. 
each, attached to the axis. Style the length of the corol. 
Stigma five-lobed. Berries inferior, turbinate, crowned 
with the permanent calyx, the size of a small cherry, suc- 
culent ; when ripe the colour is a mixture of red and yel- 
low, five-celled. Seeds many, linear-oblong, inserted as 
in the germ. Integument single. Perisperm conform to 
the seed, soft, and clammy. Embryo nearly straight, cy- 
lindric. Cotyledons two. Radicle columnar, apex at the 
umblicus (centripetal.) 

STYRAX. Schreh. gen. n. 753. 

Calyx five-toothed. Corol one-petalled, five-cleft. 
Germ superior, one ceiled, many-seeded ; attachment in- 



Styrax. decandria monorynia. 415 

ferior. Drupe dry ; nut one or two-seeded. Embryo erect, 
and furnished with a perisperai. 

1. S. serrulata. R. 

Leaves oblong, acuminate, serrulate, smooth. Racemes 
terminal, simple. 

Beng. Koom-jamevct. 

A small tree, a native of Chittagong, where it blossoms 
in March, and the seed ripens in October. 

Branchlets alternate, the extreme tender parts only 
villous, with a little, minute, stellate pubescence. Leaves 
alternate, short-petioled, broad-ovate-lanceolate, serru- 
late, acuminate, while young somewhat villous under- 
neath, about three inches long, and from one to one 
and a half broad. Stipules none. Racemes terminal, 
generally on very short lateral branchlets, solitary, sim- 
ple, shorter than the leaves. Peduncles and pedicels 
villous. Flowers pretty large, alternate ; besides those 
which occupy the racemes there are two, or three, on 
pretty long, recurvate, proper peduncles, in each of the 
exterior axills. Bractes subulate, villous. Calyx cam- 
panulate ; mouth repand-dentate, the outside and margins 
villous. Corol one-petalled. Tube short, cylindric. Bor- 
der six-cleft ; divisions lanceolate, villous on the out- 
side. Filaments ten, inserted into the mouth of the tube 
of the corol, and there broad and woolly. Anthers li- 
near, erect. Germ superior, ovate, villous, one-celled, 
containing a number (from ten to fifteen) of seeds attached 
to a receptacle, which rises but little above the bottom 
of the cell, and is also in some measure attached to the 
sides of the germ by three partial partitions, in short, 
semi-trilocular. Style the length of the stamina, smooth. 
Stigma ohscnrely three-lobed. Drupe or capsule superi- 
or, ovate, the size of a smalt nutmeg, clothed with short, 
soft, grey, thin, and rather bristly, pubescence one-cell- 
ed, when ripe, slitting irregularly from the base, into 



416 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. InOCarpUS. 

two, three, or four irregular portions. Nuts or seeds gene- 
rally from one to four, consequently their shape varies 
much, attached as in the germ. Integuments two ; the ex- 
terior one somewhat unciform, pretty smooth, dark brown, 
the interior one membranaceous- Perisperm conform to 
the seed, of a firm texture, and dull whitish grey colour. 
Embryo erect, nearly as long as the perisperm, Cotyle- 
dons ovate-lanceolate. Radicle oblong, inferior. 

2. S. benjoin. Willd. 2. 623. Dryand. in Phil. Trans. 77. 
308. t. 12. 

Leaves alternate, oblong, tapering to an obtuse point; 
racemes (panicle,) axillary, compound, not villous, one- 
seeded. 

Benjamin, or Benzoin, Marsden's Sumatra, p. 123. 

Lwban the Bengalee, and Arabic name of the resin, 
though in fact this name ought to be applied to the resin of 
my Boswellia thurifera, which is the real olibanum or 
Frankincense, of the ancients. 



INOCARPUS. 

Calyx bidentate. Corot infundibuliforra ; five cleft. 
Stamina in a double series from the tube. Germ superior; 
one-celled ; one-seeded ; attachment superior. Drupe 
one-seeded. Embryo inverse ; no perisperm. 

I. edulis. Linn, suppl 239, 

Gajanus. Rumph. Amb. 1. p. 170. t. 65. 

A native of the Molucca Islands, and from thence in- 
troduced into the Botanic garden at Calcutta in 1798, 
where in ten years the largest of them was twenty.five or 
thirty feet high ;they blossom during the hot season, and 
ripen their fruit in August and September. 

Trunk straight. Bark smooth ; of a greenish-ash colour. 
Branches spreading with numerous, bifarious, flexuose, 



Inocarpus, decandria monogynia. 417 

beautifully drooping branchlets. Leaves alternate, bifa- 
rious, short-petioled, permanent, oblong, emarginate, en- 
tire, both sides polished, and of a deep shining green 
colour ; from six to twelve inches long, and about three 
or four broad. Stipules minute, caducous. Spikes axil- 
lary, sessile, solitary, or in pairs, much shorter than the 
leaves. In the Bengal plant smooth. Flowers numer- 
ous, small, very pale yellow, fragrant. Calyx bilabi- 
ate. Corol funnel-shaped. Border five-cleft ; segments 
lanceolate. Filaments ten, in a double series, hid in the 
tube, and inserted into it. Anthers ovsd, those oi the 
upper series even with the mouth of the tube of the co- 
rol. Germ superior, oval, one-celled, containing one- 
seed, attached to the top of the cell, immediately under 
the stigma, for there is no style. Drupe obliquely oval, 
the size of a goose's egg, a little compressed laterally, 
smooth, when ripe yellow, and of a tough fibrous texture, 
one-celled, two-valved, opening round the margin into 
two equal portions. Nut solitary, thick, two-valved, 
one-celled, and of a hard, tough fibrous consistence. 
Seed single, conform to the nut, and attached to it imme- 
diately under the stigma. Integuments two, the exterior one 
brown, firmer and thicker than the inner one, and beau- 
tifully marked with numerous, ramous, veins ; the inner 
one membranaceous. Perisperninone. Embryo invevse. 
Cotyledons two, conform to the seed, amygdaline. P/m- 
mula, in seeds beginning to vegetate, it consists of several 
imbricate scales. Radicle superior, cylindric, and lodged 
immediately within the umbilicus, under the stigma. 

The rapid growth of this very beautiful, ever green 
tree, and the elegant shape of its spreading, dense crown 
of deep green foliage, renders it one of the most ornamen- 
tal presents Bengal has got from the Molucca Islands, 
'i he kernel is certainly edible, but by no means palata- 
ble. As yet T can say nothing of the quality of the tim- 
ber, 

Aa a 



418 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Casearta. 



CASEARIA. Schreh. gen. n. 756. 

Calyx five-leaved. Coroi none. Nectarial filaments 
eight, or ten, distinct, and alternate, with the same number 
of stamina. Germ superior, one-celled, many-seeded, at- 
tachment parietal. Capsule berried, three-valved, one- 
celled. Seeds nidulent. Embryo in some centripetal, in 
others centrifugal, and between those directions, with a 
perisperm. 

1. C. vareca. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves linear-oblong, and lanceolate, very 
finely serrulate. Flowers axillary, crowded, octandrous. 
Stamina and nectaries on the bowl of the one-leaved ca- 
lyx. 

Vareca. Gcert. sem. 1. p, 290. t. 60. 

Tetahehera the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is 
indigenous ; it flowers in May, and the seed ripens in Sep- 
tember and October. Young shoots strdiight rather an- 
gular, and somewhat hairy. Leaves alternate, bifarious, 
short-petioled, linear-oblong, and lanceolate, very fine- 
ly, and acutely serrulate, a little hairy underneath ;frora 
three to six inches long, and from one to two broad. Sti- 
pules cordate, villous. Peduncles axillary, crowded, short, 
one-flowered, the insertions embraced by many, small, 
scariose bractes. F lowers smdiW, of a greenish grey colour. 
Calyx one-leavedjbowl shaped, the border divided into five 
orbicular segments. Nectarial scales broad, short, and 
hairy, inserted alternately with the filaments, into the mid- 
dle of the tube of the calyx. Filaments eight, short, slightly 
united to the nectarial scales. Anthers cordate. Germ 
superior, ovate, one-ceiled, containing several ovula at- 
tached to three equi-distant portions of the middle of 
the ovarium. Style short. Stigma capitate. Capsule su- 
perior, oval, the size of a french bean, smooth, one-celled. 



Casearia, decandria monogynia. 41& 

three-valved, opening from the apex ;the edge of the valves 
elevated. Seeds generally six, oblong, attached to the 
middle of the valves, enveloped in a little succulent aril, 
which dries into Gaertner's partial cells. Integuments two ; 
the exterior one thin and white ; the interior one firmer and 
brownish, Perisperm conform to the seed, oily. Embryo 
green, shorter than the perisperm, straight. Cotyledons 
cordate. Radicle cylindric, centrifugal. 

2. C. glomerata. R, 

Shrubby. Leaves bifarious, ovate-lanceolate, acutely 
serrulate, smooth. Flowers axillary ; peduncied, crowded, 
octandrous. Capsules berried, two-valved, five-seeded. 

Loorjoor the vernacular name in Silhet where it is found 
indigenous in the forests. Flowering in December, and the 
seed ripening in March. 

Trunk short, dividing soon into many, nearly erect, 
smooth branches and branchlets. Leaves bifarious, short- 
petioled, from ovate to ovate-lanceolate, sharply serru- 
late, smooth on both sides, from two to four inches lousr. 
and one and a half broad. Stipules a brown downy scale, 
on each side of the insertion of the leaves. Flowers axil- 
lary, very numerous, small, of a greenish-yellow, each with 
a distinct peduncle. Ca/^/ jc five-leaved. Corol none. Nec- 
tary of eight hairy filaments, alternate with, and shorter 
than those of the stamina. Filaments eight, incurved. 
Anthers cordate. Gurm superior, ovate, one-celled, con- 
taining a few, from four to six, ovula attached oppo- 
sitely to the inside of the cell near the middle. Style 
rather shorter than the stamina. Stigma large, subpeltate. 
Capsule berried, oblong, fleshy, somewhat ventricose, the 
size of a very small olive, one-celled, two-valved. Seeds 
generally from three to six, attached in the germ, nearly 
round, invested in a small portion of a red, soft aril, /w- 
teguments two, the exterior one thin, but firm like parch- 

A a a2 



420 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. CaseaHa. 

ment, and white ; the interior one membranaceous. Pe- 
ri sperfii conform to the seed. Embryo straight. Cotyle-' 
dons two, cordate, green. Radicle directly opposite to the 
umbilicus, centripetal. 



3. C. ovata. Willd. 2. 629. 

Arboreous. Leaves alternate, bifarious, ovate-oblong, 
serrulate. Flowers axillary, crowded, octandrous. Ca- 
lyx five-leaved. 

Stamens and nectaries distinct. 

Anavinga. Rheed. Mai. 4, t. 49. 

A pretty large tree, with an erect trunk, and numerous 
spreading and drooping branches, and branchlets.- Found 
in the garden of Mr. Cowper on the banks of the Hoogly 
just below Calcutta, and was in full blossom in March, 
the old leaves were then falling, and the new ones just be- 
ginning to appear. 

Leaves alternate, bifarious, drooping, ovate-oblong, and 
oblong serrulate, downy underneath. Petioles short, 
round, villous. Stipules small, villous, caducous. Flowers 
axillary, or from the old axills of the new leafless branch- 
lets, much crowded into globular heads, small, of a pale 
green. Peduncles short, one-flowered, surrounded at their 
insertions with numerous, short, chaflFy, villous involucres; 
these, when the flowers are removed, form a round chaflfy 
receptacle, like that of many of the syngenesious flowers. 
Calyx five-leaved ; leaflets ovate, villous. Corol none. 
Nectaries eight subclavate, ciliate bodies, distinct from 
and alternate with the antheriferous filaments, and about 
half their length. Filaments eight, subulate, rather 
shorter than the calyx. Anthers two-lobed, on the an- 
thers or the filaments being touched, or otherways irrita- 
ted, they immediately expand and approach the base of 
the stigma, by means of an articulation at the base of 
the filament, which admits of this motion. Germ above 



Casearia. decandria monogynia. 421 

ovate. iSfy^e the length of the stamens, villous. Stigma 
large, somewhat three-lobed. 

The mature fruit has not been seen. 

4. C, glabra. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves bifarious, alternate, drooping, 
ovate-lanceolate, slightly and remotely serrulate, smooth. 
Flowers axillary, decandrous. Stamens and nectaries 
inserted distinctly from each other. 

Of this there is a single small tree in the Botanic gar- 
den at Calcutta, raised from seed from the Molucca Is- 
lands ; it is in flower most part of the year, but never pro- 
duces fruit, yet the flowers seem perfect hermaphrodites. 
The trees are now above ten years old, with a straight 
trunk, up through the diverging, or rather drooping 
branches to the very top of the little tree. 

5. C. tomentosa. R. 

Leaves alternate, oblong, serrate, downy. Flowers 
axillary, octandrous. Stamina and nectaries united at 
the base. 

Teling. Garagwdoo. 

A small handsome tree, a native of most of the Circars, 
but not abundant. It flowers about the beginning of 
the hot season. 

Trunk erect. Branches spreading, horizontal ; branch' 
lets bifarious ; young shoots downy. Leaves alternate, 
bifarious, short-petioled, ovate or oblong, serrate, dow- 
ny underneath ; from three to five inches long, and from 
one and a half to two and a half broad. Stipules small, 
downy. Peduncles axillary, many, short, one-flowered. 
Flowers small, downy, of a greenish yellow. Calyx 
five-cleft to the bottom ; segments oval, hairy. Nectary a 
small flat ring surrounding the base of the germ ; from it 
projects eight, clubbed, hairy divisions. Filaments eight. 



422 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Aquilana. 

alternate with the divisions of the nectary and inserted 
into it ; length of the calyx. Anthers oval. Capsule 
oblong, the size of a nutmeg, fleshy, sulcated, three-valv- 
ed, one-celled. Seeds many, nestling in a scarlet nidus. 



6. C. esculenta. R. 

Leaves alternate, oblong, entire, smooth. Flowers 
axillary, octandrous. Stamina and nectaries united at 
the base. 

Tojeron kanneli. Rheed. Mai. 5. t. 50. seems to be 
this plant. \ 

Teling. K?«nda-jungMra. 

This 1 have found only amongst the Circar mountains; 
it is a large shrub, difi'ering from the last in size, and 
in having the leaves and every part perfectly smooth and 
shining ; in other respects they are tho same. 

The leaves are eaten in stews by the natives. The 
roots are purgative, and as such used by the hill people. 

I have, without success, tried to extract a good colour 
from the red nidus of these plants. 



AQUILARIA. Schreb. gen. w. 1753. 

Calyx campanulate, five-cleft. Corol none. Nectary 
ten-leaved, alternate with the stamina. Germ superior, 
two-celled ; cells one-seeded ; attachment interior. Cap- 
sule two-celled, two-valved. Seed solitary. Embryo in- 
verse, without perisperm. 

A. Agallocha. R. 

Leaves lanceolar. Umbels lateral, subsessile. 

Sans. Ugooroo the name of the incense, or Aloe wood. 

Hind, and Beng. Ugoor. 

Arab. Ayaloogi, Ayuioogiu, Yellanjooj, &c. 



Hardwickia. decandria monogynia. 423 

Pers' Ayaloor-chce, Oud, or Oud Hindee. 

Eng. Aoaliochura, or Aloe wood. 

An immense tree, a native of the mountainous tracts 
East and South East from Silhet, in about the latitude 
of twenty-four and twenty-five north. Flowering time 
the month of April ; the seed ripens in August. 

There can be little, or no doubt, that this is the tree 
which furnishes the real Calarabac, or Agallochum of 
the ancients, and there seems more reason to think 
that it was carried to China from our eastern fron- 
tier, than to suppose it was carried from Cochin China, 
or any other country in the vicinity of China, where it 
has always beeh in great demand. Small quantities are 
sometimes imported into Calcutta by sea, from the east- 
ward ; but such is always deemed inferior to that of 
Silhet. Thriving plants of the Goro de Malacca re- 
ceived from that place, are now in the Botanic garden 
and so exactly like plants of the same age and size of 
our species, that they cannot be distinguished. But 
for proof positive of their being the same, we must wait 
till the Malacca plants blossom, and ripen their fruit, or 
till good specimens that can be depended on, in those 
states are obtained (and they are promised ;) till then we 
may be allowed to consider A. ovata. Willd. 2. 629. as 
another species of the same genus. 



HARDWICKIA. R. 

Calyx none. Corol from four to five-petalled. Legume 
capsular, one-seeded. 

1. H. hinata. R. 

Leaves Wuvxte ; leaflets semioordate. 
Turn. Acha, alti-marum. 

This elegant tree is found indigenous on the moun- 
tains of the coast of Coromandel, where it grows to a 



424 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. HavdwicJcia. 

large size, and yields timber of an excellent quality for a 
variety of uses. 

Trunk tolerably straight. Bark deeply cracked. Branch- 
es numerous, spreading in every direction, with bifarious, 
alternate, slender, smooth, waving, drooping branchlets. 
Leaves alternate, bifarious, petioled, binate,with a minute 
bristle between them. Leaflets sessile, of a shape be- 
tween semi- cordate and reniform, entire, very smooth on 
both sides, while young tinged with red, slightly marked 
with three or four nerves, from one to three inches long, 
and a little more than half of that in breadth. Petioles 
round, smooth, about one-fourth or one-third the length 
of the leaves. Stipules small, cordate, caducous. Pani- 
cles terminal, and from the exterior axils, small, delicate- 
ly slender, and smooth on every part. Flowers scatter- 
ed, slender, pedicelled, small. Bractes minute, caducous. 
Calyx none, except the corol be so called. Petals five, 
obovate, concave, spreading, somewhat hoary on the 
outside ; inside yellowish, rather longer than the stamens. 
Filaments ten, alternately shorter, inserted round the 
base of the germ. Anthers incumbent, ovate, with an a- 
cute point between the lobes. Germ oblong. Style as- 
cending. Stigma large, peltate. Legume lanceolate, from 
two to three inches long, two-valved, striated length- 
ways, opening at the apex. Seed solitary in the apex 
of the legume, and there inserted, cuneate, furrowed ; 
the posterior edge thin and somewhat membranaceous, 
no aril. 

Some beautiful thriving young trees are in the Bota- 
nic garden at Calcutta, reared from seeds sent from 
the mountains of Coromandel by Dr. Berry of Madras, 
will soon enable us to know whether this tree produ- 
ces any thing like the medicinal balsam (Copaiva) 
obtained from a tree M'hich seems to be very nearly alli- 
ed to it. 



Nectandra. decandria monogynia. 425 

2. H. pimiata. R. 

Leaves alternately pinnate. 

A tree a native of Travancore ; the leaflets are about 
five in number, alternate, obliquely ovate-oblong:, entire, 
firm and lucid. 



NECTANDRA. Juss. gen. 
Calyx inferior, tubular, from four to five cleft. Corol 
none. Nectarial scales from eight to ten from the mouth 
of the tube of the calyx, alternate with the stamina. 
Germ one-celled, one-seeded. Berry dry, one-celled. 
Seed solitary. Embryo inverse without perisperm- 

N. decandra. R. 

Leaves opposite, lanceolate, entire. Nectarial squamee 
linear-clavate. 

Herenda is the vernacular nameinSilhet, where it has 
been found on only one hill, in the centre of an extensive 
jungle growing on the ruins of an old Hindoo place of 
religious worship, where the largest were elegantly bushy 
shrubs; flowering time October, the seed ripens in Ja- 
nuary, February and March, 

Bark of the woody parts with small lighter coloured 
specks thickly scattered. Branchlets dichotomous, and 
much crowded. Xeaycs opposite,short-petioled,lanceolate, 
smooth, entire, finely veined ; from two to three inches 
long, and less than one in breadth. Floral leaves sessile 
and coloured, in other respects like the common green 
leaves. Peduncles terminal, pretty long, smooth and 
slender, embraced generally above their base, by a pair 
of floral leaves, each bearing an erect umbellet of about 
six, pretty large, greenish white, fragrant flowers. Pedi- 
cells about as long as the flowers, and jointed a little be- 
low the middle ; no bract ce. Calyx inferior, tubular, with- 
ering ; tube rather gibbous, hairy within ; border five- 

Bbb 



426 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Quisqualis, 

cleft ; segments linear, and about as long as the tube. Ca- 
rol none, but there are ten clavate, abortive, filament- 
like bodies which originate from the mouth of the tube of 
the calyx, alternate with the true stamina. FUametits ten 
from the mouth of the tube of the calyx, twice as long as 
the nectarial clubs, and rather longer than the segments 
of the calyx. Anlhers erect, oxdiie. Germ superior, ob- 
long, remarkably hairy, one celled, and containing one 
ovula attached to the top of the cell. Style the lensith of 
the stamina. Stigma large, round. Berry dry, roundish- 
obovate, size of a large pea, hairy, particularly the some- 
what pointed apex, one-celled. Seed single, nearly round. 
Integument single. Perisperni conform to the seed. Em- 
bryo inverse, oval, lodged in the upper half of the peris- 
perm. Cotyledons thick, semi-circular. Radicle conical, 
superior. 



QUISQUALIS. Schreb. gen. n. 739. 

Calyx with filiform tube, and five-cleft border. Petals 
five. Germ inferior, one-celled ; attachment superior. 
Drupe five-seeded. 

1. Q. villosa. R. 

Bractes ensiform. Petals obovate-cuneate. 

Devee-moung, the vernacular name at Rangoon. 

From Pegu this elegant, scandent, stout shrub has 
been sent to me by the Rev. Mr. F. Carey, and difiers 
no doubt, from another species received from Amboyna, 
which I consider Q. indica, on account of the form of the 
bractes and greater degree of pubescence. 

Leaves opposite, or nearly so, short- petioled, ovate-ob- 
long, entire, somewhat acute, slightly villous ; about 
three incheslong, and nearlyas broad. iS^pi^es terminal, and 
axillary, solitary, villous. Flowers numerous, opposite 
and alternate, sessile. Bractes solitary, one-flowered, en- 



Quisqualis. decandria monogynia. 427 

siform, villous. C«??/ar superior. Tube very long, and slen- 
der; widening considerably near its five toothed mouth, 
somewhat villous on the outside. Petals five, obovate- 
cuneate, inserted into the mouth of the tube of the calyx, 
alternate with its segments, villous. Filaments ten, alter- 
nately shorter, inserted below the petals into the mouth 
of the tube of the calyx, and much shorter than they. 
Anthers oval, incumbent. Germ inferior, lanceolar, five- 
sided, villous, one-celled with generally three, linear ot;M- 
la, attached to the top of the cell, (exactly as in our 
combretums, Pentapterce, and Terminalice). Style blended 
in the tube of the corol, free at top only, where it emer- 
ges from the tube. Stigma clavate, perforated. 

2. Q. indica. Willd. 2. 579. 

Bractes oblong- ventricose. Petals oblong, very hairy. 

Quisqualis. Rumph. Amb. 5. t. 38. 

A native of Amboyna, where it grows to be a large 
scandent shrub, with the young shoots very downy. 

Leaves sub-opposite, short-petioled, from round-oval 
to oblong-cordate, entire, villous, their points triangular 
and acute. Stipules none. Spikes terminal, and axillary, 
villous. Flowers numerous, opposite, and alternate. 
Bractes solitary, one- flowered, rhombiform and ciliate. 
Calyx. Tube filiform, widening just below the five-cleft 
hairy mouth. Petals five, oblong-lanceolar, inserted on 
the mouth of the tube of the calyx, very hairy. Filaments 
ten, short, in two alternate rows round the mouth of the 
calyx. Anthers oblong, incumbent. Germ inferior, ob- 
long, one-celled, and containing generally four ovula, at- 
tached to the top of the cell, as in the Pegu species, (Q. 
villosa.) Style united to the tube of the calyx until it 
reaches the stamina, where it separates, and ends equal 
with the anthers, in a large, three-sided, perforated stig- 
ma. 

3 bb2 



428 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Gctonia. 



GETONIA. 

Cfl/yA' one-leaved, five-parted, permanent. Corol none. 
Filaments inserted into the calyx. Germ inferior, one- 
celled, from two to three seeded ; attachment superior. 
Seed solitary, crowned with the remaining calyx. 

1. G. nutans. R. 

Panicles drooping. Stamina one fourth the length of 
the calyx. 

Found indigenous on the Rajmahl hills by Mr, Wil- 
liam Roxburgh ; in the Botanic garden at Calcutta it blos- 
soms in February, March, and April. This genus differs 
from Combretiim in the want of a corol only, for in 
some of the species of that genus, there are ten stamina. 

Trunk short. Branches scandent, or even twining. 
Bark of the young shoots somewhat mealy ; of the old and 
ligneous parts light grey, and pretty smooth. Leaves 
opposite, or nearly so, short-petioled, oblong, and ovate- 
oblong, entire, acuminate, drooping, while young villous; 
about six inches long and from two to three broad. Sti- 
pules none. Panicles terminal, and axillary, drooping, 
composed of several opposite, diverging downy spikes. 
Bracies very downy, lanceolate, one flowered, shorter 
than the germ. Calyx superior subcampanulate, villous, 
permanent ; tube very short; borders of five long spread- 
ing lanceolate, acute, three-nerved divisions. Corol 
none. Filaments ten, about one-fourth the length of the 
calyx, inserted on its tube. Anthers small, incumbent. 
Germ five-ribbed, one-celled, containing for the most 
part three seeds attached to the top of the cell. Style 
the length ot the stamina. Stigma simple. 

2. G.floribunda. Roxb. Corom. pi 1. pi. 61. i. 87. 
Panicles erect. Stamina as long as the divisions of 

the calyx. 



Terminalia. decandria monogynia. 429 

Teling. Bandee mooroodoodoo. 

A native of the Ci rears, flowering in February and 
March. 

Note. Calycopterus. Lamark illust. gen. t. 357. is ex- 
ceedingly like this, consequently like the former. 



TERMINALIA. Schreb. gen. n. 1583. 

Calyx five-parted. Corol none. Germ inferior, one- 
celled, two-seeded, attachment superior. Drupe one- 
seeded. Embryo inverse, spiral, no perisperm. 

1. T. procera. R. 

Branches horizontal, verticelled. Leaves cuneate, po- 
lished. Racemes axillary. Corol flat (rotate.) Drupe 
oblong, obscurely five-seeded, with the nut of the same 
shape. 

This very charming species is a native of the Anda- 
man Islands, where it grows to be a tree of the first mag- 
nitude. From thence it was introduced with many other 
plants, into the Botanic garden at Calcutta by Col. A- 
lexander Kyd in 1794 ; and in 1S09 they were about fifty 
feet high, with a slender, perfectly straight smooth trunk, 
and several verticells of perfectly horizontal branches ; 
with bifarious, alternate branchlcts. Flowering time in 
Bengal the month of March ; the fruit ripens in July. Its 
leaves as in Catappa, drop about the beginning of winter 
in Bengal, and appear with the flowers in March. 

Leaves crowded about the ends of the branchlets, short- 
petioled, cuneate ; margins slightly waved, apex round- 
ed, with a large rather obtuse point ; perfectly smooth 
on both sides ; veins parallel, and simple, with a small 
hairy bit in the axill of each, and two glands on the sides 
of the nerve near the base ; from eight to twelve inches 
long, and from four to five broad. Racemes axillary, soli- 
tary, shorter than the leaves. Flowers numerous, small. 



430 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Terminalia. 

pure white, the hermaphrodite ones are near the base of 
the raceme ; the male ones farther in. Cafyx salver-shap- 
ed (spreading- flat without any tube.) 5'famens alternate- 
ly short, and incurved. Germ inferior, one-celled, .con- 
taining two ovula, pendulous from the top of the cell. 
Drupe oblong, obscurely five-sided, but not in the least 
compressed, as in T. Catappa, w hich in most respects 
this species resembles very exactly, when ripe yellow. 
Pulp in large quantities, of a lively red colour and plea- 
sant subacid taste. Nut in shape exactly like the drupe, 
but the five sides are better defined. Embryo with the 
thin cotyledons wrapped spirally round each other and 
the superior radicle. 

2. T. Catappa. Willd. 4. 967. 

Branches horizontal, verticelled. Leaves obovate. 
Racemes axillary. Drupe and nut compressed. 

Catappa. Rumpli. Amb. i.t.QH. 

Beng. Bwdam. 

Adamarara. Rheed. Mai. 4. ^3. 4. 

Badamia. Comniersoni Gtert. sem. l.t.97. 

Juglans Catappa Lourier. Cochin Ch. 703. 

A most beautiful, large tree, found in gardens, &c. 
near towns and villages, where indigenous, I have not 
been able to ascertain. On the Coromaudel coast it is in 
flower and fruit almost the whole year. 

Trunk straight ; branches verticelled, spreading horizon- 
tally like the difierent stages of that kind of compound 
table, called a dumb-waiter. Branchlets alternate, bi- 
farious. Bark smooth, of a dark olive colour while young. 
Leaves about the extremities of the branchlets, subses- 
sile, horizontal between obovate, and wedge form ; mar- 
gins a little scolloped ; apex rounded, with a small ob- 
tuse point, smooth on both sides, having a large gland on 
each side of the nerve near the base on the back, from six 
to twelve inches long. Racemes axillary, solitary, simple, 



Terminalia. decandria monogynia. 431 

shorter than the leaves. Flowers numerous, small, dull- 
whitish colour. Bractes minute, falling. 

Male flowers most numerous, scattered profusely 
over every part of the raceme, above the hermaphrodite. 
Calyx, &c. as in the genus. 

Hermaphrodite flowers afewbelow the male ones. 
Drupe oval, compressed, smooth, having the margin ele- 
vated with a groove on each side ; when ripe, of a yel- 
lowish colour, nut oblong, with a rough surface. Nucleus 
linear-oblong. 

The kernels are fully as palatable as the best filberts, 
or even almonds, and I have every reason to think they are 
equally wholesome, and nutritive. The tree is highly or- 
namental, few surpassing it in elegance and beauty. 
The wood is also useful. 

3, T. belerica. Corom. pi. 2. N. 198. 
• Leaves crowded about the extremities of the branch - 
lets, long-petioled, oval, with smooth glands on the pe- 
tioles. Spikes axillary, simple. Calyx campanulate. 
Drupe oval, downy. 

Sans. Vihhituka. 

Beng. Bwhira. 

Arab. Be-ley-luj. 

Pers. Be-ley-leh. 

Tarn. Tandra marum. 

Tani. Rlieed. Mai 4. 1. 10. 

Teling. Toandee. 

Myrobalana. Belerica. Gcert. sent 2. 90. t. 97. M. M. b)C, 

It is a native of the mountainous parts of the Circars, 
growing to be one of the largest trees, with an erect trunk, 
and a very large spreading head. Flowering time the 
beginning of the hot season. 

Leaves crowded about the extremities of the branches, 
petioled, oval, entire, firm, smooth ; six or seven inches 
long, and two and a half broad. Petioles round, from 



432 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Terminalta- 

two to three inches long, with two opposite glands on the 
upper side of the apex, and sometimes near the base. 
Spikes axillary, solitary, simple, erect. Flowers smalJ, of 
a dirty grey colour. The male flowers towards the apex of 
the spike, the hermaphrodite ones below. Calyx, stamens, 
and pistillum as in the genus. Drupe oval, somewhat 
pentagonal, the size of a nutmeg, fleshy, covered with a 
grey silky down. Embryo inverse, &c. 

The kernels of the fruit are eaten by the natives ; they 
taste like filberts, but are reckoned intoxicating, wrhen 
eaten in any quantity. Hereabouts they do not use any 
part of the fruit in medicine, so far as I can learn. 

Wood white, rather soft, durable and seldom used. 
From wounds in the bark, large quantities of an insipid 
gum issues, it much resembles Gum arabic, is perfect- 
ly soluble in water, burns away in the flame of a candle, 
with little smell, into black gritty ashes. 

The flowers have a strong ofiensive smell, not unlike 
those of Sterculiafoetida. 



4. T. moluccana. Willd. 4. 968. 

Leaves alternate, short-petioled, oblong, entire, smooth, 
without glands. Spikes axillary. Flowers rotate. Drupe 
obovate, villous. 

Sans. Kala Drooma. 

The dry fruit of this tree, of which there are two varie- 
ties, a larger and a smaller both growing in this garden 
are so very like the real Beleric myrohalans, the pro- 
duce of my Terminalia Belerica. Corom. pi. 2- N. 198. as 
to be sold by the native druggists as such, under the 
Hindoo name Bohura, which is their name for that 
drug. The trees which produce the above-mentioned 
large, and smaller sorts, are exactly alike in every other 
respect except in the size of the fruit. They are natives of 
the various mountainous countries North East of Bengal. 



Terminalia. decandria monogynia. 433 

In this garden they blossom in April and May, and 
ripen their seed the followinj^ March. 

Trunk straight. Branches sub-verticelled, horizontal. 
Bark pretty smooth, and of a dark brown colour, height 
of the whole tree about fitly feet. Leaves alternate, short- 
petioled, oblong, obtuse, entire, smooth on both sides, 
beautifully reticulated with minute veins, while young 
coloured and villous, from two to twelve inches long, and 
broad in proportion. Petioles scarcely one-fourth the length 
of the leaves, round, smooth, without glands, and this is 
the only species of the genus, I have yet met with, that is 
so, and in this it differs from T. helerica. Spikes axillary, 
solitary, shorter than the leaves. FloLvers numerous, of 
a dull yellowish brown colour, and rather offensive smell. 
Male towards the apex, and the hermaphrodite below. 
Calyx flat, with the apices of the five divisions revolute, 
villous on the outside, and woolly within. Filaments 
ten, twice or more longer than the calyx. Germ and 
style in the male small, and abortive, in the hermaphro- 
dite larger and longer. Drupe round-obovate, some- 
what villous, size of a large nutmeg. Nut the shape of the 
drupe, slightly five-grooved, from the apex to the base. 

For some time I gave this species the trivial name 
eglandulosa ; a specimen so named must have fallen into 
Willdenovv's hand to have enabled him to quote me for 
that name, ^ee his edition of the species, vol. 4. p. 988. 

5. T. chehula. Willd. 4. 969. 

Leaves sub-opposite, oblong, villous underneath, 
glands on the margins and petioles. Spikes terminal, 
often panicled. Drupe oval, smooth. 

Sans. Hare'taka. 

T. chebula. Reiz. obs. 5. 31. Coram, pi 2. N. J97. Asiat. 
Res. li. p. ISl. 

Myrabolana chebula. Gcert. sem. 2. 91. f. 97. 

M. Indica and Chebula. Hills. M. M.p. 500. 1. 

Ceo 



434 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Terminalia. 

Hwr, HarM«, Hindoo names of the chebuUc myrabo- 
lans. 

Teling. and Tarn. Kadukar. 

Zengi, or Zunguhar, the black or Indian myrabolans, 
and for the Asiatic synonyms of the other varieties, see 
Dr. Fleming's paper at page 181, in the 11th. volume of 
the Asiatic Researches above quoted. 

A large tree, a native of the forests of India, from 
Cape Comorin, to the mountains which bound the plains 
of Bengal, Oude, &c. on the north. Flowering time in 
Bengal, the hot season. The seed ripens in November 
and December. 

Tnink rarely straight, and but short for the size of the 
tree. Bark in young trees of about seven or eight years 
growth, of a light ash-colour and slightly cracked, their 
trunks are then from two to three feet in circumference, 
three feet above ground. Branches mdinj , spreading much 
in every direction, their extremities often drooping, and 
while young downy. Leaves opposite, or nearly so, short 
petioled, oblong, entire, obtuse, while young very downy 
on both surfaces, but when old underneath only, some 
small glands in the margins near the base, and generally 
two 0/1 the edges of the downy petioles near the apex, 
about six inches long and three broad. Stipules none. 
Spikes in a terminal panicle, or axillary, and there gene- 
rally undivided, downy. Flowers numerous, small, dull 
white, smell oflFensive, (as in most, if not all, the other 
species,) all hermaphrodite. Bractes solitary, subulate, 
downy, one-flowered. Calyx bowl-shaped, five-toothed, 
very hairy, particularly the inside, and five very hairy 
glands in its bottom, surrounding the base of the style. 
Filaments ten, alternately a little shorter, twice the length 
of the calyx. Anthers small, oval. Germ inferior, oval, 
hairy, one-celled, containing two ovula attached to the 
top of the cell. Style rather shorter than the stamina. 
Stigma acute. Drupe oval, about an inch and a half 



Temiinalia. decandria monogynia. 435 

long, and about one inch in diameter, smooth, of a pale 
greenish yellow, very obscurely five-angled, one-celled. 
Pulp in considerable quantity, hard and yellowish. Nut 
oblong, thick and very hard, with surface rough, the irre- 
gularly and obscurely five-grooved, one-celled. Seed so- 
litary, lanceolate. Integument membranaceous. Peris- 
perm none. Embryo conform to the seed, inverse. Co- 
tyledons thin, and large, and spirally rolled up round 
each other, and the lower part of the cylindric, superior 
radicle. 

The tender leaves, while scarce unfolded, are said to be 
punctured by an insect, and its eggs deposited therein, 
which by the extravasation of the sap, become enlarged 
into hollow galls of various shapes and sizes, but rarely 
exceeding an inch in diameter. They are powerfully as- 
tringent, and make as good ink as oak galls. They also 
yield the chintz painters on the Coast of Coromandel, 
their best and most durable yellow. They are called by 
the Tamuls Kadu kai, and by the Telingas Aldicai, and 
are very like the Faba Bengalensis of our Materia Me- 
dica. 

6. T. citrina. Roxb- 

Leaves sub-opposite, oblong, with a tapering base, 
smooth, acute, having two small glands on the apex of the 
petiole. PawicZe* terminal and axillary. iViif five- winged. 
Myrabolanas Citrina. G(Brt. sem. 2. J>1. t. 97. 

A very large, and tall timber tree, a native of the va- 
rious extensive forests on the eastern frontier of Bengal 
where it is called Hwritwki ; it blossoms there in April 
and May, and the seed ripens in November. 

The fruit of this, like that of T. chebula, is an article of 
import in Hindoo Materia Medica and generally, I be- 
lieve, pass under the same name, so much alike are they, 
and for the most part employed as gentle purgatives. 

C e c 2 



436 DECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Terminalia. 

Trunk straight, and of very great size. Branches 
spreading, but not much crowded. Bark rather scabrous 
that of the young shoots strongly marked with light co- 
loured, elevated specks ; wood much like mahogany, 
but finer grained ; a beautiful specimen sent to me by 
Mr. Smith of Silhet, was accompanied with the follow- 
ing words : — 

" This piece of wood is from a tree which I bought ; it 
*' was eighty feet long, one straight body or trunk, and was 
" nine feet in circumference. This wood is very hard, no 
" insect will touch it." 

Leaves sub-opposite, short-petioled, from broad-lance- 
olar to oblong, tapering less at the base than at the apex, 
entire, rather obtusely acuminate, smooth and glossy on 
both sides, from four to six inches long, and from two to 
three broad ; when the plants are young the leaves are vil- 
lous. Panicles terminal, and from the exterior axills, com- 
posed of many, simple, erect, slightly villous spikes. Flow- 
ers numerous, small, of a dull yellow, all hermaphrodite. 
Bractes solitary, one-flowered, subulate, smooth. Calyx 
cup shaped, five-toothed, hairy on the inside, five, very 
hairy glands having at the bottom round the base of the 
style. Filaments ten, alternately shorter, but all much 
longer than the calyx, and inserted into its inside. 
Anthers oval. Germ inferior, one-celled containing two 
ovula attached to the top of the cell. Style shorter than 
the stamina, smooth, ^^ma acute. i>rw/?c oblong-lan- 
ceolar, about two inches long, and two in circumference 
where thickest, while fresh obscurely five-cornered but 
more clearly so when dry, of a dull orange yellow, and 
smooth. Nut oblong, deeply five-grooved, with the fiva 
angles sometimes sharp, sometimes rounded, one-celled. 
Seed solitary, linear lanceolar. Jntegument single, thin, 
of a light brown. Perisperm none. Embryo inverse. Co- 
tyledons two, tjiin, and broad, rolled spirally up. Radicle 
superior 



Pentaptera. decandria monogynia. 437 

7. T. angmtifolia. WilJd. 4. 970. 

Tender parts hairy. Leaves narrow-lanceolate, acu- 
minate ; Inlands on the margin of the base. 

Tarn. Morgatchee. 

A large tree, a native of Tinnivalle and Travancore. 
It has now been four years in the Botanic garden at 
Calcutta, in which time they have attained to the height 
of ten and twelve feet, but have not blossomed. The 
young leaves are clothed with much ferruginous hair. 
The fruit so much like the chebula my vabolans, as scarce- 
ly to be distinguished from it, and they possess the same 
sensible qualities. 

8. T. gangetica. R. 

Tender parts villous. Leaves opposite, and alternate 
ovate-oblong, acuminate, base abruptly rounded and has 
some glands in the margin. 

A tree, a native of the banks of the Ganges, where it 
blossoms and ripens its fruit. It is also like the Che- 
bula myraholans, goes by the same general name. Hut 
or Hwra, and is used for the same purposes, so that 
it is difficult to say which of the last three species de- 
serves most to have the specific name Chebula attached 
to it. 



PENTAPTERA. R. 

Calyx bowl-shaped, five-toothed. Corol none. Germ 
one-celled, ovula from two to three, pendulous. Nut infe- 
rior, woody, five-winged. Seed single. Embryo inverse, 
without perisperm, and the two cotyledons spirally roll- 
ed up. 

1. P. angustifolla. R. 

Bark smooth ; branches drooping. Leaves sub-oppo- 
site, from lanceolar to linear oblong, smooth, having two 



438 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Petitaptera. 

sessile glands at the base, on the margins of the short pe- 
tiole where it joins the leaf and which are equally con- 
spicuous viewed on either surface. Spikes terminal, sub- 
panicled. 

A stout timber tree, a native of the Balla-ghaut moun- 
tains. Flowering time in the Botanic garden at Calcut- 
ta in April and May ; the seed ripens about the close of 
the year. 

2. P. Arjuna. R. 

Bark smooth. Branches horizontal. Leaves sub-op- 
posite, linear-oblong, with over unequally cordate base, 
smooth, having two sessile glands underneath the base, 
and not visible when looking at the upper surface of the 
leaf. 

Sang. Urjoona, also Kukooubha. 

Hind. Cahua. 

Beng. Urjoon. 

A stout quick growing timber tree, a native of various 
parts of India. It flowers in April and May, and the 
seed ripens about the close of the year. The margins of 
the leaves are often slightly crenulate, and the two 
glands underneath the base are only conspicuous on the 
under side, whereas in P. angustifolia, which this resem- 
bles most, they are equally conspicuous in viewing either 
surface. 

3. P. crenulafa. R. 

Bark remote. Leaves sub-opposite, oblong, acute, cre- 
nulate, smooth, one or two cyathiforra glands on the rib, 
far above the base. 

A large timber tree, a native of Coromandel. It flowers 
in April and May. 

4. P. coriacea. Roxb. 

Leaves sub-opposite, short-petioled, oval, with a cor- 



Penfaptera, decandria monooynia. 439 

date base, hard above, hoary underneath, having one or 
two sessile, turbinate glands at or near the base of the 
nerve. Spikes panicled, terminal and axillary. Nut 
hoary. 

Tarn. Anemui marum. 

A timber tree of considerable size, a native of the moun- 
tains of Coromandel. It flowers in July. It is nearly 
allied to Pentaptera tomentosa, (which was formerly 
called Terminalia alta tomentosa.) The chief marks of 
distinction are to be found in all the tender parts, except 
the hard upper surface of the leaves, that being in this 
very hoary ; the leaves are shorter, broader, and more 
cordate at the base ; the glands sessile, and the nut soft 
with hoary pubescence. 

Trunk tolerably erect. Bark ash-coloured, and deep- 
ly cracked, even in young trees. Branches spreading, 
with the extremities often drooping, and downy. Leaves 
sub-opposite, short-petioled, oval with a cordate base, 
and one side generally extending further down on the 
petiole than the other ; obtuse or emarginate, entire, 
bard, on the upper surface, except while very young 
hoary and soft underneath, about five or six inches 
long, and four broad. Glands near the base of the rib, 
or nerve, either one or two, when two they are on 
opposite sides ; turbinate and sessile. Panicles termi- 
nal, and from the exterior axills, composed of a few, 
simple, long, cylindric, hoary spikes. Flowers sessile, 
all hermaphrodite, crowded, small, of a dull yellow, with 
the outside hoary. Bractes solitary, one-flowered, linear, 
the length of the germ, hoary. Calyx five or six cleft, 
hoary without, and very hairy within. In the bottom, 
round the insertion of the style, are five or six glands, 
which are so very completely covered, as to seem a tuft of 
hair only. Filaments tenor twelve, much longer than the 
calyx. Germ round, one-celled, containing two ovula at- 
tached to the top of the cell, immediately under the style ; 



440 DECANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Peiitaptera. 

about as long as the stamina. Stigma simple. Nut 
linear-oblong, enlarged with five, very broad, hard, thin, 
hoary wings, one-celled, size nearly two inches each 
way, wings included for the diameter of the nut itself, 
is less than half an inch. Seed solitary, linear-lanceolate, 
acute at both ends. Perisperm none. Embryo inverse 
straight Cotyledons two, thin, wrapped spirally round 
the superior, sub-cylindric radicle and each other. 

Dr. Andrew Berry, of Madras, who is acquainted with 
the tree in its native soil, has furnished the following 
information : 

*' It is a native of the inland mountains of Coromandel, 
chiefly those of the western parts. The bark is very 
thick, and deeply cracked, outwardly of a dark grey co- 
lour, inwardly red like dragon's blood. The trunk 
straight and lofty; wood of considerable diameter, so as to 
be made into solid wheels for buffalo carts ; strong, hard, 
and heavy. 

5. P. tomenfosa. Roxb. 

Bark deeply cracked. Leaves sub-opposite, linear-ob- 
long, downy with some turbinated pedicelled glands on 
the rib near the base. 

Sans. Usna, Peeata-saluka. 

Hind. Aans. 

Beng- Peea-sal, or t/san. 

Teling. Nella-madoo. 

Found in various parts of India, grows to be a large 
timber tree of much utility. Flowering time April and 
May, the seed ripens in the cool season. 

6. P. glabra. R. 

Bark smooth ; branchlets drooping ; leaves sub-oppo- 
site, narrow, oblong, smooth with some sub-pedicelled, 
umbilicate glands towards the base of the rib. 

Teling. Telia- madoo. 



Pentaptera. decandria monogynia. 441 

A timber tree, a native of various parts of India. It 
flowers in May and the seed ripens in the cool season. 

7. P. bialata. R. 

Arboreous. Branches horizontal. Leaves alternate, 
cuneate-oblono^, waved, pointed, polished. Spikes axil- 
lary, drooping. Drupe two-winged. 

Of this very distinct species, there is a large one in the 
Botanic garden which blossoms about the beginning of 
the rains. It is a native of the mountainous parts of In- 
dia. 

Trunk perfectly straight, even up through the horizon- 
tal subverticelled branches to the very top ; it is from five 
to six feet in circumference four feet above ground. Bark 
smooth, of a brownish ash colour ; the height of the whole 
tree about fifty feet. Leaves alternate, about the ends of 
the branchlets, long-petiolcd, oblong-cuneate, entire, acute, 
with waved margins, smooth, polished, of a deep green on 
both sides, from four to seven inches long, and from two to 
three broad. Petioles about half the length of the leaves, 
very smooth,the lower half being round, and the upper half 
flattened on the upper side. Spikes axillary, solitary, 
smooth, drooping, about as long as both leaf and petiole. 
Flowers numerous, small, of a greenish yellow, herma- 
phrodite in the lower half of the spike, and male in the 
rest. Bractes minute, one-flowered, caducous. Calyx cam- 
panulate, five-parted, having the bottom filled with brown 
hairs. Filaments ten, alternately a little shorter, the short 
ones do not expand so much as the longer five. Anthers 
two-lobed. Germ beneath, ovate, villous. Style nearly as 
long as the stamina. Stigma acute. Drupe oblong, vil- 
lous, tapering equajly towards each end, and enlarged 
with two broad, membranaceous, waved, villous wings. 
Seed lanceolate. Embryo with its two large thin cotyle- 
dons, rolled spirally up round each other and the superi- 
or radicle. 

D d d 



442 DECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. COTlOCarpuS. 

8. P. paniculata. R. 

Branches diverging. Leaves sub-opposite, linear-ob- 
long, with a cordate base, entire, smooth, but very hard ; 
there are two sessile umbilicate glands underneath the 
base. Panicles terminal. Nuts unequally three-winged. 

Tam. Pe-karakai. 

Teling. Neemeeri. 

A stout timber tree, a native of the peninsula, and 
from thence introduced by Dr. A. Berry into the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta, where, in eight years, from the seed 
the young trees began to blossom in December, and the 
seed ripened in May, they were then about twenty feet 
high, and the stems eighteen inches in circumference at 
four feet above the ground. 

CONOCARPUS. Sckreb. gen. n. 321. 

Flowers aggregate. Receptacle, common, globular, that 
of the corollets columnar raising thenj above the germ. 
Calyx bowl-shaped, five-toothed. Carol none, or five-pe- 
talled. Stamina five or ten. Seeds naked, inferior. 

1. C, latifolia. Roxb. 

Leaves obovate, sub-re tuse. Peduncles ramous ; corol- 
lets apetalous, decandrous. 

Teling. Sheriman. 

This is one of the largest timber trees that is to be 
found amongst the chain of mountains, which separate 
the Circar from the Mahratta dominions, where it is a 
native. It flowers during the cold season, January and 
February. 

Trunk erect, straight, varying in length and thickness, 
the largest are thirty or thirty -five feet to the branches, 
and about six in circumference. Bark pretty smooth, 
of a light ash colour. Branches numerous, spreading, 
forming a large, high, ever green head. Leaves nearly 
opposite, short-petioled, ovate, generally emarginate. 



Conocarpus. decandria monogynia. 443 

entire, smooth, from one to four inches long, and from one 
and a half to two broad. Peduncles axillary, short, round, 
smooth, ramous, each ramification supporting a little glo- 
bular liead, of small yellow corollets. Calyx, commcm pe- 
rianth scarcely any, a globular common receptacle unites 
the corollets, with which it is every where covered. No 
proper perianth. Corollets supported upon columnar, par- 
tial pedicels, one petalled, imperforated, five-cleft ; se^- 
ments acute, erect, with the bottom woolly. Filaments ten, 
twice the length of the corollets, erect, inserted into the 
mouth of the tube. Anthers oblong, lower, bifid. Germs in- 
ferior, sessile, compressed, ending in the pedicel of the co- 
rollet, which is permanent, and looks like a remaining 
stile. Style awled, rather shorter than the stamen. Stigma 
acute. Pericarp none. Seeds single, oblong, perpendi- 
cularly surrounded with a rigid, narrow ring. Receptacle 
globular, a little scaly. 

2. C. acuminata. R. 

Leaves oval, pointed. Panicles undivided ; corollets a- 
petalous, decandrous. 

Teling. Paunchinan. 

This second species is also a large timber tree, a na- 
tive of the same places. It flowers during the cold season. 

Trunk equally high with that of the preceding species, 
but seldom or never straight. Bark ash-coloured. Branch- 
es very numerous, spreading, with their extremities pen- 
dulous like the weeping willow, the whole forming a most 
beautiful, large, regular, ever-green top. Leaves nearly 
opposite, short-petioled, oblong, pointed, entire ; when 
young downy ; when old smooth, about two inches long, 
and one broad. Peduncles axillary, single, simple, un- 
divided ; each bearing one small globular head of small 
yellow corollets. 

These trees are valuable on account of their wood, 
particularly the first, Shereman; its timber is univer- 

D d d2 



444 DECANDRIA DiGYNiA. Triantliema. 

sally esteemed for almost every economical purpose. 
Towards the centre it is of a chocolate colour, and is 
then exceedingly durable. For house and ship building-, 
the natives reckon it superior to every other sort. Pen- 
taptera tomentosa, and teak expected. 

The vrood of Paunchinau is exceedingly like, and fully 
as strong, and as durable, if kept dry, as the former, but 
exposed to the water, it soon decays ; of course it is unfit 
for the Marine yard, but equally fit for house building 
when it can be obtained straight,which is seldom the case. 



DECAXDRIA DIGYXIA. 

TRIANTHEMA. Schreb. gen. n. 762. 

Ca/yx two leaved, or none. Coro^ five-cleft, or five- 
petalled, daggered under the top. Capsule inferior, cir- 
cumcised. 

1. T. crystallina. Willd. 2. 635. 

Perennial. Stems filiform, prostrate, in fact cespitose, 
dotted with crystalline specks. Leaves opposite, broad- 
lanceolate. Flowers single, or in pairs in the forks of the 
branchlets, pentandroiis, monogyuous. Seed solitary. 

Teling. Kooka-pal koora. 

A native of Coromandel. It flowers during the rainy 
and cold season. 

2. T. decandra. Willd. 2. C36. 

Prostrate. Leaves elliptic. Peduncles many-flowered. 
Stamina from eleven to twelve. Styles two. Capsules four- 
seeded. 

Teling. Telia galgeroo. 

Hind. Gada-bwni. 

Zaliia Decandra. Birm. Ind. 110. t. 31 ./. 3. 

A common weed in gardens in most parts of India, and 
in flower and seed great part of the year. 



Saponaria. decandria digynia. 445 

3. T.obcorduta. R. 

Stems prostrate. Leaves opposite, alternately, larger 
and obcordate. smaller and oblong;. Flowers solitary. 
Stamens from fifteen tc twenty. Style single. Capsules 
many-seeded. 

Swet-sabani the Hindee name of the pale variety, and 
Lal-sabuni the reddish, 

Teling. Turra-galjeror, or Bodo-pail-kura. 

It delights in old gardens, rabbish, &c. It flowers all 
the year round. 

Root lonz, perennial. Stems many, diffase, dichoto- 
mous, roand, jointed, coloured, a litde downy on the up- 
per side. Z^ares opposite, petioled, obcordate, smooth, 
wared, with a reddish margin, alternately smaller, the 
large one beins more than an inch each way. and the 
smaller one less than an inch long and narrow. Pe- 
tioles winged, concave, uniting and clasping the stem, 
forming a cup with two lateral stipulary, or calys: like 
processes for the flower. Flowers solitary, sessile in the 
divisions of the branches. Calyx no other than the pro- 
cesses of the united petioles. Corol a.s in the senus. Sta- 
mens from fifteen or twenty in our Indian plant. Germ 
totally superior, turbinate. Style single, shorter than the 
stamens. Capsule oblique truncate, circumcised. Seeds 
many, reniform, black, rough. Receptacle aline running 
along the upper side of the bottom of the capsule. 

The leaves and tender stops are eaten by the natives. 



SAPOXARIJ. Sckreb. gen. n. 769. 

Ca/?/.rtabulous, naked, five-toothed, permanent. Corol 
of five, long-clawed petals. Capsule sup^ior, one-celled. 
Seeds many. 

S. perfcliafa. R. 

Cali/ces gibbous, fi\ e-keeled. Stem erect, two-forked. 



446 DECANDRiA TRiGVNiA. SUene. 

Leaves perfoliate, three-nerved, sublinear, panicles ter- 
minal, dichotomous ; apices of the petals notched. 

A native of Bengal, appearing during the cold season. 
It has the habit of Gypsophila perfoliata. 



DIANTHUS. ScJireh. gen. n. 770. 
Calyx cylindric, one-leafed ; at the base four scales. 
Petals clawed. Capsule superior, cylindric, one-celled. 

1. D. cliinensis. Willd. 2. 677. 

Flowers solitary. Scales of the calyx subulate, ex- 
panded, as long as the tube. Petals crenate. Leaves lan- 
ceolate. 

A native of China, but succeeds well during the coM 
season in Bengal. 

2. D. Caryophyllus. Willd. 2. 674. 

Flowers solitary. Scales of the calyx ovate, acute, 
short. Petals crenate, beardless, 

Pers. Gool Karunphool. 

A native of Persia, and succeeds during the cool sea- 
son in Bengal. 



DECANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 

SILENE. Schreb. gen. n. 772. 
Calyx one-leafed, ventricose, five-toothed. Petals five, 
entire, or bifid, unguiculate, crowned with the nectarium. 
Capsule incompletely three-celled. Seeds numerous. Re- 
ceptacle columnar. 

S. indica. R. 

Leaves stem-clasping, lanceolar. Flowers terminal. 
Calyx ventricose, ten-angled, with five short teeth. Pe- 



Hircea. decandria trigynia. 447 

tals bifid, with a toothlet on each side near the nectary. 
Capsule ovate-oblong, one-celled. 

A native of Nepaul, It flowers during the cold season 
in the Botanic garden at Calcutta. 



ARENAEIA. Schreh. gen. n. 774. 

Calyx five-leaved. Petals five, entire. Capsule one- 
celled, many-seeded. 

A.Jlaccida. R. 

Annual, flaccid, jointed, smooth, dichotomous. Leaves 
in opposite fascicles, filiform, the length of the joints. 
Flowers panicled. Calyces rather obtuse. Capsules glo- 
bular. Seed reniform, membrane-winged. 

This plant greatly resembles spergula arvensis, and pro- 
bably may be a variety of that plant ; it is only found dur- 
ing the cold season as a weed in gardens about Calcutta, 
and may have been accidentally introduced from Europe. 



HIRMA. Schreb. gen. n. 781. 

Calyx five-leaved. Corol five-petalled. Germ supe- 
rior, three-celled ; cells one-seeded ; attachment interior. 
Seeds (Samara) three, each with a large membranaceous 
wing on each side. Embryo inverse, without perisperm. 

1. H. nutans. R. 

Shrubby, twining. Leaves simple, ovate ventricose, 
entire, acuminate. Panicles terminal, drooping. Samara 
elliptic. 

An extensive, twining, shrubby species, a native of 
the interior parts of Bengal. It flowers in August and 
September, the seed ripens in November and December. 
Stems ligneous, and with their extensive branches, twin- 
ing up and over trees of considerable size. Bark of the old 



448 DECANDRIA TRIGYNIA. Hh(Ea, 

woody parts dark brown, and pretty smooth ; young 
shoots pendulous, round, and clothed with closely appres- 
sed hairs. Leaves opposite, petioled from ovate to cor- 
date, entire, tapering much toward the acute apex, having 
the upper surface glossy, with a few appressed hairs, and 
the under paler and more hairy, from four to eight inches 
long, and from two to five broad. Petioles round, hairy, 
from one to two inches long. Stipules minute, subulate, 
pointed. Panicles terminal, and axillary, pendulous, 
large, composed of many, opposite, diverging, simple or 
compound racemes, and like the other parts clothed 
with appressed brown hairs. Bractes lanceolate, conic ; 
those of the ramifications solitary, those of the pedicel 
tern. Flowers numerous, opposite, small, yellow, ino- 
dorous. Calyx five-parted ; segments equal, oblong, ob- 
tuse. Petals five, oblong, sessile, expanding ; raamelli- 
ferous pores. Filaments ten, shorter than the petals, 
base broad and slightly united, inserted into the recep- 
tacle round the germ. Anthers oblong, erect. Germ 
superior, three-celled, with one oviila in each, attached 
to the axis. Styles three, length of the stamina. Stig- 
ma headed. Samara three, united, singly linear, and 
surrounded with a very large entire reticulate, scarious, 
elliptical wing, one-celled, evalvular. Seed solitary, li- 
near, attached near the apex to the inside of the cell. /«- 
^e^M>nenf5 single, thin, brown. Perisperm none. Embryo 
inverse. Cotyledons two, equal, linear. Radicle ovate, 
superior. 

2. H. indica. R. 

Shrubby, climbing. Leaves opposite, ovate, entire. 
Panicles axillary and terminal. Samara linear. 
Teling. Regrak tiga. 
A native of the Circar mountains. 

3. H. rotundifolia. R. 

Shrubby, twining. Leaves orbicular, entire, villous 



Erythroxylon. decandria triuynia. 449 

underneath. Pa?2Jc/es axillary, thin, villous. Samara or- 
bicular with a small wing on the back. 

An extensive perennial, woody rambler, a native of 
Chittagong. It flowers in March and April. 



ERYTHROXYLON. Schreb. gen. n. 783. 

Calyx five-tool hed. Carol five-petalled with emariji- 
nate scales over the base on the inside. Nectary canipa- 
nulate divided into ten antheriferoiis filciments. Gjnn 
superior, three-celled ; attachment superior. Drupe one- 
seeded. Embryo inverse, furnished with a perisperm. 

1. E. monogyum. R. Corom. pi. 1. p. 61. t. 88. 

Leaves subsessile, cuneate, entire. Stipules conic acute. 
Flowers axillary, one or two.' Style single. Stigmas three. 
Drupe oblong. 

Teling Adivi gerenta. 

2. E. sideroxyloides. Lamark Encycl. 2. f. 390. Willd. 
2./. 748. 

A native of Coromandel, Ceylon, &c. It flowers dur- 
ing the greater part of the year. 

From Ceylon General Macdowall sent it to the Bota- 
nic garden at Calcutta, under the name of the Fen tree. 

3. E. laurifolium. Willd. 2. 749. 

Arboreous. Leaves short-petioled, oblong, obtuse, lu- 
cid. Peduncles axillary, crowded, longer than the flow- 
ers. Nectanal scales with truncate, porous apices. Sta- 
mina monodephous. 

Found by Colonel Hardwicke indigenous on the Mau- 
ritius in flower in August. 



450 DECANDRiA PENTAGYNiA. Avervhoa. 



DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. 

AILANTHUS. Schreh. gen. n. 167- 

Polygamous. Male calyx five-toothed ; corol five- 
petalled. 

Hermaphrodite calyx and corol as in the male. Germ 
from three to five. Capsules (Samara) from three to five, 
one-seeded. 

A. exceUa. Willd. 4.974. R. Corom. pi. l.N. 13. 

Leaves abruptly pinnate ; leaflets twelve pair, petiolet- 
ted, opposite, broad-falcate-lanceolate, grossly serrate. 

An immense tree, a native of the interior of Coroman- 
del. It flowers durins? the cold season. The wood is 
white and soft, consequently of little use. 

AVERRHOA. Schreh. gen. n. 7^4. 

Calyx five-leaved. Corol five-petalled, campanulate. 
Germ superior, five-celled cells ; few-seeded ; attachment 
interior. Pomum angular, five celled. Embryo inverse 
and furnished with a perisperm. 

1. A. Caramhola. Willd. 2. 750. 

Pomum oblong, acute-angled. Leaflets ovate. 

Tamara tonga. Rheed. Mai. 3. t. 43. and 44. 

Sans. KarmwrMnga. 

Hind, and Beng. Kamarunga. 

Native place uncertain, but common in gardens all 
over India. There are two varieties ; one producing a 
sweet, the other a sour fruit. In Bengal both blossom dur- 
ing the rainy season, and the fruit ripens during the cool 
months of December and January. 



Spondias. decandria pentagynia. 451 

2. A. hiUmhi. Willd. 2. 749. 

Leaves pinnate, many paired ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate. 
Fruit oblong, obtuse-angled. 

Bilimbi. Rheed. Mai. 3. t. 45 and 46. 

Blinbingun teres. Ruinph. Amb. 1. t. 36. 

This pretty little tree I have only found in a cultivat- 
ed state ; where it is indigenous I cannot say. In Bengal 
it is uncommon ; and in the Botanic garden flowers in 
March and April, and the fruit ripens in about two 
months. For the uses of the fruit of these two species I 
refer to llumphius. 



SPONDIAS. Schreh. gen. n. 784. 

Calyx five-toothed. Corol five-petalled. Germ supe- 
rior, five-celled ; cells one-seeded ; attachment superior. 
Drupe with a five-celled nut. Seed solitary. Embryo in- 
verse, without perisperra. 

1. S. mangifera. Willd. 2. 751. 

Leaflets four or five-pairs, oblong, mucronate. Pani- 
cles diffuse. Nut oblong, nearly smooth on the outside. 

Ambalam. Rheed. Mai. 1. t. 50. 

Ararataca. Asiat. Res 4. p. 284. 

Hind, and Beng. Amra. 

Teling. Araatum. 

Ponastia. Juss. Genera. plant. 410. 

Spondius amara. Lamark Encycl. 4. p. 245. 

Mangifera pinnata. Linn, suppl. plant, p. 56. 

This is a large tree, amongst the mountains of Coro- 
niandel, but in gardens where it is frequently found culti- 
vated, it is of a smaller size, and low. Flowering time 
the beginning of the hot season, when the leaves come 
out. The fruit ripens during the cold season, and then its 
leaves are deciduous. 

E e e 2 



452 DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. Spoildias. 

Trunk straight, in our gardens from one to two feet in 
diameter. Bark smooth, ash-coloured, astringent. 
Branches nearly horizontal. Leaves alternate about the 
extremities of the branches, pinnate with an odd one, 
from twelve to twenty inches long. Leaflets about five 
pair, opposite, oval, pointed, entire, smooth, veined; 
from three to six inches long, and two or two and a 
half broad. Petioles round, smooth. Stipules none. 
Panicles terminal, very large, diffuse, and thin. Flowers 
very numerous, small, white, mostly barren, though no 
male flower (apparently so) is to be found- Calyx be- 
low, small, tive-toothed. Petals five, oblong, spreading. 
Nectary a large fleshy notched ring surrounding the germ. 
Fiiaments ten, ciwlei], alternately shorter,incurved, scarce- 
Ij half the length of the petals. Anthers small. Germ 
ovate, five-celled, with one orw/a in each, attached to the 
top of the axis. Styles five, short, erect, distant. Stigmas 
simple. Drupe oval, fleshy smooth, the size of a pullet's 
egi:, when ripe, yellow. Nut oblong, woody, very hard, 
outwardly fibrous, five- celled, but seldom more than one, 
two or three of them produce seed. Seed lanceolate. 
Embryo inverse, without perisperm. 

The wood of this tree is soft, and of little or no use. 
From wounds made in the bark, about the beginning of 
the hot season, very large quantilics of a transparent 
juice issues, which soon hardens into a mild insipid gum, 
exactly like gum-arabic. 

The fruit is eaten raw when ripe, and before ripe is 
pickled, put in curries, made into tarts, &c. &,c. 

2. S. dulcis. Willd. 2. 752. 

Leaves from six to seven pair, oblong, serrulate. Pa- 
nicles terminal. Nut round, armed. 

S. cytheria. Lamark. Encycl. 4. 245. Gcert. sem. 2. 101. 
1. 103. Sonnerat. 2. 222. 1. 123. 

A native of the Society Islands, and now common in 



Spondias. decandria pentagynia. 453 

the Botanic gar<]en at Calcutta whore it grows to be a 
large tree with an extensive, very ramous head. Flow- 
ering time in Bengal, March ; the fruit ripens about the 
close of the rains. 

3. S. acuminata. R. 

Leaflets from five to eight pair, subopposite, long, oval, 
remotely crenulate, acuminate, polished ; petioles cylin- 
dric. 

A most elegant, middling-sized tree, with an uncom- 
monly dense crown, a native of Malabar. In the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta young trees reared from the seed, 
wore in four years twenty feet high ; the trunk perfectly 
straight ; the hark smooth, olive grey ; the branches 
spreading in all directions from erecto-patens above, to 
divaricate below. 

4. S. longifolia. R. 

Bark verrucose. Leaflets opposite and alternate, from 
ten to twelve pair, very unequally ovate-oblong, entire, 
lucid, obtusely acuminate. 

From the Mauritius this very distinct species has been 
introduced into the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where 
its growth is rapid ; it is nearly straight, with a few stout, 
patently diverging, almost, simple branches, very rough 
with brown tubercles ; the leaflets very unequally divid- 
ed by the nerve. 

6. S. axiUaris. R. 

Leaflets from six to eight pair, ovate lanceolate, gash- 
serrate cuspidate. Peduncles axillary, few-flowered. 
Nut oval, smooth. 

A small beautiful Melia looking tree, a native of Ne- 
pal. In the Botanic garden at Calcutta it flowers in 
March, and the seed ripens about the close of the rains. 



454 DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. Cuestis. 



CNESTIS. Juss. 

Calyx five leaved (five-parted, Juss.) Carol five-petal- 
led. Germ five, superior, one-celled, one-seeded; attach- 
ment inferior. Capsules from one to five, one-celled, 
one-valved (two-valved, Juss.) Seeds solitary, attached 
to the base of the cell. Etnbryo inverse, without peris- 
perm. 

C. monadefpha. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets five or seven, sub- 
alternate, obl.tn^, obtuse, acuminate, polished. Panicles 
axillary, crowded. Filaments united at the base. 

Sookwrtothee of the Hindus about Silhet, where the 
shrub grows. It is also found on the hills of Chittagong, 
and there called Kowatothee ; the natives eat the fresh 
aril of the ripe seeds. Flowering time the rainy season; 
the seed ripens in October. 

Compare with Goertner's Aegiceras minus. 

Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate ; from six to eight 
inches long. Leaflets five or seven, sub-alternate, short- 
petiolate, from ovate to oblong, entire, firm, polished, 
obtusely acuminate, from two to five inches long, and 
from one to two broad, the exterior by far the largest. 
Stipules ensiforra. Panicles axillary, several toge- 
ther; slender, smooth, nearly as long as the leaves. 
FloiDcrs numerous, small, sub-campanulate, white and 
fragrant. Calyx five-leaved ; leaflets broad-ovate, subci- 
liate, permanent. Petals five, linear-oblong, margins 
connected for a little way near the base, above that sub- 
campanulate. Filaments ten, alternately long, broad 
toward the base, and there united into a ring round 
the lower half of the germ. Anthers oval, incumbent. 



Cotyledon. decandria pentagynia. 455 

Germs live, each one-celled, and containing a single ovu- 
lar attached to the bottom of the cell. Styles five, scarce- 
ly half the length of the stamina, recurvate. Stigmas 
simple. Capsule solitary ; the four abortive germs 

may be found under its base, now minute, dry and com- 
pressed, obliquely ovate-oblong, coriaceous, smooth, 
about an inch, or three quarters long, one celled, oue- 
valved, one-seeded, opening along the whole of the in- 
side, exposing the seed before quite ripe. Seed solitary, 
attached to the bottom of the capsule, as in the germ, 
ovate, invested in a complete orange-coloured aril. Pe- 
risperm none. Embryo conform to the seed, inverse. Coty- 
ledons thick fleshy, of a pale green. Radicle patelliform. 



ROBERGIA. Schreh. gen. n. 787. 
Calyx five-parted. Petals five. Drupe one-celled, with 
two-valved nut. Seed solitary. Embryo inverse, and fur- 
nished with a perisperm. 

R. hirsufa. R. 

Shrubby, scandent, hairy. Leaves unequally pinnate ; 
leaflets from four to eight pair, oblong-cordate, entire. 
Panicles terminal and axillary. 

A native of Chittagong, where it blossoms in March. 

The cortex of the drupe has its inner lamina perforated 
with large cells filled with a fragrant, clammy, brownish 
balsam. 



COTYLEDON. Schreh. gen. n. 788. 
Cahjx four or five-cleft. Corol one-petalled, four or 
five cleft. Nectary of four or five awled scales embrac- 
ing the germs. Capsules four or five. Seeds numerous. 



456 DECANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. Bergta. 

1. C. laciniata. Willd. 2. 758. 

Perennial. Leaves decompound, pinnatifid, and sim- 
ple. Flowers octandrous. 

Planta anatis. Riimph. Amb. 5 t. 95. 

Hemasafjara. Asiat. Res. 4. p- 284. 

Beng. Herasagur. 

Found in gardens about Calcutta, and in flower dur- 
ing the rainy season. 

2. C rhizophylla. R. 

Shrubby, succulent. Leaves fleshy, simple and pin- 
nate, crenate, viviparous. Flowers pendulous, octan- 
drous. 

A native of the Moluccas, in the Botanic garden at 
Calcutta ; it blossoms in the cold season. When leaves are 
placed in a damp place and shaded, young plants spring 
from their crenatures. 

3 C. heferophylla. R. 

Perennial, succulent, smooth. Leaves opposite, petiol- 
ed ; in young plants ternate, when more advanced simple, 
ovate-oblong, slightly laciniate, fleshy, smooth. Corymbs 
decompound. Flowers octandrous. 

A native of Mysore, in the Botanic garden at Calcutta ; 
it blossoms during the cool season. 

BERGIA. Schreb.gen. n. 791. 
Ca/t/jc five-parted. CoroZ five-petallcd. Capsu/e superi- 
or, globular, protuberant, five-celled, five-valved, valve- 
lets petal like. Seeds most numerous. 

1. B. verticillata. Willd. 2. 770. 

Creeping, annual. Leaves lanceolar, serrate, smooth. 
Flowers axillary, sessile, numerous. 
Pola-tsjira. Rheed. Mai. 9. t. 78. 
Teling. Neeroo-pavala. 



\ 



Oxalis. DKCANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. 457 

Hind, and Beng. Lai khesMra. 

A native of various parts ot India in wet places dur- 
ing the rainy season. 

2. B. ammanioides. Roxb. 

Annual, erect, ramous. Flowers axillary crowded 
with stamina, corresponding in number with the parts of 
the calyx and corol. 

Lechea verticillata. Willd. J, p. 495. 

A native of various parts of India ; it appears and flow- 
ers during the rains and cool season. 



OXALIS. Schreb. gen. n. 794. 
Calyx five-leaved. Corol five-parted, cohering above 
the claws. Capsule, superior, five-celled, five-valved, 
five-cornered, opening at the angles. 

1. O. corniculata. Willd. 2. 800. 

Creeping, ramous, villous. Leaves ternate. Peduncles 
longer than the leaves, umbelliferous. Flowers monadel- 
phous. Filaments alternately shorter and sterile. C'ap- 
sule subcylindric. 

2. O. pusilla. Salisbury in Trans, of Linn. Soc. 2. 243. 
Sans. Amlwionika, Chukrika. 

Beng. Amrool. 

Common all over India, delighting in cool, dark, shady 
moist places, where it blossoms most part of the year. 

3. O. sensitiva. Willd. 2. 804. 

Leaves pinnate. Peduncles umbelliferous. 

Hind. Lak chana. 

Todda vaddi. Rheed. Mai. 9. 1. 19. is a pretty good re- 
presentation of a young plant, while Herba sentiens, 
Rumph. Amb. 5. t. 104./. 2. is tolerable for an old one. 

Common all over India, and in flower the whole year. 

Fff 



458 DECANDRiA DECAGYNiA. Phytolacca. 



CERASTIUM. Schreb. gen. n. 797- 
Calyx five-leaved. Petals two cleft. Capsule one-cell- 
ed, gaping at top. 

C. cordifolium. li. 

Annual, flaccid, ramous. Leaves opposite, the lower 
ones petiolcd, the superior ones stem-clasping-. Peduncles 
solitary, one-flowered, hairy. 

A native of Bengal, where it appears as a weed in our 
gardens and cultivated fields during the cool season. 



DECANDRIA DECAGYNIA. 

PHYTOLACCA. Schreb. gen. n. 800. 

Calyx none. Petals calycine. Berry superior, ten-cell- 
ed ten-seeded (or compound,) with a seed in each acinus. 

P. acinosa. R. 

Herbaceous, erect, ramous. Leaves oblong. Flowers 
decandrous. Berries composed of Irom six to eight 
distinct acini. 

A native of Nepal. It flowers about the end of the cool 
and the beginning of the hot season in the Botanic garden 
at Calcutta. The leaves are used by the natives of Na- 
pal in their diet. 



CLASS XI. 

DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

RHIZOPHORA. Schreb. gen. n. 806. 
Calyx from lour to many-cleft. Corol from four to 
many-petallcd. Stamina from eip^ht to many. Ge7-m 
inferior, from three to four-celled ; cells from one to two- 
seeded ; attachment superior. Pericarp none. Seed so- 
litary, subcylindric. Embryo inverse, no perisperm. 

1. R. mangle. Willd. 2. 843. 

Leaves opposite, oblong, cuspidate. Peduncles three- 
flowered. Flowers octandrous. Fruit subulate-clavate. 

Pec-candel. Rh2ed. Mai 6. t. 34. 

Teling. Upoo-poma. 

Mangium calendariuin. Rumph. Amb. 3. f. 71. 

Bhora of the inhabitants of the Delta of the Ganges, 
where it grows to be a tree of considerable size. 

Leaves opposite, petioied, decussate, oblong, entire, 
cuspidate, smooth on both sides, fleshy, veinless, marked 
with numerous, blackish minute dots underneath ; from 
four to six inches long. Petioles round, about an inch 
long. Stipules large, in pairs within the leaves, cadu- 
cous. / ecZwwcZes axillary, solitary, recurved, generally 
three-flowered, smooth, compressed, bracted at the apex, 
where it divides. Pedicles short,thick and ending in a cup- 
like bracte, in which the flower sits. Calyx four-leaved. 
Leaflets oblong, permanent. Petals four, lanceolate, hav- 
ing the inside and margins very woolly. Filaments always 
eight, very short. Anthers linear. Germ superior, four- 
celled, each containing a single ovula attached to the up- 
per end of the axis. Style thick. Stigma bidentate. Seed 
clavate, pendulous, from one to two iv^et long, pretty 

F f f 2 



460 DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Rhizophortt. 

smooth, its base inserted, (as in a socket, into a large firm 
flask-shaped receptacle, which I take to be the albumen 
and vitellus of Gaertner. If the seed be erect, the perma- 
nent calyx adheres to its globular base. Perisperm 
none. JE/n6ri/o inverse. Cotyledons undetetmined. Plu- 
mula of along, sharp, conical shape, two-lobed ; pluraula 
within. Radicle conform to the seed, superior, the real 
root proceeds from its apex. 

The great length of the seed of this species, gives in a 
very short time a young tree ; for if the apex from whence 
the root issues, is only stuck a little way into a wet soil, 
or mud, the leaves quickly unfold at the opposite end, as 
mentioned by Brown in his History of Jamaica. 

The wood of this tree is of a dark reddish colour, hard 
and durable. 

2. R. gymnorhiza. Willd. 2. 843. 

Leaves opposite, oblong and broad-lanceolar, smooth. 
Flowers solitary. Calyx many-cleft. Stamens twenty or 
more. 

Kandel. Rheed. Mai. 6. t. 31. and 31. good. Rumphiuss 
figures are not so good. 

Kakra of the inhalaitants of the Delta of Ganges, 
where, in such places as the spring tides rise over, it grows 
in abundance to be a tree of considerable magnitude. 

Trunk generally dividing before it reaches the ground, 
like a parcel of hop-poles piled up in form of a cone. 
Leaves opposite, decussate, crowded about the ends of 
the branches, petioled, erect, oblong, pointed, very smooth, 
entire, firm, and somewhat fleshy, almost veinless ; ge- 
nerally about six inches long. Petioles from one to two 
inches long, channelled. Stipules large, within the leaves, 
caducous. Peduncles axillary, solitary, one-flowered, 
shorter than the petioles, nodding. Calyx about twelve- 
cleft ; divisions tapering, acute, a little incurved, fleshy, 
smooth, permanent. Petals just as many as the divisions 
of the calyx, of nearly the same length, and inserted on 



Rhizophora. dodecandria monogynia. 461 

its inside, opposite to the fissures thereof ; at the base 
they are formed into a tube opening on the inside, and 
there bearded ; apex two-lobed, and ornamented with, 
generally, five short filaments. Stamens just twice as 
many as there are petals in the corol, two being found 
enclosed within each of them. Filaments half the length 
of the petals, unequal, the interior one of the pair being 
shorter. Anthers linear, erect, with their apices sharp 
and incurved. Germ inferior, turbinate, three or four- 
celled, with two ovula in each. Style the length of the sta- 
mens. Stigma slightly three or four pointed. Pericarp 
no other than the permanent calyx, in which the plumu- 
la, or ascending part of the embryo on the base of the 
seed is lodged. Seeds solitary, subcylindric, tapering 
equally towards each end, pendulous ; the plumula, or 
ascending part of the future plant is lodged on the base, 
while from its apex the rostellum, or root issues. 

The wood is of a yellowish colour, hard and durable ; 
its chief use is for burning, and for posts with which to 
construct the houses of the natives. 

3. R. parviflora. R. 

Leaves ventricose-oblong. Peduncles axillary, many- 
flowered ; calyx eight-cleft. Stamina eight pair, embrac- 
ed by the eight petals. Fruit subcylindric. 

A small, very ramous, smooth, glossy tree, a native of 
the salt, and brackish creeks, &c. of the Delta of the 
Ganges. Flowering time December. Leaves opposite, 
crowded about the ends of the smooth twigs, short-pe- 
tioled, from broad-lauceolar to ventricose-oblong, entire, 
firm and polished ; from four to five inches long, and from 
one to two broad. Stipules large, within the leaves, &c. 
as in the Fici. Peduncles axillary, once or twice tricho- 
tomous, smooth. Bractes small. Flowers small, one on 
each division of the peduncles. Calyx eight-cleft ; seg- 
ments acute. Petals eight, considerably shorter than the 



462 DODECANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Triumfetta. 

seomcnts ot the calyx, deeply emarginate, and bearded ; 
sides incurved, round the two stamina. Filaments sixteen, 
ULiequal, inserted by pairs into the receptacle immediate- 
ly within the petals, and closely embraced by their in- 
curved sides. Anthers sagittate. Germ inferior, cylin- 
dric, furrowed, three-celled, containing in each two ovula 
attached to the top of the axis. Style shorter than the 
petals. Stigma three-toothed. 

TRIUMFETTA. Schreb. gen. n. 819. 

Ca///A' five-leaved. Corol five-petallcd. Gerw*superior, 
from three to four-celled ; cells one or two-seeded ; attach- 
ment superior. Capsule hispid, three or four-partible. 
Embryo inverse, and furnished with a perisperm. 

1 . T. trilocularis. Roxb. 

Shrubby. Leaves three-lobed, serrate, from three to five- 
nerved, downy. Racemes terminal ; flowers complete. 
Capsule three-celled. 

A native of India. In the Botanic garden at Calcutta 
it blossoms during the cool season, viz, November, De- 
cember, January and February, and the seeds ripen 
from March to June. 

Stem short, stout and ligneous ; covered with pretty 
smooth ash-coloured bark. Branches numerous. Young 
shoots clothed with stellated pubescence. Height of 
plants three or four years old, five feet. Leaves alternate, 
petioled, broad-cordate, three-lobed, from three to five- 
nerved, unequally serrate ; both sides clothed with soft 
pubescence. Those next the racemes ovate-oblong, from 
one to six inches long. Stipules ensiiorm. Racemes termi- 
nal. Peduncles verticelled, three-flowered . Bractes nu- 
merous, the large solitary one at each verticel may be call- 
ed a floral leaf, its lower seirature on each side glandu- 
lar, the rest ensiform. Flowers numerous, small, yellow, 
pedicelled. Calyx, color, and stamina as in the genus. 



Portulaca. dodecandria monogynia. 4G3 

Nectarium, a slender, crenulate cup round the insertion 
of the petals. Germ round, echinate, three-celled, with 
two seeds in each, attached to the upper end of the axis. 
Style simple, length of the petals. Stigma minute, obscure- 
ly three-toothed. Capsule globose, of the si/e of a pea, 
brown, and of a tougli coriaceous texture, armed with 
numerous, diverging uncinate, backwardly hispid bristles, 
marked with three small sutures, which do .not open, 
(three-celled.) Seeds two in each cell, obliquely ovate, of a 
brown colour. Integuments two, the exterior one thin, the 
inner one thick and tough- Perisperm conform to the 
seed. Embryo straight, inverse, the length of the perisperm, 
yellowish. Cotyledons oval. Radicle cylindric, superior. 

2. T. Bartramia. Willd. 2. 854. 

Annual, erect, ramous. Leaves with the anterior part 
three-lobed, serrate, hairy. Flowers axillary, 
Beng. Bun-okra. 

Lappago Amboinica. Rumph. Amh. 6. p. 59. t. 2b. f. 2. 
A native of various parts of India, 

PORTULACA. Schreb. gen. n, 824. 
Calyx two-cleft. Corol four or five-petalled. Capsule 
circumcised. 

1, P. oleracea. Willd. 2. 859. 
Leaves cunieform. Flowers sessile. 
Hind, and Beng. Loony a or Nooniya shak. 
Arab. Khurfa alsoTooruk. 

2. P. meridiana. Willd. 2. 861. 

Annual, creeping, the joints hairy. Leaves oblong, 
fleshy. Flowers subsessile, with four floral leaves and a 
hairy involucre. Petals (our. Stamina from six to eight. 

Nela tsjera. Rheed. Mai. 10, f. 31, which Willdenow 
quotes for his Oldenlandia depressa. Are they the same ? 



464 DODECANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Talilium. 

Teling. Pail-kura. 

Beng. Nooniya. 

Its flo>vers open at noon, and shut at two. It is com- 
mon in gardens, chiefly as a weed, though much used by 
the natives of Coromandel, as a pot-herb. 

3. P. quadrifida. Wllld. 2. 860. 

Creeping ; joints hairy. Leaves oblong, fleshy. Flow- 
ers subsessile, with four floral leaves ; petals four ; sta- 
mens ten or twelve. 

Teling. Pedda pail-kura. 

It is much like P. meridian a, hut a much rarer plant,and 
considerably larger in all its parts, in the form, &c. of its 
stems, branches, leaves, hairs that surround the joints, 
and the insertion of the leaves and flowers, four terminal 
leaves, or bractes, &c. they are nearly alike ; but in this 
species there are from ten to twelve stamens, and always 
four stigmas, which are the chief marks by which it is dis- 
tinguished from meridiana. 

The natives do not eat this sort ; they reckon it very 
unwholesome, and apt to produce stupefaction. 

The flowers expand at or before noon, and continue 
open till near sun-set ; this is another circumstance which 
marks its being a distinct species, and no variety of P. 
meridiana. 

4. P. tuberosa. R. 

Root tuberosus and villous. Leaves alternate, lance- 
olate. Flowers terminal. 

A native of the Circars. It flowers during the rainy 

season. 



TALINUM. Juss. 
Calyx two-leaved. Corol five-petalled. Germ superi- 
or, one-celled, many-seeded ; attachment inferior. Cap- 
sule three-valved, one-celled. Seeds several. 



Euphortifa. dodecandria trigynia. 465 

T. cuneifoUum. Willd. 2. 864. 

Leaves obovate, cuneate, smooth, entire, fleshy. Pa- 
nicle terminal, inferior peduncle from two to four-flower- 
ed. 

Native place uncertain. In the Botanic garden at 
Calcutta, it flowers chiefly during the rains, and ripens 
abundance of seed in the cool season. 



PEMPHIS. Forst. 
Calyx tubular, twelve-toothed. Petals six. Germ se- 
mitrilocular ; ovula many on a receptacle rising from the 
bottom of the cell. Capsule superior, one-celled, many- 
seeded. 

P. angustifolia. R. 

Shrubby, hoary. Leaves opposite, sessile, lanceolar. 

Found by Colonel Hardwicke, growing on the shores 
in corol sand between Port Louis and Petit Rivier, on the 
Mauritius ; in flower in August. At a distance, he says, 
it resembles much a common Myrtle bush. 



DODECANDRIA TRIGYNIA. 

EUPHORBIA. Schreb. gen. n. 823. 
Calyx one-leafed, gibbous. Corol four or five-petalled, 
sitting on the calyx. Capsule tricoccous. 

1. E. ligularia. R. 

Arboreous ; branches five-angled. Flowers stipulary. 
Leaves petioled, wedge-shaped. Peduncles from three 
to fifteen-flowered. 

Ligularia. Rumph. Amb. 4. t. 40. 

Beng. MMnsa-sij. 

I have only found this plant in Bengal, about the 

G g s 



466 DODECANDRiA TRiGYNiA. Euyliorhia. 

houses of the natives. Flowerino: time the months of 
Februar) and March ; when perfectly destitute of foliage, 
ripe seed not seen. 

Root branchy. Trunk when twenty years old, round 
and scabrous, often a foot in diameter, the whole height of 
the largest trees seldom more than twenty feet. Branches 
scattered, ascending, haviag the young shoots constant- 
ly five-sided, angled, somewhat spirally disposed and 
armed w ith elevations like the teeth of the largest saw ; 
each of these supports a leaf, and a pair of short, sharp, 
black, hard, stipulary thorns. Like the other species 
every part abounds with acrid milky juice, which is em- 
ployed to remove warts, cure cutaneous eruptions, &c. 

Leaves alternate, about the summits of the branches, 
short-petioled, inserted singly on the elevations, or ser- 
ratures of the angles of the branches, wedge-shaped, en- 
tire, waved, fleshy, smooth on both sides, almost vein- 
less from six to twelve inches long, and two or three 
broad, deciduous at the beginning of the cool season, 
and appearing again after the flowers decay, in March 
or April. Peduncles solitary in the sinuses between the 
serratures of the angles of the branchlets, ^hort, once, 
twice, or thrice dichotoraous, with a sessile llower in the 
forks, that is, bearing three, seven, or fifteen flowers. 
The sessile flower which is the largest, is often en- 
tirely male, the lateral, or terminal peduntled ones 
have always been fouud to contain one pistil ; and 
male florets. Flotvers middling sized, greenish yellow. 
Bractes reniform, opposite, embracing the base of the 
pedicels on the outside, withering. Calyx* five petal- 

* The calyx and corol^ as hinted by that excellent Botanist 
Jussieu, in his Genera Plantanim, page 424, may be considered 
a common perianth, or involucre to many male florets only ; or en- 
circling one female. The plants bearing such compound flowers, 

I have 



Euphorbia. dodecandria trigynia. 4G7 

led. Petals rouod-cordate, fringed with a finely ragged 
margin inserted into the calyx, just under its fissures. Sta- 
mina collected into five fascicles ; male florets of about 
five each, which expand in succession, and are sur- 
rounded with an uncertain number of finely divided pe- 
tals, or scales. Anthers four-lobed. Germ pedicelled, 
somewhat twi) lubed, iliree-ctlled, with one seed in each, 
attached to the top of the axis. Style short. Stigma 
three-cleft. 

This plant is sacred to Munsa, the goddess of ser- 
pents. The root of the tree mixed up with black pepper, 
is employed for the cure of their bites ; both internally 
and externally. In the months of July and August, on 
Tuesdays and Saturdays, the natives approach the tree 
with ofi'erings, and pray to Mi/nsa to be preserved from 
the bite of snakes. 1 suspect this and Euphorbia nerei- 
folia, have hitherto been considered as one species, 
both being quoted for the last by Linnasus, Burman, &c. 
I have for these fourteen years had both growing in this 
garden, so that I do not hesitate to pronounce them to- 
tally distinct, and clearly marked. 

2. E. nereifolia. Willd. 2. 984. 

Arboreous. Branches round. Thorns stipulary. Leaves 
subsessile, wedge-shaped. Peduncles three-flowered. 
Ela-calli. Rheed. Mai. 2. t. 43. 
Tithimalus zeylanicu,. Pluck. 2. t. 330./. 4. 

I have observed to be arboreous or shrubby., with the branches an- 
gular, orcomered, and armed %rith stipulary spines,, namely, K.anii- 
quorum; and three other East Indian triangtilar species, one round 
E. nereifolia, five and one-angled ligularia of Rumphius ; and ve- 
ry latelv from Pegu, a small, shrubby, tuberous -rooted unarmed 
species, ^vith similar flowers, has come to my knowledge ; a drawing 
and description thereof accompanies this under the name E. sessi- 
lijlora. 

GgR2 



468 DODECANDRIA TRIGYNIA. EupJlOibia. 

Beng. Sij. 

It grows to be a small, poor looking tree, delighting in 
an almost dry, barren soil. Flowering time the hot season. 

3. E. antiquorum. Willd. 2. 881. 

Shrubby, leafless. Branches spreading, triangular, 
armed with double spines at the protuberances of the an- 
gles. Peduncles solitary or in pairs ; three-flowered. 

Sanscrit. Seehoondee. 

Beng. Nara-shij. 

Teling. Buma chumadoo. 

Schadida calli. Rheed. Mai 2. t. 42. 

Very common on barren uncultivated lands all over 
India. In Bengal it blossoms during the cold season. 

4. E. arborescens. R. 

Arboreous, leafless. Branches numerous, ascending, 
triangular, armed, as in antiquorum. 

Native place uncertain, but I believe, Bengal. In the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta it grows to be a pretty large 
tree, with a round distinct trunk, and numerous branches 
forming a large, dense, subglobular head. 

5. E. lacfea. R. 

Shrubbj, erect. Branches erect, appressed, triangular, 
armed, leafless. 

A native of the Moluccas, diflering from antiquorum 
in being more slender, in having the centre of the three 
sides milky coloured, and particularly in the erect ap- 
pressed habit of he numerous branches. It has been 
twelve years in the Botanic garden at Calcutta, but has 
not yet blossomed. 

6. E. trigona. R. 

Shrubby, three-sided ; angles deeply repand with a 
pair of short spines, and a large seosile obovate cuneate 



Euphorbia. dodecandria trigynia. 469 

leaf from the apex of each tubercle. Peduncles three- 
flowered. This pretty species of Euphorbia was brought 
from the Molucca Islands to the Botanic garden at Cal- 
cutta in 1798, where it thrives well, and blossoms in Fe- 
bruary, March, and April. 

Stem erect, three-sided, with a few scattered, ascending, 
smooth, deep green, succulent branches ; these are all 
three-sided, with the angles considerably extended into 
large, scollop-toothed tubercles ; the extremity of each 
is armed with two short, sharp spines, and like the rest 
of the family every part abounds with much acrid, milky 
juice ; the general height of the plants, when ten years old, 
six or seven feet. Leaves solitary, one between each 
pair of spines at the end of the tubercles, sessile, wedge- 
shaped, entire, smooth on both sides, having the upper 
side of a deep green, and being much paler underneath, 
from one to two inches long, and less than half that in 
breadth. Stipules, on the upper side of the base of each 
spine, is a small, somewhat acute, hard, brown gland, 
not unlike the spines themselves, but much smaller. Pe- 
duncles from the sinuses on the angles of the branches, 
short, thick, generally three-flowered, the main one ses- 
sile, containing five fascicles ofstaminary male florets 
only ; the lateral pedicelled flowers, contain one female 
and five male florets. Calyx in both five-parted ; segments 
two-edged, entering the calyx below its fissures, roundish, 
jagged, incurvate over the male and hermaphrodite flow- 
ers, there are five segments of the male florets those are 
in fascicles of about six each, lengthening and expand- 
ing in succession, these are also surrounded by several 
muliitid .scales, or petals. Anthers of two round lobes. 
Germ superior, short-pedicelled, ovate, three-sided, tliree- 
celletj. With one seed in each, attached to the top of the 
axis. Style short, half three-cleft. Stigmas emarginate. 
The ripe seed not fuund. 



470 DODECANDRIA TRIGYNIA. EuphorUa. 

7. E. Tirucalli. Willd. 2. 890. 

Arboreous, unarmed branchlets, cylindric, succulent, 
polished, from alternate to crowded. Leaves Yxnear, ses- 
sile. Flowers terminal, and in the forks of the branch- 
lets. 

Tirucalli. Rheed. Mai 2 t. 44. 

Ossifraga lactea. Rumph. Amb. 7. t. 29. 

Beng. Lwnka sij. 

Tarn. Tim calli. 

A native of various parts of India ; when well advanc- 
ed in age and size it flowers during the rains. About 
Madras it is very generally employed for fences, and there 
called Milk hedge. 

Trunk of old trees as thick as a man's thigh or more. 
Bark dark olive-coloured and cracked. Wood white, pret- 
ty close grained, and of a middling hardness. Branches 
very numerous ; young shoots from alternate to crowd- 
ed into the form of an umbel, proliferous, succulent, 
smooth, polished, green points abrupt. Every part a- 
boundiiigin an acrid milky juice. General height of what 
may be called large trees, twenty feet. Leaves alternate, 
remote, and at the end of the twigs chiefly sessile, linear, 
smooth, small and fleshy. Flowers at the end of the twigs 
and in the divisions of the branchlets, crowded, subses- 
sile, chiefly female, or abortive hermaphrodite, small, 
pale yellow. Calyx campanulate ; mouth enlarged by 
three or four, or more jjenerally five, flat, roundish, smooth, 
peltate, horizontal segments, on the inside of the bell, 
woolly. Coral, I could find no other than the peltate seg- 
ments of the calyx. Stamina very uncertain, more fre- 
quently not found, when present very few, involved in 
wool. An'.hers two-lobed. Germ pedicelled, woolly, 
three-celled, with one seed in each attached to the top 
of the axis. <Sfi//e recurved. -S^i^wjcw bifid, with enlarged 
glandular heads. Capsule the size of a large pea, villous, 
hard, dark brown, three-iobed, three-celled, six-valved' 



Euphorbia. douecandria trigynia. 471 

Seed solitary, ovate. Iniegutnents two, the inner one a 
white membrane adhering to the exterior one. Perisperm 
and embryo as in the other Euphorbice. 

8. E. dichotoma. R. 

Somewhat shrubby, hairy. Leaves opposite, oval, ser- 
rate, three-nerved, hairy. Flowers in terminal and axil- 
lary heads, imbricated with hairy scariose bracles. Corol 
of four large obcordate, membranaceous petals. 

Found by Dr. Hunter at Oojjein ; it blossoms in Octo- 
ber. 

9. E. cuneifolia. R. 

Shrubby, particularly near the root, erect. Leaves al- 
ternate, sessile, cuneiform, entire, smooth. Umbel trifid 
then bifid. Involucres oblong, involucels cordate. Cap' 
sules smooth. 

Found by Colonel Hardwicke in the northern parts of 
Hindoostan ; in flow er in March. 

10. E. sessiliflora. R. 

Root tuberous. Stem simple, round, smooth. Leaves 
alternate, sessile, oblong, obtuse. Flowers axillary, ses- 
sile. 

This pretty little species was brought from Pegue by 
the Rev. Mr. Felix Carey to this garden, where it blos- 
soms freely during the month of February, at which time 
it is perfectly destitute of leaves; like the rest it is abund- 
antly lactescent. 

Root an irregularly shaped single tuber, about the size of 
apotatoe, in our small plants. Stem erect, simple, round, 
smooth, about a foot high. Leaves sessile, alternate, 
oblong, obtuse, smooth, entire, nearly veinless ; about 
three inches long and about half as much broad, decidu- 
ous in the cold season, and appearing before the rains 
set in, when the plant has done flowering. Stipules a 



472 DODECANDRiA TRiGYNiA. Euphorbia. 

minute glandular point on each side of the insertion of 
leaves. Flowers axillary, sessile, solitary, or paired with 
the rudiments of one or two more pressing on opposite 
sides of the fleshy base of the common calyx, and covered 
by an angular bracte. Calyx common, its mouth divided 
into five equal semilunar coloured segments. Petals^ve, 
red, equal, with the apex incurved and deeply cut into 
filiform segments. Stamina in five fascicles of five each. 
Germ oval. Style scarcely any. Stigma trifid. 

11. E. acaulis, R. 

Root tuberous, perennial, stemless, unarmed. Leaves 
radical, fleshy, sessile, cuneiform, smooth, with curled 
margins, crenulate, and callous, with a circular apex. 
Peduncles from the crown of the (now leafless) tuber, 
three, five, or seven-flowered. 

A native of Bengal. From Poornea Mr. B. Smith 
sent me a plant to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where 
it flowers in March, its leafless period, but has not yet 
produced ripe seeds. The leaves spread much and are 
deciduous about the end of the rains, and appear after the 
flowers have perished, in April and May. As in our East 
Indian armed Euphorbias, the flowers are compound, 
that is several male corollets surround the pistillum. 

12. E. hirta. Willd. 2. 897. 

Annual, hairy, oblique, with the apices recurved. Leaves 
opposite, obliquely oblong, serrulate. Umbellets axillary, 
peduncled, globular. 

Beiig. Bura kerw. 

Tithymalus botryoides. Burm. zeyl. 223. 1. 104. 

A common weed every where, and in flower and seed the 
whole year. 

13. E. parviflora. Willd. 2. 898. 

Annual, smooth, dichotomous, oblique. Leaves oppo- 



Euphorbia. dodecandria trigynia. 473 

site, obliquely-oblong, serrulate, smooth. Flowers inter- 
foliaceous, many on a common peduncle, one on a proper 
peduncle of the same length. Calyx and corol unilate- 
ral, and each of four parts. 

A native of various parts of India, and in flower near- 
ly all the year. 

14. E. glmica. Willd. 2. 916. 

Erect, smooth. ieai?cs lanceolate, entire. Umbel qmn- 
quifid-trifid. 7«i;o/Mcre/f linear-oblong, involucells ovate- 
cordate. Inside of the calyx woolly. 

A native of Hindoostan. 

15. E. thymifolia. Willd. 2. 898. 

Branches pressing flat on the earth, coloured, hairy. 
Leaves opposite, obliquely ovate, serrate. Flowers axil- 
lary, crowded, short-peduncled. Calyx and cororof four 
semilateral parts each. 

Beng. Swet-kerwa. 

A native of gravelly spots, and in flower most part of 
the year. 

16. E. uniflora. R. 

Annual, dichotomous, diff'use, filiform, smooth. Leaves 
somewhat linear, with the base obliquely cordate, and 
serrulate toward the apex. F/oiyers soHtary. Petals with 
a large gland on the inside. Capsules smooth. 

Common on dry barren spots, such as neglected gravel 
walks, &c. flowering all the year. 

17. E. chamaesyce. Willd. 2. 999. 

Boot perennial. Branches spreading flat on the ground, 
smooth, and sub-dichotomous. Leaves opposite, obliquely- 
oblong, serrulate. Flowers axillary, solitary. 

Beng. Chota-kerwa. 

H Lh 



474 DODECANDRIA TRIGYNIA. Euphovbia. 

A native of Coromandel and Bengal, on neglected gra- 
vel walks, &c. 

18. E. dracumculoides. Willd. 2. 905. 

Annual, erect, unarmed, ramous above the base. Um- 
fceZ three or four fid, dichotomous. Involucres d^A invo- 
lucells linear, sessile, diverging, entire and smooth. Pe- 
tals two-horned. 

Beng. Cliagwl-pMtpMti. 

A native of Coromandel and Bengal. It flowers dur- 
ing the cold season. Difi'ers from exigua,m being ramous 
up to the umbel ; in having the leaves, involucres, and in- 
volucells; linear and spreading horizontally ; and in the 
filaments being nearly cylindric. 

39. E. peltata. R. 

Annual, erect. Leaves and involucres ovate-lanceo- 
late ; vivolucells from oblong to cordate, serrulate. Pe- 
tals peltate. Capside round and smooth. 

A native of the interior parts of the Coast of Coroman- 
del ; seeds brought from thence to the Company's Bota- 
nic garden at Calcutta, grew and have continued sowing 
themselves, and producing plants every cold season with- 
out care. 

Stem annual, erect, ramous, round, smooth ; the height of 
the whole plant a foot. Branches curved upwards. Leaves 
alternate, sessile, wedge-shaped, and lanceolate,finely ser- 
rate, very smooth. Umbels terminal, in six rays ; the par- 
tial ones from four to two-cleft. Involucres like the leaves, 
only a little broader. Involucells from oblong to cordate, 
the nearer the apex the broader, all are smooth, and fine- 
ly serrate. Flowers solitary, sessile, small, of a greenish 
yellow. Petals peltate. Capsules round, scarcely any an- 
gle to be seen, smooth in every part. 



CLASS XII. 

ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

CACTUS. Schreb. gen. n. 838. 
Calyx one-leaved, imbricated. Corol many petalled. . 
Berry inferior, one-celled, many-seeded. 

1. C. indicus. R. 

Joints proliferous, ol)lon^, much compressed, thorns 
generally simple, long and straight, issuing from tufts of 
sharp bristles. Corol yellow, twice as long as the sta- 
mens ; exterior petal obcordate. 

Tatn. Naga-kalee. 

Beng. Nag-phunee. 

This plant is found here and there on road sides, in 
forests, and amon<» bushe^; in the vicinity of Calcutta, 
and I am informed that it is equally common, not only 
over the whole of the^ province, but also on most of the 
adjoining districts, ; so that, independent of its proper 
Bengalee name, and medicinal uses, there is every rea- 
son to imagiPie it is a native of these countries. Nor can 
I well reconcile it to any of the opuntias hilherto describ- 
ed; as Will appear more evidently after reading the follow- 
ing d'escription.' It is in flower during the hot season, 
an^a more or less the whole year round. 

Root fibrous. Trunk, 1 have not yet seen any plant 
with any thing like one, (though I am informed it grows to 
be a perfect tree) here it is a raraous bush, with toler- 
ably erect joints ; these are proliferous, of an obovate- 
oblong form, and much compressed, thin, while young 

Hbb2 



476 icoSANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Fobricia. 

smooth, except in the axills of the leaves ;* length and 
breadth various, according to soil and situation. Leaves 
scattered over the joints, small, sessile, subcorneal, fleshy, 
caducous. Thorns axillary, generally single, though 
sometimes in pairs, straight, from half an inch to two 
inches long, very strong, whitish, except the point, which 
is darker coloured, and very sharp ; their insertions are 
surrounded with innumerable, slender, sharp, short bris- 
tles, which readily penetrate the skin, and give much 
trouble to the unwary handler. Flowers from the upper 
edges of the joints ; sessile, large, of a bright beautiful yel- 
low colour, opening only in the day. Calyx one-leafed, 
consisting of a leathery cup which fills exactly the umbili- 
cus of the germ, deciduous with the corol, stamens and 
style in one body. Petals many, the exterior ones small- 
er, and obcordate ; the interior ones oblong with somewhat 
ragged margins. Stamens not half the length of the petals. 
Pistiilum, ^c. as in the genus. 

Upon this plant the Cochineal insects lately brought 
from America, thrive and multiply abundantly. 

2. C. chinensis. JR. 

Subarboreous, joints compressed, proliferous, sublan- 
ceolar, almost unarmed. Petals retuse, truncate, long- 
er than the stamina. 

A native of China ; from thence it was introduced into 
the Botanic garden at Calcutta about twenty years ago, 
during all that time it has blossomed only once. 

FJBRICIA. 

Calyx five-cleft. Petals five, sessile. Stigma capitate. 
Capsule many-celled ; seeds winged. 

F. bracteata. R. 

Leaves opposite, oblong, the floral ones minute and lan- 

* I call the little caducous conical bodies over the joints leaves. 



Metrosideros. icosandria monogynia. 477 

ceolate. Flowers solitary, with two bractes below the ca- 
lyx. 

A native of the Moluccas. It has the habit of a Myr- 
tiis, but from the capsule which is from eight to ten-celled, 
I conclude it is not of that family. The stamina are very 
numerous, the length of the oval petal. The stigma is 
truncate, not capitate. The floral leaves are so small, and 
the flowers so numerous toward the end of the braachlets, 
as to appear like a panicle. 



METROSIDEROS. Schreb.gen. n. 791. 
Calyx four or five-cleft, seraisupera. Petals four or 
five. Stamina very long, standing out. Stigma simple. 
Capsule three or four-celled. 

J. M. vera. R. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblons^, polished. Co- 
rymbs axillary, brachiate, shorter than the leaves. Ca- 
lyx four-toothed. 

Metrosideros vera. Rumph. Amb. 3. t. 7. 

Rumphius describes it to be a tree of great size, growing 
in the forests of Amboyna, and the other Molucca Islands. 
It was introduced from the former place into the B jtanic 
garden at Calcutta in 1801, and in July 1804, the larg- 
est plants blossomed for the first time, when only about 
seven feet high. It has a slender trunk, smooth baik, and 
few branches. No part of the tree, so far as I have yet 
observed, possesses any kind of fragrance. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblong, firm, smooth, 
polished, perfectly entire, rather acute, with small and 
parallel veins, about six inches long, and from two 
to three broad. Corymbs axillary, solitary, shorter 
than the leaves, brachiate, bearing a few pretty large, 
pale greenish white inodorous flowers; pedicels flat- 
tened. Bractes oblong, or lanceolate, smooth, acute. 



478 icosANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Metrosideros. 

Calyx saucer-shaped, four, rarely five-toothed. Petals 
four, seldom five, sessile, round, expanding. Filaments 
from twenty to twenty-five, much longer than the petals 
of the same greenish yellow colour, and inserted with 
them into a rim round the inside of the calyx, at some 
distance from the four lobed germ. Anthers ovate. Germ 
half above the bottom of the calyx; this part is evidently 
four-lobed,and a section thereof exposes fourdistinct cells, 
with numerous ovula in each, inserted on a projecting re- 
ceptacle, which is longitudinally attached to the axis. 
Style rather longer than the stamens. Stigma simple, 
rather acute, with a perforation at the very point. Cap- 
sule nearly globular, the size of a pea, two-thirds above the 
calyx, four-celled, four-valved. Seeds numerous, angu- 
lar. 

2. M. comosa. R. 

Leaves alternate, sessile, narrow-lanceolate, attenuat- 
ed to both ends, mucronate, smooth, rigid, with the mar- 
gins entire and thickened. Flowers lateral, crowded into 
a cylindrical trifid spike. Calycine segments semicircu- 
lar and smooth, as are also the round subsessile petals. 
Stigma concave. 

A native of the Moluccas. 

3. M. snherosa. R. 

Bark of even the young shoots cracked and corky. 
Leaves opposite, sessile, lanceolate, smooth. Umbellets 
lateral. 

A native of the Moluccas. 

Braitchlets covered with deeply cracked corky bark. 
Leaves opposite, subsessile, broad-lanceolate, entire, ta- 
per, obtuse-pointed, firm and polished on both sides, from 
six to seven inches long and two broad. Umbellets from 
the old axills below the leaves, sessile. Pedicels cla- 
vate, smooth, one-flowered, which with the germ and ca- 



Metrosideros. icosandria monogynia. 479 

lyx form a perfect imitation of a speak injsr trumpet. Calyx 
narrow-campanulatc, obscurely four or five-toothed. Pe- 
tals four or five, round, small, sessile. Filaments numer- 
ous, much lar^^er than the petals. Germ three-celled. I 
have not found the ripe nor even full grown seed vessel. 
Style rather shorter than the filaments. Stigma acute. 

4 M. linearis. Smith, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 3. p. 271. 

Shrubby. Leaves scattered, linear, channelled, acute, 
rigid. Flowers crowded round the branchlets, a little be- 
low their trifid apices, some of them axillary. 

This beautiful plant w as reared in the Botanic garden 
at Calcutta, from seed sent by Colonel Patterson from 
New South Wales in 1800. In seven years the plants 
were six or eight feet high, stout and rigid. Flower- 
ing time in Bengal, April and May ; the seeds require 
above a year to ripen. 

Stem nearly erect, about as thick as a man*s wrist. 
Baric dark-coloured, and rather scabrous. Branches few, 
scattered, stiflf and straight ; the ligneous parts ash-co- 
loured, the tender ones downy. Leaves scattered, sessile, 
linear, rigid, channelled, from two to three inches long, 
and an eighth of an inch in breadth. Flowers crowded 
round the branchlets below the leaves of the same year, 
sessile, some of them are axillary, and in that case solitary. 
Calyx urceolate ; margin five-cleft ; segments reniforra, 
deciduous. Petals five, greenish, nearly round, villous. 
Filaments inserted on a rim, (within the petals) round the 
mouth of the calyx, many times longer than the petals, of 
a bright crimson, and from their number, size, and length, 
giving that colour to the whole flower, though the petals 
and calyx are green. Germ more than semisupera, being 
attached to the bottom of the calyx only, round, hairy, ge- 
nerally three-celled, though I have found some with four, 
each containing numerous, very minute seeds attached to 
a large convex receptacle in the inner angle of the cell. 



480 ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Psidium. 

"which is attached to the axis. Style as long as the stami- 
na. Stigma simple. Capsule crowded round the branch- 
let, seminifera, inserted in the globular, firm, thick calyx, 
round, of the size of a grain of black pepper, hairy, parti- 
cularly the vertex, thin, three-celled, three-valved. Recep- 
fades as in the germ. Seeds numerous, filiform, brown. 

Gasrtner's figure of Metrosideros armillaris, vol. 1. 6. 
34./. 5. is so exactly like this, that it may well serve to 
be quoted for it. 



PSIDIUM. Sckreb. gen. n. 841. 

Calyx five-cleft. Corol five-petioled. Germ inferior, 
four-celled. Berry one-celled, many-seeded. 

1. P. pyriferum. Willd. 2. 957. 
Fruit turbinate. 

Eug. White Guava; however the colour of the inside 
of the fruit varies much. 
Pela. Rheed. Mai. 3. t. 34. 
Hind. Soopari-am, pronounced Sufriam. 
Beng. Peyara. 

2. P. pomiferum. Willd. 2. 958. 
Fruit spherical. 

Eug. Red Guava, but like the other, the colour of the 
inside varies much. 

Malacka-pela. Rheed. Mai. 3. t. 35. 

Hind. Lal-sufriam. 

These two kinds of Guava are very generally cultivated 
in the warmer parts of America. 

CARALLIA. R. 

Calyx six or seven cleft. Coro^ six or seven-petioled, 
unguiculate. Stigma plate-lobate. Germ inferior, one* 



Carallia. icosandria monogynia. 481 

celled, one-seeded, attachment superior. Berry one or 
two-seeded. 

1. C. lucida. R. Ind. pi. 3. n. 211. 

Leaves opposite, oblong, serrulate. Peduncles many- 
flowered. 

Teling. Karalli. 

This is a small handsome tree, a native of the lower 
region of the Circar mountains, and of Chittagong. Flow- 
ering time March. Leaves not deciduous. 

Leaves oppo^te, short petioled, oval-pointed, delicate- 
ly serrate, smooth and shining on both sides ; four or 
five inches long and from two to two and a half broad. 
Stipules interfoliaceous, pointed. Umhellets axillary, 
small, rigid, few-flowered, generally three-cleft. Calyx 
above, six or seven parted ; divisions acute, erect, perma- 
nent. Corol six or seven-petalled, orbicular, scolloped, 
waved, inserted into the divisions of the calyx by short 
claws. Filaments twelve or fourteen, of the length of the 
corol, inserted into the calyx. Anthers oblong, erect. 
Germ inferior, globular, one-celled, containing one, two, 
or three seeds, attached to the top of the cell. Style the 
length of the filaments. Stigma three-lobed. Berry glo- 
bular, smooth, pulpy, of the size of a large pea, one-cell- 
ed. Seed one, rarely two, uniform. 

2. C. lanceoefolia. R, 

Leaves lanceolar, acutely-serrulate, waved, shining. 
Peduncles many-flowered. 

Engeet-darray is the Malay name on the West coast of 
Sumatra, where the tree is indigenous ; from thence it was 
introduced into the Botanic garden at Calcutta, wherein 
ten years it has attained the height of twenty-five feet, 
with a very straight trunk as in the firs ; decorated with nu- 
merous, expanding, opposite branches and hranchlets. 

Hi 



482 icosANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Eugenia, 

Bark of the old ligneous parts, smooth and brown, of the 
tender shoots smooth and green. 

It is a very perfect ever green, and the foliage uncom- 
monly dark. 

Leaves opposite, short-petioled, lauceolar, sharply ser- 
rulate at the margin, having the upper surface of a clear, 
shining deep green, and the under one paler, with the a- 
pex rather obtuse, from three to six inches long, and from 
one to two broad. Stipules large, linear, sheathing, cadu- 
cous. Peduncles axillary, or where the last year's leaves 
grew, opposite, rigid, thick and short, generally twice bifid 
with about three or four sessile, small greenish white flow- 
ers on the apex of each division. Bractes small, suban- 
nular. Ca/j/.r superior, from six to seven-toothed; ^e^/m^w/^ 
triangular and acute. Petals six or seven, inserted by 
short claws into the calyx immediately under its fissures, 
sub-reniform, with the margins much curled, and laterally 
incurved,embracing the middle part of the larger filaments. 
Filaments from twelve to fourteen, inserted into the calyx, 
alternately shorter, and incurved. Anthers incumbent. 
Germ sub-inferior, with a large turbinate crown rising in 
the centre like (he true germ itself, as if the calyx were 
inferior, this crown is embraced by a yellow crenate ring, 
which may be called a nectary ; the germ is five-celled 
with two ovula in each cell attached to the middle of the 
axis. Style nearly as long as the corol. Stigma peltate, 
five lobed. 



EUGENIA. Schreh.gen. n. 842. 

Calyx entire, or four-parted. Corol four-petalled. 
Germ inferior, two-celled; cells many-seeded; attachment 
interior. Berry one or more seeded. Embryo without 
perisperm. 



Eugenia. icosandria monogynia. 483 

1. E. malaccensis. Willd. 2. 959. 

Trunk straii^lit. Leaves from oblong to laiiceolar. Flow- 
ers in sessile, lateral fascicles. Berries turbinate. 

Janibosa domestica. Runiph. Anib. 1. t. 37. 

Nati-schambu. Rheed. Mai. 1. 1. 18. 

Beng. Malacca Janirool. 

A native of the Malay Islands, &c. In Bengal it blos- 
soms and bears fruit at different periods of the year. 

There is a variety with dark blood red fruit, which is 
probably Rumphius's Jambosa nigra, 1. p. 123. t. 38./. 1. 

The fruit is large, juicy and beautiful and very gene- 
rally eaten, though rather insipid. 

2. E. purpurea. R. 

Trunk straight. Leaves smooth. Flowers in lateral 
sessile fascicles as in the last. Berries oval. 

It differs from E. Malaccensis in the shape of the fruit 
only, a native of the Malay Islands, flowering in (he hot 
season ; the fruit is as large as that of the former species ; 
the colour a very dark purple. 

3. E. amplexicaidis. R. 

Xeare*- stem-clasping, oblong, obtuse ; peduncles laite- 
ral, three or nine-flowered. Berries spherical. 

A stately tree, a native of Chittagong, a country still 
abounding in numerous undetermined new species of 
this noble genus. In the Botanic garden at Calcutta 
it is in flower and fruit at different periods through the 
year. 

Trunk tolerably straight, quickly dividing into numer- 
ous spreading branches, forming a large extensive, dense 
head. Bark of the old woody parts brown, but pretty 
smooth; that of the young shoots polished, of a clear green. 
Leaves opposite, stem-clasping, oblong, entire ; with a 
rounded apex, firm and glossy, from six to eight inches 

1 i i 2 



484 icosANDRrA MONOGYNIA. Eugenia. 

long, and from three to four broad. Peduncles lateral, 
short, three-flowered, trifid ; each division three-flowered. 
Flowers large, white, inodorous. Calyx four-parted ; 
the opposite segments unequal. Petals four, nearly 
round. Stamina numerous, &c. as in the genus. Germ 
turbinate, two-celled, with several ovula attached to the 
thickened middle of the partition. Style about as long as 
the stamina. Stigma acute. Berry round, the size of a 
small apple, greenish yellow when ripe. Pulp of a soft, 
rather spongy texture, and sweet insipid taste, rarely 
more than one-celled, containing one or two large, 
oval, more or less compressed seeds, covered with a soft 
white integument, the abortive cell, and its contents are 
very evident in the ripe fruit of this species. Perisperm 
none. Embryo conform to the seed. Cotyledons of a 
thick, firm, fleshy texture, and nearly equal. Radicle 
generally near the middle of the cotyledons. 

The cultivation of this species cannot well be recom- 
mended, on account of its fruit ; but the tree is one of the 
most handsome of the genus. 

4. E. Jamholana. Lamarck. Encycl. 3. 150. 

Leaves oblong, entire, sub-acuminate. Panicles below 
the leaves. Calyx entire. Berry oblong, and often ob- 
liquely so. 

Calyptranthes Jamholana. Linn. sp. pi. ed. Willd. 2. 
975. 

Perin-njara. Rheed. 5. t. 29. 

Jwmboo, Jwmboo, Sanscrit names. 

Beng. Kalla-jam. 

Teling. Nasedoo. 

This grows to be a large tree, is common every where, 
both in its wild and cultivated states ; every soil and si- 
tuation suiting it equally well. Flowering time the be- 
ginning of the hot season. The fruit ripens in July and 
August. 



Eugenia. icosandrta monogynia. 485 

Trunk generally a little crooked. Bark whitish with 
a few cracks. Branches the larger irregular, the smaller 
depending ; the whole forming a very large, beautiful, 
shady head. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblong, 
pointed, waved, smooth, shining, firm, from four to live 
inches long, and two broad. Stipules none. Panicles 
often opposite on the naked hranchlets, just below the 
leaves, middle-sized, globular, cross-armed, rigid, and 
subdivided by them. Calyx cup-form, with the margin 
entire, permanent. Petals four, orbicular, claws very 
short, inserted into the mouth of the corol. Anthers small. 
Germ inferior. Style rather shorter than the stamens, 
declining. Stigma acute. Berry roundish, about the 
size of a large cherry, succulent, smooth, when ripe 
black. Seed one, roundish, smooth. 

The wood of this tree is hard, close grained, and dur- 
able ; it is of course used for various purposes. 

The bark is strongly astringent, and dyes excellent dur- 
able browns of various shades according to the corrosive 
employed, or the strength of the decoction. 

The fruits are universally eaten when ripe, by man and 
birds ; they are of a subacid, astringent taste. 

There is a variety of the fruit in the northern and 
mount?iinous parts of the coast of a superior quality, and 
as lar^e as a pigeon's egg. 

5. C. ohtusifolia. R. 

Leaves elliptic, obtuse, polished ; panicles below the 
leaves. Corol calyptrate. Berry oblong, one-seeded. 

Jambolifera pedunculata. Gcert. sem. 1. 178. t. 36. 

Jambolana. Rumph. Amb. 1. t. 42. 

A tree of considerable size, a native of the Moluccas. 
In the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where it has been 
about twelve years, it blossoms in March, and the fruit 
ripens in June. It differs from E. Jambolana of the conti- 



486 icosANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Eugenia. 

nent of India, only in the leaves being obtuse, and fre- 
quently emarginate, as in Rumphius's figure. 

Jamhosa Ceramica. Rumph. Amh. 1. ^ 41. seems a spe- 
cies still undescribed, except by Ruuiphius, which I have 
not yet met with. 

6. E, operculata. R. 

Trunk short, thin of branches. Leaves short-petioled, 
oblong, smooth, coarsely veined. Panicles lixterd], brachi- 
ate, collecting the flowers in sessile, terminal heads. 
Calyx entire ; corol operculate. Berries spherical. 

From Amboyna this tree was brought to the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta, w here it blossoms in March and April, 
and the seeds ripen in May and June. 

7. E. caryophylifoJia. Lamarck. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate. Panicles below the leaves, 
cross-armed. Ca/?/JC obtusely four- toothed. C'oro/ four- 
petioled, deciduous without expanding. Berry globular. 

Calyptranthes Caryophyllifolia, Linn. sp. pi. ed. Willd. 
2. 975. 

Myrtus Cuminum. Linn. sp. pi. 674. 

Jambosa Ceramica. Rumph. Amb. 1. t. 41. 

Beng. Chota Jamb. , 

A native of various parts of India, growing luxuriant- 
ly in almost every soil, and situation. Flowering time 
the hot season. 

Trunk seldom straight, nor long, but thick, and cover- 
ed, as well as the numerous spreading branches, with 
smooth ash-coloured bark, the smaller branches, and twigs 
are generally pendulous. Leaves opposite, petioled, nod- 
ding, oblong-lanceolate, waved, very smooth, and shin- 
ing on both sides, w ith numerous, most slender, parallel- 
ed veins ; from three to four inches long, and about two 
broad. Petioles Ahont an inch long, channelled. Pani- 



Eugenia, icosandria monogvnia. 487 

cles diverging from the naked branchlets below the leaves, 
cross-armed, rigid. Flowers numerous, small. Calyx 
cup-shaped, obscurely four-toothed. Corol, petals four 
or five, orbicular, concave, sessile, they seldom of never 
expand, but arc pushed off by the stamens in one cup- 
shaped body like the calyptra in mosses. Stamens nu- 
merous. Berrij round, but in general disfigured, by de- 
pressions or pits, size of a large pea, when ripe black. 

Observation. This tree comes exceedingly near my 
Eugenia Jambolana, but when found growing together, 
it is evidently different. I considered them as one, or at 
most as varieties of one species, until I met with them 
both together in this garden, and, have now raised 
plants from the seeds of each, and they continue distinct. 
The best distinguishing marks are stated in the defini- 
tion ; besides, the leaves ■a.n(\ fruit oi' Jambolana are much 
larger in the same soil ; particularly the fruit, and also 
uniformly of an oblong shape. 

Perin Njara. Rheecl. 3Ial vol. 5. t. 29. is evidently the 
last mentioned. 

The wood is whitish, very strong, close grained, hard and 
durable. The fruit scarcely eatable, whereas many reckon 
that oi Jambolana good, particularly if soaked in a lit- 
tle salt and water for about an hour, which removes a 
great part of their superabundant astringency. 

8. E. fruticosa. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves from broad-oblong to oval, finely 
veined. Panicles lateral. Flowtrs numerous. Calyx en- 
tire. Peduncles and pedicells square. Corol four-petiol- 
ed, but generally deciduous, 'u\ form of a lid. 

Hind, iind Beng. Bun-Jamb. 

A large shrub or small tree, a native of Chittagong. It 
flowers during the hot season, and its very small one- 
seeded berries ripen early in the rainy season. 



488 icoSANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Eugenia. 

9. E. brachiate. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves elliptic, obtuse-poiated. Panicles 
lateral. Peduncles and pedicells four-seeded. Calyx en- 
tire. Berries spherical. 

A native of Amboyna. In the Botanic garden at Cal- 
cutta it blossoms in May, and the fruit ripens in July ; 
they are about the size of pease, dark purple or black, 
and of an astringent taste. It is nearly allied to frutico- 
sa, but grows to a much greater size ; the leaves are broad- 
er and more obtuse, and in the same garden it has taken 
eleven years from the seed to blossom, while fruticosa 
requires only three or four. 

10. E. claviflora. R. 

Leaves lanceolar. Corymbs lateral, subsessile, umbelli- 
form ; flowers clavate. Berries long, ovate, crowned 
with the cyathiform base of the calyx. 

Lifmba-nwH-jamb the vernacular name in Chittagong, 
where it is indigenous, and grows to be a stout useful tim- 
ber tree, of very considerable size. Flowering time Febru- 
ary and March, and the fruit which is eaten by the na- 
tives, ripens in May. 

11. E. cerasoides. R. 

Leaves short-petioled, from oval to oblong, remotely 
coarse-veined. P«m'c?es lateral, brachiate. Fruit round, 
of the size and appearance of small black cherries. 

Botee Jam, the vernacular name in Chittagong, where 
it is indigenous. Its trunk is so large as to furnish planks 
for various purposes. Flowering time April and May, and 
the fruit, which is very generally eaten, ripens in July. 

12. E. pi'cecox. R. 

Leaves opposite, petioled, lanceolar, rather obtuse, 
coarsely veined. Panicles lateral and axillary, brachiate 
half the length of the leaves. 



Eugenia. icosandria monogynia. 

A stout tree, a native of the hilly parts of the province 
of Chittagong, where it blossoms so early as January. 

13. E. Paniala. K. 

Leaves broad-lanceolar, acuminate, coarsely veined. 
Panicles lateral, brachiate, flowers in little heads. Ber- 
ries oval. 

Beng. Pamala-jamb. 

It is one of the largest and most robust trees of this 
very noble genus ; a native of the forests of Chittagong, 
where they abound more than in any other country I 
am acquainted with, and furnish the natives with tim- 
ber of a large size, fit for a variety of purposes. Flower- 
ing time the month of April, the fruit ripening in June ; 
they are about the size of a small gooseberry and very 
juicy. 

14. JE. laurifoUa. R. 

Leaves subsessile, oblong, glossy, obtusely acuminate. 
Peduncles lateral, three-flowered ; pedicells clavate, 
length of the peduncles. Berries oblong. 

A beautiful, densely ramous, small tree, flowering in 
the hot season and ripening its fruit during the rains, 
like many of the other uncultivated species, the pulp 
of the fruit is in small quantity, and scarce eatable ; the 
shape however of the berries in this species, together 
with its dark brown bark, immediately point it out. 

14. E. ternifolia. R. 

Leaves tern, sessile, oblong. Flowers lateral. 

A large tree, a native of Chittagong, w here it blossoms 
in April, and the fruit ripens in June and July : it is 
eaten by the natives. 

Of this beautiful, stately species, there are two varie- 
ties, one with white flowers, called by the people where 
the tree grows Phool jamb, the other with lovely rosy 

Jjj 



490 



icosANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Eugenia. 



flowers they call Lal-phool-jamb. Their leaves are 
amongst the largest of the genus being from six to fifteen 
inches long, aad from three to six broad. 

15. E. angustifolia. R. 

Leaves tern, linear-lauceolar. Peduncles lateral, from 
three to four-flowered. Corol many petalled. 

A small tree, a native of Chittagong, where it flowers 
in March and April. The fruit ripens in June and July. 

It is readily known by its many-petalled corol, having 
from twelve to sixteen petals, and by its three- fold leaves. 

16. E Zeylanica. Willd 2. 963. 

Arboreous. Leaves short petioled, oblong, obtusely 
acuminate, lucid, veinless, when young villous. Pedun- 
cles axillary, generally solitary, or crowded on little co- 
mose racemes. 

A native of the Silbet District, where it is called Na- 
gasun Jamb, and grows to be a tree of a middling size, 
flowering in April. 

17. E. myrtifolia. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves lanceolate, taper, obtusely pointed, 
lucid. Peduncles axillary, compound, many-flowered. 
Berries spherical. 

A beautiful small tree or large shrub, a native of Su- 
matra, from whence it was sent by Dr. C. Campbell to 
the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where in nine years the 
plants from seed had attained the height of six or seven 
feet, when they began to blossom in March and April, 
and the seed ripened in May and June. 

18. E. bracteata. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves oblong, ventricose, obtuse, lucid. 
Peduncles axillary, one, rarely two or three, one flower- 
ed. Involucre two-leaved. Berries spherical, smooth. 



Eugenia. icosandria monogynia. 491 

Myrtus Coromandeliana. Kon. Mss. 
Myrtus bracteata. Willd. 2. 969. 
Teling. Gorag-moodee. 
Hind, and Beng. H/jwlee Mendee. 
It grows in ,s;rcat abundance on the sand hills near to 
the sea on the coast of Coromandel. 

19. E. pohjgama. R. 

Polygamous. Leaves short-petioled, elliptic, cuspi- 
date. Panicles axillary on some trees, and not on others, 
villous. Stigma capitate. 

A native of the Malay Archipelago. I have not seen 
the pericarp, its genus is therefore uncertain, particular- 
ly as it has a capitate stigma. 

20. E. vennsta. R. 

Arboreous, with numerous drooping branch lets. Leaves 
broad-lanceolar, obtusely acuminate. Panicles axillary 
and terminal, brachiate, shorter than the leaves, ultimate 
divisions three-flowered. 

From Tippera, where this elegant tree is indigenous, the 
seeds were received into this garden, where in six years 
the largest of the young trees was about twelve feet high, 
clothed with innumerable slender, drooping branches 
down to the ground. Bark of the woody parts dark 
brown and smooth, of the tender shoots green and smooth. 
Leaves opposite, short petioled, from lanceolar to ob- 
long ; when the plants were younger they were much 
narrower in proportion to their length, entire, firm, highly 
polished, obtusely acuminate ; from three to four inches 
long, and one and a half broad. Panicles axillary, more 
rarely terminal, shorter than the leaves, composed of 
brachiate pairs of branches with their ultimate divisions 
three-flowered, all round and smooth. Flowers like 
those of the common myrtle, and about the same size. 
Ca/2/.T four- toothed. Corol of four short-clawed, orbicu- 

Jjj2 



492 icosANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Eugeniu, 

lar, concave, reddish petals. Germ two celled, with many 
ovula in each, &c. 

21. E. acuminata. R. 

Leaves broad lanceolar, acuminate, polished, finely 
veined. Peduncles axillary, terminal, many-flowered. 
Carol operciilate. Berries round. 

A small, but tall, handsome tree, a native of the Mo- 
luccas ; in the Botanic garden at Calcutta it flowers in 
March, and the fruit ripens in June. 

22. E. cymosa. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves oblong, polished, hard. Cymes ter- 
minal and axillary, crowded. 

Buttee Jamb, the vernacular name in Silhet where the 
tree is indigenous ; it grows to a great size, and the wood 
is used for various economical purposes. Flowering time 
December. 

23. E, aquea. R. 

Arboreous, trunk soon divided. Leaves opposite, sub- 
sessile, oblong-lanceolate, entire. Peduncles terminal, 
and from the exterior axills, many-flowered. Fruit flat- 
tened at both ends, (turnip-shaped.) 

Jambosa aquea. Rumph. Amb. l.p. 126. t. 38/. 2. the 
rose-coloured variety, and Jambo-ayer. Rumph. Amb. 1. 
p. 126, the white. 

Both the above varieties have been introduced from 
the Moluccas into the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where 
they thrive luxuriantly, and blossom during the month of 
March, the fruit ripens in May and June. 

Trunk short ; branches numerous down to the ground. 
Bark smooth, ash-coloured ; whole height from twenty 
to twenty-live feet. Leaves opposite, very short-pe- 
tioled, sublanceolate, with their narrow base some- 
what cordate; margins entire, smooth ou both sides. Pt- 



Eugenia. icosandria monogynia. 493 

duncles terminal, and from three to five or seven large, 
white flowers, on pedicels of various length. Calyx the 
four segments of the border subreniform. Petals sabro- 
tund, rather larger than the divisions of the calyx. Fila- 
ments numerous, twice the length of the petals. Anthers 
small, oblong. Germ broad-turbinate, two-celled, with 
the rudiments of many seeds in each. Style longer than 
the stamina. Stigma acute. Fruit about the size of a 
large Medlar, somewhat turbinate, with both ends much 
flattened ; surface smooth and polished, but uneven, 
and in the first noticed variety of a most beautiful lively 
pale rose colour, and aromatic taste, containing from one 
to four seeds, though in the germ, as in all the other spe- 
cies I have examined, there are the rudiments of a great 
many. The other variety, Jambo ayer, has the fruit per- 
fectly white, there is no other difference. 

The tree which bears the rose, or pink coloured va- 
riety, is conspicuously beautiful, when the drooping 
branches of the full grown, brilliant coloured fruit, ap- 
pear through the dark deep green leaves. 

24. E. alba. R. 

Trunk rarely straight, and soon divided. Leaves sub- 
sessile, oblong. Peduncles lateral and terminal, bra- 
chiate, many flowered. Flowers pedicelled. Berries de- 
pressed, turbinate. 

Beng. Jamrool. 

A native of the Malay Islands. In the Botanic gar- 
den at Calcutta, this rather low, very ramous tree blos- 
soms, and bears immense crops of large pure white shin- 
ing fruit during the hot and rainy seasons, but they are 
very insipid, and quite watery. 

25. E. oblata. R. 

Leaves opposite, broad lanceolar, obtusely-acuminate. 
Panicles terminal, with smaller axillary corymbiform fas- 



494 icosANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Eugetua, 

I 

cicles in the axills, all shorter than the leaves. Berries 
transversely oval. 

Goolum, the vernacular name in Chittagong, where it 
is found wild, as well as cultivated for its edible fruit ; 
the wood is also in some estimation. It blossoms in 
March, and the fruit ripens in June and July. 

26. E. lance(Bfolia. R. 

Xeat'es short petioled, lanceolate, with the base round- 
ed, acuminate, smooth. Panicles axillary and terminal, 
globular, shorter than the leaves. Berries oblong, crown- 
ed with the entire c:\Iyx. 

Poora-Jamb, the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is 
indigenous in the forests of that district, and grows to 
be one of the largest trees. Flowering time November, 
and the seed ripens in February; uncommon periods for 
an Eugenia to flower and ripen its fruit ; this I am in- 
clined to consider one of the most elegant and most use- 
ful species of this extensive, and truly superb genus. 

27. E. lanceolaria. R. 

Leaves short-petioled, narrow-lanceolar. Flowers ter- 
minal, about fifteen, corymbose-fascicled. Berries irre- 
gularly round lobate. 

Pounee-Jamb, the vernacular name in Silhet, where it 
grows to be a small smooth tree of from ten to twelve feet 
in height, the flowers very large, rosy, and somewhat fra- 
grant, which with the elegant folia<ie, renders it one of 
the prettiest of this very grand family. It flowers in 
May, the fruit ripens in December, and, though as L.rge 
as a small apple, is not eaten, the pulp being in small 
quantity and tough. 

28. E. Jamhos. Willd. 2. 959. 

Trunk rarely straight and soon dividing. Leaves lan- 
ceolate. Flowers terminal. Berries globular. 



Eugenia. icosandria monogynia. 195 

Malacca schambu. Rheed. Mai 1. t.l7. 
Jambosa sylvestris alba. Rumph. Amb. 1. t. 39. 
•Jamba the Sanscrit name, Aiiat. Res. 1. 419. 
Beng. Giilab jamb. 

Found common in gardens inmost parts of India and 
its Islands. 

29. E. caryophyllata. Willd. 2. 9G5. 

Leaves from lanceolar to oblong, acute. Corymbs ter- 
minal. Berries oblong, one, rarely, two seeded, 

LwvMnga, the Sanscrit name. 

Pers. Meykuk. 

English. Clove tree. 

On the Molucca Islands where these trees are indige- 
nous they begin to blossom when about nine years old; 
the average produce is about two, or two and a half 
pounds of cloves yearly. 

Arab. Kerunpul, 

Beng. hung. 

Caryophyllus aromaticus. sp. pi. 735. Gcert. sem, 1. 167. 
33. 

Caryophyllus. Rumph. Amb. 2. t. 1. 2. 3. 

30. E. lepfosperuma. R. 

Leaves short petioled, lanceolate, coriaceous, polish- 
ed. Panicles terminal, very ramous. Calyx acetabu- 
liform, obscurely five-toothed. Stigma two-toothed. 

A native of the Island of Romoa. 

31. E. Thumra. R. 

Leaves lanceolar, polished. Panicles terminal, extreme, 
remote, many-flowered. Divisions of the calyx subrotund ; 
petals reniform, sessile. 

Sent from Pegue by the Rev. Mr. F. Carey, under the 
vernacular name Thumra. 



496 I'lcosANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Eugenia. 

32. E. pulcJiella. R. 

ieavesbroad-lanceolar, acuminate, finely veined, lucid. 
Panicles terminal, divided in a triternate form ;perfMnc/es 
and pedicells four seeded. Berries spherical. 

A very beautiful, slow growing, small tree ; a native 
of the Molucca Islands. Flowering time in the Botanic 
garden of Calcutta March and April, and the fruit which 
is like the black currant, ripens in the early part of the 
rains. 

33. E. Inophijlla. R. 

Trunk straight to the top of the tree. Leaves from oval 
to oblong, finely-veined and polished. Panicles termi- 
nal, corymbiform. Calyx obscurely from four to five- 
lobed. Coro/ from four to five-petalled. Berries turbi- 
nate. 

A native of the Moluccas. It flowers during the hot 
season in the Eotanic garden at Calcutta. 

Although it resembles the clove tree, it possesses no 
kind of fragrance The large pear shaped berries are 
not eatable, the pulpy part or rather cortex being of a 
hard tough texture and unpleasant taste. 

34. E. rubens. R. 

Leaves short-petioled, opposite, and subalternate, lan- 
ceolar, obtuse, fine veined, hard and glossy. Panicles 
terminal, ultimate divisions often umbelliferous. 

A large timber tree, a native of the extensive forests of 
Chittagong, where it is called Kuree Jamb. It flowers in 
April ; the fruit which is eaten by boys, ripens about the 
beginning of the rains. 

35. E. glandulifera. R. 

Shrubby. Leaves broad-lanceolate, highly polished. 
PamcZes terminal, brachiate; ramifications simple and 



Myrtus. icosandria monogynia. 497 

umbelliferous. Calyx five-toolhed, and with tlie germs 
and pedicells glandular, 
A native of Sumatra. 

36. E. macrocarpa. R. 

Leaves subsessile, lanceolate, acuminate, base narrow- 
cordate. Peduncles terminal, few-flowered. Berries sphe- 
rical, of the size of a large orange, crowned with the four- 
lohed permanent calyx. 

Chalta-jarab, the vernacular name in Chittagong, where 
it is indi;;enous in the forests amongst the timber trees. 
Flowering in April, and the immensely large fruit, resem- 
bling that of the Chalta, (Dillenia indica now called 
speciosa,) which is eaten by the natives, ripens in August 
and September. 

37. E. corymhosa. R. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, entire, smooth. Corymbs iex- 
minal, decompound. Calyx with large round divisions. 
Berries globular. 

A native of the Moluccas. 



MYRTUS. Schreh.gen. n. 844. 

Calyx five-cleft ; petals five. Berry inferior, from two 
to five-celled, with a few gibbous seeds in each. 

l.M. communis. Willd. 2, ^Q7. 

Flowers sub-solitary. Livolucre two-leaved. 

Arab. Isbor. 

Hind. Belatee mendee. 

Common in gardens, it flowers during the cold season. 
I am not certain that this species is found indigenous 
in any part of India. 

K k k 



498 icosANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Fcetidia. 

2. M. tomentosa. Willd 2. 960. 

Shrubby. Leaves short-petioled, oblong, three-nerved, 
hoary underneath. Peduncles axillary, one flowered. 
Bractes two at the bottom of the germ. Berry oval, cells 
uncertain ; seeds very numerous. 

3. M. canescens. Lour. Cochin Ch. 381. 

A rbor sinensis, &c. Pluk am. p. 21 . t. 372./. ] . is good. 
A native of the Island of Pulo Penang, as well as of 
China, Cochin China, &c. 



EUCALYPTUS. L'Herit. 
Calyx permanent truncated, before fllowering covered 
with an entire deciduous lid. Corol none. Capsule in- 
ferior, four-celled, opening at top, many-seeded. 

E, moluccana. R. 

Lid conical, shorter than the calyx. Panicles lateral, 
composed of peduncled heads, of six or seven flowers. 
Leaves alternate, petioled, lanceolate, entire, firm and 
polished. 

A native of the Molucca Islands, differing from all 
the species described by Dr. Smith in the Sdvol.ofthe 
Transactions of the Linncean Society., in having lateral 
panicles, composed of heads of six or seven sessile 
flowers. 



FCETIBIA. Juss. 

Calyx superior, four-parted. Corol. Drupe turbinate. 
Nut ligneous, four-celled. Seeds one or two. 

F. mauritiana. Willd. 2. 980. Lamarck. Juss. hic 
Found by Colonel Hardwicke indigenous on the Mau- 



Amygdalus, icosandria monogynia. 499 

ritius, in seed in the month of July. He says it is a tall, 
stout tree. 

Stem smooth and straight, thirty feet without branches. 
Branches diverging. The baik very tenacious, thick, en- 
tire; surface whitish, red within, bitter and astringent. 
The wood-cutters strip young shoots of the bark to bun- 
dle up their wood. Leaves about the ends of the branches 
on all sides, crowded, lanceolar, entire, smooth, with 
mid-rib red, sessile. 



PUNIC A. Schreh. gen. n. 847. 

Calyx five-cleft. Petals five. Pome inferior, many- 
celled, many-seeded. 

P. granatum. Willd. 2. 981. Asiat. Res. xi. '175. 

Arboreous. Leaves lanceolate. 

Arab. Rana, or Ruraan. 

Pers. Anar. 

Hind. Darim, also Anar. 

Sung. Darimba. 

Beng. Dah'm, or Daritn. 

Gool-anar is the Hindee name of the double flowered 
variety ; both are common in gardens throughout India. 

A decoction of the bark of the root, has been found a 
sovereign remedy for the Tfsnia, or Tape-worm, For the 
knowledge of this valuable discovery, we are indebted to 
Mr. Alexander Colvin, and Mr. Home of Calcutta. See 
Dr. Fleming's Account thereof in the 11th vol. of the 
Asiat. Res. above quoted. 



AMYGDALUS. Schreh. gen. n. 848. 

Calyx five clett. Petals five. Drupe superior, having 
a shell perforated with pores. 

K k k 2 



500 ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. PrUHUS. 

1. A. persica. Willd. 2. 982. 

All the serratures of the leaves acute. Flowers sessile, 
and solitary. 

Arab. TufFa-parsee. 

Pers. Shooft-aloo, 

Chin. To is the name of the common peach, and pin- 
to of the flat peach. 

Several varieties from China and Persia have been in- 
troduced into the gardens of India. The most uncom- 
mon is the flat peach from China, its fruit is vertically- 
compressed, like a turnip. In Bengal they blossom in 
February and the fruit ripens in May. 

2. A. communis. Willd. 2. 982. 

Lower serratures of the leaves glandular. Flowers ses- 
sile and- in pairs. 

Arab, and Hind. Bwdam. 

Common in Persia and Arabia I therefore conclude it 
is a native of those countries. It does not succeed in In- 
dia, requiring much nursing to keep it alive. 

3. A. cor dif alia. R. 

Leaves cordate, acuminate, gland-serrulate. Flowers 
in pairs, peduncled. Nut hairy. 

A native of China, and now common in gardens about 
Calcutta, where it growls to be a large very ramous tree, 
and is cultivated for its small, yellow, succulent, acid 
fruit, of which tarts are often made. Flowering time in 
Bengal the cool season, the fruit ripens in the hot season. 



^ PRUNUS, Schreb. gen. n. 849. 
Calyx five-cleft. Petals five. Drupe superior, with the 
nut having prominent sutures. 



PrunUS. ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 501 

1. P. cerasus. Willd. 2. 991. 

Umbels sub-pedunclcd. Zeaves ovate-lanceolate, smooth, 
folded too;ether. 

Arab. Kerasya, or Jerasya. 

Pers. Aloo-baloo. 

A native of Persia, &c. 

2. P. armeniaca. Willd. 2. 989. 

Flowers sessile. Leaves subcordate. 

Hind. Klioo-banee. 

Arab. Biu-kook, also Tuffa-urmena. 

Pers. Mishraisli. 

A native of China, as well as the west of Asia. 

3. P. silvatica. R. 

Peduncles short, few-flowered. Leaves oblong, cuspi- 
date, finely-serrate, polished, havini^ two glands at the 
base. Bractes ovate, sessile, pectinato-serrate. 

Primus, Hardwicke in Asiat. Res. 6. 362. 

Found wild by Colonel Hardwicke, and afterwards by 
Mr. Francis Pierard ; a tree of considerable size on the 
mountains north of Hurdwar. 

4. P. trifolia. R. 

Unarmed. Peduncles tevn. Leaves oblong, very fine- 
ly gland serrate, smooth, in the bud equitant. Drupes 
cordate. 

Chin. Hong-sum-li. 

This elegant very ramous bushy shrub has been re- 
ceived from China, into our gardens in Bengal, where it 
blossoms in February, immediately after which the luxu- 
riant foliage expands, and the fruit, which is about the 
size of the common plum, and nearly as palatable, ripens 
in May and June. 

Trunk in our young cultivated trees, or rather shrubs, 
very short, soon dividing into numerous branches and 



602 icosANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Alangium. 

branchlets in all directions from diverging to erect. Bark 
on all smooth. Leaves alternate, in the bud equitant, pe- 
tioled, recurved, oblong, tapering equally at each end, ve- 
ry finely gland-serrate, considerably acuminate, smooth, 
from two to four inches long, and from one to two 
broad, in Bengal deciduous about the close of the year. 
Stipules from the base of the petioles, ensiform, gland- 
ciliate. Flowers very numerous, rather small, and white, 
short peduncled, regularly three from each bud, and 
there are generally two of those buds in each of the old 
axills, with a leaf-bearing one in the centre. Bractes, 
the scales of the bud, cordate, scariose, and nearly cadu- 
cous. Calyx, segments five, oblong ; margins glandular. 
Petals oval, short clawed, the length of the peduncles. 
Filaments about thirty, shorter than the petals. Germ 
ovate, one celled, containing two ovula attached to the 
same side of the cell. Style the length of the stamina. 
Stigma large. Drupe cordate, with an obtuse rising at 
the apex, the size of the common plum, and of the same 
purple colour, covered with a similar bloom, grooved on 
one side. Pulp in large quantity, of a pale reddish yellow. 
Seed single, conform to the nut. Integument single. 
Perisperm a thin covering on one side only. Embryo 
inverse. Cotyledons unequal, the small one doubled, 
and embraced by the larger, subequitant. 



ALANGIUM. Juss. 
Calyx from six to seven-toothed. Corol from six to 
seven-petalled. Germ inferior, one-celled, one-seeded, 
attachment superior. Drupe one- seeded. Embryo in- 
verse, furnished with a perisperm. 

A. hexapetalum. Willd. 2. 1174. 

Arboreous, with the branchlets sometimes ending in 



Lagerstroemia. icosandria monogynia. 5u3 

spines sometimes not. Leaves lanceolate. Corol from 
six to seven-petalled. 

Greevia salvifolia. Linn, suppl 409, 

Gieevia monlana. Kon. Mss. 

Angolam. Rheed. Mai 4. t. 17. and Kara-an^olam t. 
26 are, I strongly suspect, at most but varieties of the 
same species. 

Beng. Akar-kanta. 

A native of Coromandel, Malabar and Bengal. Ft flow- 
ers during the hot season. The germ has one cell, and 
contains a single ovula attached to the top of the cell. 
The embryo is inverse and furnished with a perisperm. 
The wood beautiful. 



LAGERSTROEMIA. Schreb. gen. n. 910. 

Calyx six-toothed. Petals six, inserted by claws, and 
curled. Germ from three to six-celled ; cells many-seed- 
ed, attachment central. Capsule superior, from three to 
six-celled, from three to six-valved. Seeds several, wing- 
ed. Embryo, with centripetal radicle, and little or no pe- 
risperm. 

1. L. grandiflora. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves opposite, oblong, with an enlarged 
cordate base. Panicles terminal, drooping. Stamina 
equal, longer than the corol. Calyx smooth. Capsules 
six or more-celled. Seeds filiform. 

A native of Chittagong, and the neighbouring districts. 
In the Botanic garden at Calcutta it was reared from 
seed in 1801 ; and when seven years old, the trees were 
large ; it blossoms during the dry season ; and the seeds 
ripen from April to June. 

Trunk perfectly erect and straight to the top of the 
trees. Bark smooth, ash-coloured. Branches subverti- 
cellate, the stout ligneous parts diverging, the very long. 



504 . icosANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Lagerstroemia, 

smooth, slender twigs drooping much from the weight of 
the leaves, and still more when in flower, or seed, by the 
additional weight of the flowers, &c. general height of the 
trefs when seven years old from twenty to forty feet. 
Leaves opposite, approximate, short-petioled, linear-ob- 
long, with a cordate, stem-clasping base, entire, of a firm 
consistence, smooth on both sides, with the lower side 
paler, from six to twelve inches long, and from three to 
five broad. Panicles terminal, drooping, sub-globu- 
lar. Flowers very large, from ten to forty in the panicle, 
wi h a rather offensive odour. Calyx divided about half 
way down, into six acute, smooth, thick, fleshy perma- 
nent segments. Petals six, oblong, obtuse ; margins curl- 
ed, considerably longer than the segments of the calyx. 
Filaments about eighty, equal, longer than the corol, 
Anlhtrs linear, incumbent. Germ superior, conic, six or 
more grooved, six or more celled, with innumerable ovu" 
la in each, attached to the large triangularly conic recepta- 
cle, rising from the bottom of the cells and longitudinal- 
ly to the inner edges of the partitions. The space gene- 
rally occupied by the axis being here empty. Style longer 
than the stamina, often serpentine. Stigma ovate, slightly 
divided into as many lobes as there are cells in the cap- 
sule. Capsule nearly round, of the size of a very small 
apple, with smooth, brittle, dark brown, rather thin cor- 
tex, surrounded with the permanent segments of the ca- 
lyx, six or more celled, six or more-valvcd, opening from 
the apex, partitions longitudinally attached to the mid- 
dle of the valves, and their inner margins to the inner 
part of the receptacles. Seeds numerous, very minute, 
linear-oblong, pedicelled, from their apex proceeds a 
long filiform process, or wing. Integument the smallness 
of the seed prevents me from determining whether there 
is more than one, it is rather hard w here the embryo is 
lodged, but both extremities are spongy. Perisperm 
none or very thin, and not to be distinguished from the 



Lagerstoeniia. icosandria monogynia. *505 

envelope. Embryo straight. Cotyledons cordate, oblong, 
grcendotted. Radicle subcylindric, poiated to the base 
of the seed. 



2. L. regijiaJVilld. 2. 117S. R. Corom.pl I. p. 4. t. 65. 
Arboreous. Leaves opposite, oblong. Stamina equal. 

Calyx variously grooved on the outside. Capsules six- 
celled. 

Arjuna. Asiat. Res. 4, p. 301. 

Beng. Jarool. 

Adamboe. Rheed. Mai. 4. t. 20 and 21. 

L. Flos. Regina. Retz. Obs. 5. p. 25. and I. p. 20. 

A native of Bengal, Malabar, &c. H. C. the seed rip- 
ens in August. It is a large timber tree, when in blos- 
som beautiful. At Rangoon the timber is used to make 
knees for ships. 

3. L. parvijlora. Willd. 2. 1179. R. Corom. pi. 1. p. 

48. t. m. 

Arboreous. Leaves opposite, oblong, doxvny under- 
neath. Peduncles from three to six-flowered. Stamina 
unequal. Capsule from three to four-celled. 

Teling. Chinangee. 

A native of various parts of India. It flowers during 
the hot season ; the seed ripens in August. 

4. L. indica. Willd. 2. 1178. 

Shrubby. Leaves nearly opposite, oval. Petals with 
long clawed and much curled. Stamina unequal. Cap- 
sules from live to six-celled. 

Hind. Telinga-china. 

Velaga globosa. Gcert.fruct. 2. 1. 133. p. 2. 

An exotic from China ; it flowers in the rainy season, 
but rarely ripens its seed here, 

Lll 



506 icosANDRiA MONOGYNiA. Somieratia. 



CHRYSOBALANUS. Schreb. gen. n. 850. 

Calyx five-cleft. Petals five. Style lateral. Drupe with 
a five furrowed, five-valved nut. 

C. racemosus. R. 

Leaves alternate, short-petioled, oblong, entire, smooth. 
Racemes axillary, simple, much shorter than the leaves. 
A native of the Moluccas. 



SONNERATIA. Schreb. gen. 71. 853. 
Calyx from four to six-parted, Corol six-petalled or 
more. Capsule superior, many-celled. Seeds numerous, 
nestling. 

1, S. acida. Willd. 2. 999, 
Petals six, narrow-lanceolate. 
Ehizophora caseolaris. Linn. syst. veg. 442. 
Mangium caseolare, Rumph. Amb. 3. t. 73, 
Pagapate, Sonnerat. it. nor. Guin. p. 16. 1. 10. and 11. 
Blatti, Rheed. Mai 3. t. 40. 

A native of the Delta of the Ganges ; flowering time 
the hot and rainy seasons. 

2. S, apetala. Buck. 

Branchlets pendulous. Calyx four-parted. Corot none. 
Stigma peltate. 

S. apetala. Syme's Embassy to Ava. 3, 312. 

Beng. Khoura, 

An elegant, pretty large tree, a native of the Delta of 
the Ganges. It flowers during the hot season. 



Ludia, ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 507 



LUDIA. Juss. 
Calyx many-parted. Corol none. Germ superior, one- 
superior, one-celled, many-seeded, attachment parietal. 
Berrrj few or many-seeded. Embryo centrifugal, and 
furnished with a perisjDerm. 

1. L. spinosa. R. 

Arboreous. Trunk and large branches armed with ra- 
mous spines. Leaves oblong, remotely obtuse-serrulate, 
smooth, three-nerved. 

A native of Sumatra ; from thence plants were sent by 
the late Dr. Charles Campbell in 1804, to the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta, where they began to blossom in May 
1812, and ripened their fruit in September. 

Compare with spina spinarnm. Rumph. Amb. 7. p. 30. 
1. 19. f. 1. I suspect they may be the same, and more so 
as his tree is a native of Java, and mine of Sumatra, 
neighbouring Islands. 

Trunk erect in trees eight years old, fully as thick as 
a man's leg and with the larger branches dreadfully 
armed with long, strong, straight, compound spines, as 
in Flacoutia cataphracta. Young shoots smooth and 
coloured, whole height of those young trees from fifteen 
to twenty feet. Leaves alternate, bifarious, short-pe- 
tioled, oblong, very remotely and obtusely serrulate, ob- 
tusely acuminate, having both sides smooth, and the one 
upper lucid, triple-nerved, from four to six inches long, 
and from two to three broad, while young beautifully 
coloured. Petioles short, channelled. Stipules minute, 
triangular. Racemes axillary, solitary, simple, shorter 
than the leaves, few-flowered. Flowers small ; pale 
yellow, pedicelled, many of them male hermaphrodite. 
Bractes small, and solitary, under the base of each pedi- 
cel, and some round the base of the raceme also. Flow- 

L1I2 



508 ICOSANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Ludia. 

ers about the size and appearance of those of the com- 
mon myrtle, many seem abortive, though all are herma- 
phrodite, and in those the filaments are longer and the 
anthers liL'hter-coloured. Calyx saucer-shaped; border 
t\\elve-paited ; six of which form an inner series, and 
are narrower, the whole permanent. Corol none. Filo' 
ments numerous, inserted on the disk or undiv'ided part 
of the calyx. Anthers ovate oblong. Germ superior, 
ovate, one celled ; ovula many, attached to three equidis- 
tant parietal receptacles. Style about as long as the 
stamina. Stigma three-lobed. Berry oblong, the size of 
an olive. Pulp of a soft fleshy consistence ; the taste of 
which IS somethiiig like a bad, sweet pear, though some- 
what better. 6'eec/s few, roundish-oval, umbilicus point- 
ed, attached as in the germ, and nestling in soft yellow 
pulp Integuments two, both membranaceous. Perisperni 
conform to the seed, amygdaline. Embryo as extended as 
the perisperm. Cotyledons round-cordate, three-nerved. 
Radicle oval, ceutriiugal. 

2. L.fcelida. R. 

Arboreous, unarmed. Leaves oblong-serrate, smooth. 
Racemes axillary, longer than the leaves, compound. 
Stigma four clelt. 

Somer-mera, the Malay name under which it was re- 
ceived from Amboyna into the Botanic garden at Cal- 
cutta, where it has bv^en for fourteen years, and for some 
jears past blossoms freely during the rains, but has not 
yet produced a single full-formed seed-vessel in Bengal. 
The trees are now about thirty feet high, with a perfectly 
straight trunk of a proportionate thickness, covered with 
smooth, olive-coloured bark. ^rancAes numerous, spread- 
ing: and dividing much, the whole forming a large, ovate, 
very dense crown. The scent of the tree when near it, is 
particularly fetid. 



Sesuvium. icosandria digynia. 509 



ICOSANDRIA DIGYNIA. 

CRATEGUS. Schreb. ge7i. n. 854. 
Calyx five-cleft. Carol five-petalled. Berry inferior, 
two seeded. 

1. C. crenulata. R. 

Shrubby, spinous. Leaves narrow elliptic, crenulate, 
polished. F/oM?ers terminal, sub-racemed, pentagynous. 
Berries oblate, open at top, exposing the five seeds. 

A native of iXepal ; in the Botanic garden at Calcutta 
in eight years it has grown to the height of six or eight 
feet, very ramous. It flowers during the hot season,- 
and the berries ripen in August. 

2. C. integrifolia. R. 

Procumbent, subspinous. Leaves obovate cuneate, en- 
tire, coriaceous, hairy underneath. F/oif;er^ axillary, so- 
litary. Calycine segments obtusely triangular and en- 
tire. 

Found by Colonel Hardwicke on the hills between 
Hurdwar and Sirinagur. See Asiat. Res. 6. p. 362 — 3. 



SESUVIUM. Schreb. gen. n. 856. 
Calyx or corol five-parted. Capsule superior, three- 
celled, circumcised, many-seeded. 

S- pcrtulacasfrum. Willd. 2. 1009. 
Cnthmus Indicus. Runiph. Amb. t. 7'2.f. 1. 
Teling. Wangaredookooroo. 

A native of the sand hills near the shores of India. 
In flo\\er and seed the whole year. 



olO ICOSANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. FijrUS. 



ICOSANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. 

MESPILUS. Schreb. gen. n. 857. 
Calyx five-cleft. Corol five-petalled. Germ inferior, 
five-celled ; cells two-seeded, attachment the Jjase of the 
axis. Berry few-seeded. Embryo erect, no perisperm. 

1. M. japonica. Banks. Icon. Kcempf. tab. 18. Willd. 2. 
1010. 

Arboreous. Leaves sessile, lanceolar, very acute, ser- 
rate, downy underneath ; panicles terminal, tomentose. 
Fruits obovate, villous. 

Chin. Loquat, 

From China it was introduced into Bengal where it is 
much cultivated on account of its excellent fruit, the 
beauty of the tree, and the exquisite fragrance of its flow- 
ers. In the Botanic garden at Calcutta it blossoms 
twice in the year, but bears fruit only once, viz. in Febru- 
ary and March. 

2. M, bengalensis. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves jfetioled, lanceolar, remotely serrate, 
hard, smooth and glossy except while very young. Pa- 
nicles terminal. Fruit obovate, from one to two-seeded. 

A large timber tree, a native of Chittagong. Flower- 
ing time December and January, the fruit, which is not 
eaten, ripens in June and July. 



PYRUS. Schreb. gen: n. 858. 
CaZyjc five cleft. Petals five. Pome inferior, five celled, 
many-seeded. 

1. P. communis. Willd. 2. 1016. 

Leaves ovale, serrate. Peduncles corymbcd. 



Pyrus. ICOSANDRIA' PENTAGYNIA. 511 

Arab. Umrood. 

Pers. Nush-patee. 

I have not been able to discover this tree in its native 
state in India, the following is the only pear, I have yet 
been able to find that has not been brought iVoni Europe. 

2. P. mains. Willd. 2. 1017. 

Leaves ovate-oblong, serrate, smooth, or villous. Um- 
bels simple, sessile. Claws of the petals shorter than the 
caiyx. Style smooth. 

Sung^ Seeba. • 

Arab. Tuffa. 

It is common all over the western parts of India, and 
Persia, and but very little improved by culture, conse- 
qiently the varieties are few. 

3. P. cydonia, Willd. 2. 1020. 

Leaves oval, hoary underneath, quite entire. Stipules 
oblong. Flowers solitary. 

Introduced from Europe, and from the Cape of Good 
Hope. 

4. P. chiiiensis. R. 

Leaves cordate, acuminate, finely serrulate, smooth. 
Stipules filiform. Corymbs peduncled. Pedicels longer 
than the peduncle, hairy, with scattered filiform bractes. 
Styles smooth. Fruit vertically compressed. 

Chin. Cha-li. 

Salli is the name by which the people about Calcutta 
know this tree. It blossoms at various seasons, but yields 
few fruits, and those of a very bad quality. 

5. P. indica. R. 

Leaves cordate and ovate, most acutely and finely ser- 
rulate, smooth. Stipules filiform, the length of the petioles. 
A small tree, a native of the little known, mountainous 



512 ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. JlOSa. 

districts east and north east of Silhet, while the phints 
are young the leaves are deeply lobaie, the fruit round 
and smooth, a little concave at the base, from one to 
two inches in diameter ; the taste is harsher than the 
common crab apple of Europe. 

6. P. tomentosa. R. 

Tender parts tomentose. Leaves oblong, obtuse, ob- 
tusely serrate; stipules scarcely any. 

This is the Quince tree ol Hindoostan, and most like- 
ly that which furnishes the Quince seed brou.ht from 
Muscat to Bengal for sale, w here they are much used for 
medical purposes under the name Beheeke beej. 



SPIRAEA. Schreb. gen. n. 862. 

Calyx five-cleft. Petals five. Capsules five, superior, 
many-seeded. 

S. corymhosa. R. 

Shrubby, erect. Leaves lanceolate, serrate. Corymbs 
terminal, globular. 

A native of China and of the mountains north of India, 
in the Botanic garden at Calcutta; it blossoms more or less 
the whole year, but most copiously during the hot and 
rainy season, but never ripens its seed. 



ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 

ROSA. Schreb. gen. n. 863. 

Calyx pitchered, five-cleft, fleshy, contracted in the 
neck. 

Seeds numerous, hispid, affixed to the interior side of 
the calyx. 



liosa. iCOSANDRIA POLYGYNlA. 513 

1. R. involucrata. R. 

Subscandent, armed with strong stipularj^, straight 
prickjes. -F/o?t;ers in subsessile fascicles. Bractesintorm. 
of a four or five leaved laciniate, inferior calyx. 

A native of Nepal and Bengal ; it flowers about the 
beginning of the warm w^eather in February ; its seed ri- 
pens in the rains. Stem and branches stout and ligneous, 
the latter often very long, subscandent, armed with strong, 
straight, stipulary prickles ; young shoots villous. Leaves 
pinnate ; common petiole villous, slightly armed, stem- 
clasping, base pinnatifid. Leaflets opposite, from five to 
eleven, oblong, serrate, villous underneath; the largest 
about an inch long, and half an inch broad. Flowers 
terminal, from one to many together, subsessile, large, 
pure white, sweetly fragrant. Bractes four or five, sur- 
rounding the base of the germ, singly they are lanceolate, 
acuminate, with the lower margins deeply laciniate, and 
villous. Calyx villous ; divisions entire. Corol single. 
Petals obcordate. Germ globular, villous. 

2. R. cenfifolia. Willd. 2. 1071. 

Germs ovate, with peduncles hispid. Stem hispid, 
and prickly. Petioles unarmed. 
Arab. Wurd. 
Pers. , Goal. 
Hind, and Beng. Gulab. 

3. R, chinensis. Willd. 2. 1078. 

Germs obovate. Stem with remote, large prickles. 
Peduncles hispid. Petioles almost unarmed. Leaflets 
about five, broad-lanceolate, serrate, having both sides 
smooth. Divisions of the calyx downy on the inside. 

Beng. Kanta, or Kath-Gulab. 

A native of China. Flowering time the cold sea- 
son. It agrees so well with Linnaeus's description of 

M m m 



514 ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. RoStt. 

Rosa Indica, as to induce me to thiuk they are the 
same, 

4. R. glandulifera. R. 

Germs oblong, shrubby, subscandent, armed. All the 
tender parts ciliate, m ith glutinous, headed glands. Leaf- 
lets from five to seven, ovate, doubly-serrate. Segments 
of the calyx sub-ensiform, finely pinuatilid. Flowers ter- 
minal in large coryrabiform panicles. 

Beng. Swet, or Sheooti gulab. 

Found in gardens throughout India, where it is com- 
monly called the white rose ; its flowers being double, fra- 
grant and white, like the white rosef/2. alba,) of Europe. 
"Where this plant is indigenous is uncertain, probably 
China, as I know it has been brought from thence to the 
Botanic garden at Calcutta. It blossoms all the year 
round ; but chiefly during the cold season. 

5. R. semperflorens. Willd. 2. 1078. 

Germ globular, smooth ; perfuwcZes hispid. Stems and 
petioles aculeate. Leaves quinate, pinnate ; leajlets lan- 
ceolate, serrate. Calycine segments, subentire, woolly 
on the inside. 

A small, very ramous species, a native of China. In 
Bengal it is in constant flower, but most profusely during 
the cool season. 

6. R. pubescens. R. 

Germs globular. All the tender parts tomentose, and 
glanduliferous. Segments of the calyx entire ; stems, 
branches and petioles armed. Leaflets seven, lanceolar, 
serrate. 

A native of the mountains north of Rohilcund. 

7. R. recurva. R. 

Sub-scandent, well armed, with strong recurved 



Rosa. ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 515 

prickles. Leaflets from five to nine, ovate-lanceolate, 
acutely serrate, smooth. Stipules subulate ; petioles arm- 
ed. 

This stout, straggling, recurved, powerfully armed 
shrub is a native of Nepal ; from thence it was sent by Dr. 
Buchanan to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where it has 
now been ten years and has not yet blossomed. Dr. Bu- 
chanan however ascertained the genus in Nepal, where it 
blossoms freely. 



8. R. diffusa. R. 

Stems and branches weak, diffuse, armed with strong, 
recurved prickles in stipulary pairs. Leaflets five, ovate- 
oblong, villous ; stipules pectinate. 

This distinct species is readily known by its weak, dif- 
fuse and procumbent, very long, almost simple branches, 
which often rest on the ground ; it is supposed to be a na- 
tive of China, as it was brought from Canton to the Bota- 
nic garden at Calcutta. 

9. R, microphylla. R. 

Sufiiuticose, armed with straight pairs of stipulary 
prickles only. Leaflets seven or nine, minute, oval, fine- 
ly and acutely serrulate ; stipules ensiform, entire. 

Chin. Hoi-tong-hong^. 

Introduced from Canton into the Botanic garden at 
Calcutta. 

10. R. triphylla. R. 

Scandent, armed. Leaves ternate ; leaflets lanceolate. 

From China this very extensive rambler was brought 
to the Botanic garden at Calcutta, previous to 1794, 
■where it thrives luxuriantly, and is known to the Chiue;5e 
gardeners in the garden by the name, Tsha-te-bay-Ja. 

M tn m 2 



516 ICOSANDRTA POLYGYNIA. Rubus, 

11. "R. inennis. R. 

Suffruticose, unarmed ; leaves ternate and quinate- 
pinnate ; leaflets lanceolate, serrate, smooth. 

Of this very elegant small plant we have two varieties 
from China : one with double white flowers, called by the 
Chinese, Po-niou-he-wong ; the other with double yellow 
flowers, Wong-mour-he-wong. 



RUBUS. Schrch. gen. n. 864. 
Calyx five-cleft. Petals five. Berry superior, com- 
pound grains one seeded. 

1. R. hexagynus. 

Shrubby, scandent, armed. Leaves simple, oblong 
and oblong-cordate, serrate. Panicles terminal. Flowers 
hexagynous ; petals linear, shorter than the calyx. 

Hera-Chora, the vernacular name in Silhet, where 
the plant is indigenous. It flowers about the end of the 
rains, and the seeds ripen in the cool season. 

Stem in full grown plants, as stout as a man's arm, with 
numerous, very long, climbing, round branches, and vil- 
lous branchlets, all armed with small recurved prickles ; 
when their apices rest on the ground, they strike root. 
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, simple, from oblong to 
ovate-cordate, serrulate, villous underneath ; rib and pe- 
tioles armed ; from three to five inches long and from one 
to two broad. Stipules slender, and often divided into 
filiform, villous segments. Panicles terminal, large and 
very ramous, villous. Flowers numerous, small, long- 
pedicelled, \\hite. Bractes solitary at all the divisions, 
from simply filiform to multifid, villous. Calycine seg- 
ments undivided, with the end subulate. Petals linear, and 
a little shorter than the calyx. Filaments numerous, in- 
serted on the calyx, and nearly the length of the petals. 
Anthers oval. Germ six, inserted in the centre of a con- 



RubuS. ICOSANDRTA POLYGYNIA. 517 

vex, very hairy, receptacle, one-celled, containing one 
ovula attached to the top of the cell. /5^?//e the length of 
the germ, permanent. Stigma simple. Seeds, rather, 
partial berries, for they are so, from one to six, generally 
three or four, distinct, obliquely ovate, smooth, red and 
succulent ; when dry wrinkled, almost chocolate-coloured. 
Integuments two, the exterior one sublucid ; the inner one 
membranaceous. Perisperm none. Embryo inverse, Coty- 
Jedons ovate, conform to the seed. Radicle superior. 

It ought to be compared with Dr. Smith's Rubits 
pyrifolius. To me it appears to differ from his figure and 
description, in the leaves being broader and cordate at 
the base ; in all the calycine segments being undivided, 
and lastly in the petals being only a little, say one-fourth, 
shorter than the calyx. 

2. R. gowree phul. R. 

Shrubby, armed with recurved prickles and terminal, 
subpanicled. Petals twice the length of the calyx. Rubous. 
Asiat. Res. 6, p. 364. 

A native of the Sewalik mountains, which bound 
Hindoostan on the north. 

A large, bushy, perennial plant, with very long spread- 
ing and recurved branches, and somewhat five-sided, 
succulent ; branchlets armed with many sharp recurved 
prickles, and a great quantity of long harsh diverging 
reddish-brown hair. 

Leaves scattered, ternate. Leaflets oval, serrate, downy 
and whitish underneath, from two to four inches long. 
Petioles round, armed and hairy like the branches. Sti- 
pules petiolary, subulate. Flowers axillary, and terminal, 
forming small corymbiform panicles, pretty large and 
white. Bractes subulate downy. Calyx downy, parti- 
cularly on the outside. Petals cuneiform-obovate, twice 
the length of the calyx, pure white. Stamens in a single 
series round the germ, and of nearly the same height. 



518 ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. RubuS. 

Introduced into the Botanic garden at Calcutta by- 
Col. Hardwicke, where plants grow most luxuriantly ; it 
blossoms during during the dry months of February and 
March, but the berries never ripen well, nor are they so 
palatable as Col. H. found them in their native soil on 
the Sewalik mountains. 

3. R. moluccanus. Willd. 2. 1086. 

Shrubby, prickly. Leaves simple, cordate-ovate, ser- 
rate, downy underneath. Panicles terminal, with axilla- 
ry umbellets, 

Rubus Moluccanus latifolius. Rumph. Amb. 5. p. t. 
47./. 2. 

A native of the Malay Archipelago. 

4. R. paniculatus. R. 

Shrubby and smooth. Prickles free. Leaves pinnate, 
quinate, ribbed, smooth, acutely serrate. Panicles ter- 
minal, segments of the calyx subulate ; petals round. 
A native of the Moluccas. In the Botanic garden at 
Calcutta, it blossoms and ripens its fruit, which is rather 
tasteless, during the rainy and cool seasons, indeed more 
or less the whole year. 

5. R. roscefolins. Smith, ic. ined. 3. 60. Willd. 2. 1080. 
Shrubby, erect, prickly. Leaves generally quinate, 

pinnate, green on both sides, doubly serrate, villous. 
Flowers solitary. 

A native of the Mauritius. In the Botanic garden at 
Calcutta, w here it has lately been introduced, it blossoms 
during the cold season. 

6. R. hirtus. R. 

Shrubby. Stem and petioles prickly, and very hirsute. 
Leaves ternate ; leaflets round-oval, serrate, villous. Pa- 



JRubuS. ICOSANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 519 

nicks terminal, composed of small umbels. Petals ob- 
lonpf, length of the calyx. 

A native of the mountains of the Peninsula of India. 
It flowers during the cold season in the Botanic Garden 
at Calcutta. 

7. R. racemosus. R. 

Shrubby. Stem and petioles prickly and villous. Leaves 
pinnate ; leaflets from five to seven, serrate, villous, ovate, 
lanceolate, the exterior ones often three-lobed. Racemes 
terminal. Petals as long as the calyx. 

A native of the mountains of Mysore. 

8. R. roscefloriis. R. 

Shrubby, erect, smooth, armed, as well as the petioles, 
with recurved prickles. Leaves pinnate; leaflets from 
seven to nine, elliptic ; serratures large and very sharp, 
hoary underneath. Comrybs terminal, hoary, sessile, 
shorter than the calyx. 

Found by Captain Hardwicke in the vicinity of Serina- 
gur. See Asiat. Res, 6. p. 364. 

9. R. albescens. R. 

Shrubby, long, scandent, or creeping, apices vivipar- 
ous ; armed with sharp, acute prickles, and clothed with 
a white bloom, which becomes brown by age. Leaves pin- 
nate; leaflets from five to seven, from cordate to ovate, 
oblong-serrate, hoary underneath. Stipules lanceolate. 
Flowers terminal. Petals round, red, shorter than the 
calyx. 

A native of the mountains of Malabar. In the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta it blossoms and ripens its bramble 
like fruit during the cool season. 

10. R. gracilis. R. 

Shrubby, slender, creeping, villous, armed, as well as 



520 icosANDRiA poLYGYNiA. Fvagaria. 

the petioles, ^vith recurved prickles. Leaves teniate, and 
quiiiate-pinnate ; leaflets from round cordate to oblong, 
doubly serrate, rugose. Stipules petiolary, lanceolate. 
Flowers axillary, solitary. Calyx twice the length of the 
spatnlate, crenulate petals. 

A native of Nepal. It flowers during the hot season 
in the Botanic garden at Calcutta. 



FRAG ARIA. Schreb. gen. ?i. 865. 

Calyx ten-cleft. Corol five-petalled.* Receptacle of 
the seeds ovate, succulent, and coloured like a berry. 

1. F. indica. R. 

Roots tuberous. Leaves from ternate to quinate, ser- 
rate, hairy. Peduncles opposite to the leaves of the run- 
ners, solitary, one-flowered. All the divisions of the 
calyx dentate-serrate, the inner five incurved over the 
fruit. 

It is a native of the banks of the Bruhmapootra, to the 
east and north-east of Bengal ; the fruit is perfectly in- 
sipid. It flowers during the cold season in the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta. 

2. F. malayana. R. 

Runners rooting at the joints. Leaves ternate; leaflets 
obovate, cuneate, dentate-serrate, a little hairy. Peduncles 
from the joints of the runners, simple, one-flowered. Ex- 
terior divisions of the calyx cuneate, and deeply (three) 
dentate ; inner lanceolate, entire and incurved over the 
fruit. 

A native of the tops of ihe mountains ofPulo Penang. 
In the Botanic garden in Bengal it is in flower and fruit 
the whole year ; and the last the berries w ere perfectly 
insipid. 



Temstroemia. polyandria monogynia. 5Sl 



COM ARUM. Schreh. gen. n. 869. 

Calyx teu-cleft. Petals five, smaller than the calyx. 
Receptacle (of the seed) roundish, spongy, villous, per- 
manent. Seeds naked, smooth. 

C. fiavum. Buck. 

Annual, with slender, short, dichotomous, villous 
branches. Leaves pinnate, quinate and ternate, with obo- 
vate, gashed, villous leaflets ; stipules lanceolate. 

A native of Nepal. It flowers about the beginning of the 
hot season in the Botanic garden at Calcutta. 



CLASS XIII. 

POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. 

TERNSTROEMIA. Schreb. gen. n. 872. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-leaved. Coro^ one-petalled, 
with a staminiferous tube, and five-parted border. Anthers 
turbinate, with biperforate apices. Germ from three to 
five-celled ; cells many-seeded; attachment interior. Ber^ 
ties superior, from three to five-celled, many seeded. 

1. T. serrata. R. 

Leaves alternate, lanceolate, serrate, acuminate. Pe- 
duncles in lateral fascicles, compound and decompound. 
Berries five-ceiled. 

Daloop the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is indi- 
genous, and grows to the size of the apple, or pear tree. 
It is used for fuel only. Flowering time April and May, 
the seed ripens in July and August. 

N n n 



522 poLYANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Temslroemia. 

Young shoots clothed with a little grey, meally pubes- 
cence. Leaves alternate, petioled, from lanceolate to ob- 
long, serrate, acuminate, smooth, except the veins on 
the under side ; from five to ten inches long, and from two 
to three and a half broad. Petioles about an inch long, 
channelled, meally. Stipules none. Peduncles lateral, 
many together, drooping, divided in a triternate man- 
ner, with one flower on each of the ultimate divisions. 
Flowers small, rosy. Bractes small, opposite at the di- 
visions. Calyx five-leaved, permanent. Leaflets unequal, 
oval. Corol one-petalled. Tube gibbous, sub-campanu- 
late. Border of five, nearly round cordate, spreading seg- 
ments, which are imbricated in the bud, as in the contortce. 
Filaments above fifty, shorter than the tube of the corol, 
and inserted in a double series into it near the base. 
Anthers turbinate, two-lobed, having a circular opening 
in each at the top, for the discharge of the pollen. Germ 
superior, ovate, five-celled, with numerous ovw/a in each, 
attached to as many vertical receptacles, which project into 
their cells from the axis. Style short, five-grooved, five- 
parted ; segments spreading and finally recurved. Stigmas 
transversely oval. Berries rather dry, nearly round ; the 
size of a small pea, smooth, five-celled. Seeds a few in 
each cell, intermixed with a little pulp, oval, brown. 

2, T. bilocularis. R. 

Branchlets, scaly ; leaves alternate, cuneate, lanceolate, 
acute, serrulate. Flowers in lateral fascicles below the 
leaves. Berries three-celled. 

A native of the Moluccas. 

Young shoots clothed with ferruginous subulate scales. 
Leaves short- petioled, cuneate, lanceolate, acute, finely 
serrulate, smooth, from four to six inches long and two 
broad. Flowers peduncled, and collected in little fascicles 
over the leafless branchlets, small. Calyx five-leaved ; 
leaflets roundish, imbricated, smooth, permanent. Corol 



Bassia. polyandria monogynia. 623 

one-petalled. Tube very short. Border of five obliquely 
obloDg, spreading, smooth segments. Filaments from 
twenty tothirtj^ short, broad, inserted at the bottom of the 
tube of the corol. Anthers elavate, opening, with two 
pores at top. Germ superior, ovate. Style short, three- 
cleft ; segments long and recurved. Stigmas simple. 
Berry three-celled, with numerous seeds in each cell, in- 
serted on large receptacles, rising from the axis. 



BASSIA. Schreh. gen. n. 805. 

Gen. Char. Calyx four or five-leaved. Coro/ one-pe- 
talled ; border 9ibout eight-cleft. Germ superior, from six 
to eight-celled, cells one-seeded, attachment interior. Em- 
bryo erect, no perisperm. 

]. B. longifolia. Willd.2. 842. G(srt. sem. 2. 104. 1. 104. 

Leaves lanceolate. Flowers crowded round the ends 
of the branchlets, drooping. Stamina from sixteen to 
tw enty, within the gibbous tube of the corol. 

Tarn. Illupi. 

A native of the peninsula of India, and found in planta- 
tions along the southern part of the coast of Coromandel. 
It flowers during the hot month of May, the seed ripens 
in August and September. 

Trunk pretty straight, and of considerable thickness, 
but short, in proportion to the size of the tree. Branches 
numerous, dividing much, and spreading far, forming a 
very extensive, shady head ; young shoots downy. Leaves 
crowded about the ends of the branchlets immediately 
above the peduncles, lanceolate, smooth, entire. Petioles 
from one to two inches long, round, slightly villous. Sti- 
pules ensiform, downy, very early caducous. Pedun- 
cles crowded round the base of the young villous shoots, 
twenty-three inches long, drooping, one-flowered. The 



524 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. BaSSia. 

bractes, if any, fall so soon, and are so small, that I have 
not detected them. Calyx of two opposite pairs of ovate 
oblonof, rather acute, somewhat villous leaflets. Corol 
Tube length of the calyx, gibbous, of a thick, firm, fleshy 
texture ; border eight-cleft ; segments sub-lanceolate. 
Filaments scarcely any. Anthers from sixteen to twenty, 
attached to the inside of the tube of the corol. Germ 
from six to eight-celled, with one seed in each, attached 
to the inner and under-side of the cell. Style twice as 
long as the corol. Stigma contracted, but evidently from 
six to eight-toothed. Berry oblong, the size of a large 
plum, villous, pulpy, when ripe yellowish, seldom more 
th'tin three-celled, and one is more common ; in the germ, 
always from six to eight. Seed solitary, oblong, of various 
shapes according to the number in the berries, attached 
to the lower half of the axis. Perisperm none. Embryo 
erect. Cotyledons conform to the seed. Radicle round- 
ish, inferior. 

I cannot account for Gaertner's large, five-celled, five- 
seeded berry, and suspect it belongs to some species which 
I have not yet met with, probably one Rumph's. Vidori- 
cum. See vol. i. of his Hor. Amb. page 173 a?id iii. 184. 

Economical uses of the Illupie tree. Bassia longifolia 
by the Rev. Dr. John of Tranquebar. 

1. The oil pressed from the ripe fruit is used by the na- 
tives as common lamp oil, who cannot afford to buy co- 
coanut oil. It is thicker, burns longer but dimmer, smokes 
a little, and gives some disagreeable smell which common 
people do not mind. 

2. It is a principal ingredient in making the country 
soap, and keeps therefore often the same price with the 
cocoanut oil. 

3. It is to the common people a substitute in place of 
ghee and cocoanut oil in their curries and other dishes. 
They make cakes of it, and many of the poor get their 
livelihood by selling these sweet oil cakes. 



Bassia. polyandria monogynia. 525 

4. It is used to heal different out-breakings, such as the 
itch, &c. 

5. The cake left after the oil is expressed, is used for 
washing the head, and is carried as a small article of 
trade to those countries where these trees are not to be 
found. 

6. The flowers which fall in May are gathered by the 
common people, dried in the sun, roasted and eaten as 
good food. They are also bruised and boiled to a jelly, 
and made into small balls, which they sell or exchange 
for tish, rice, and various sorts of small grain. 

7. The skin is taken off from the ripe fruit as well as the 
unripe, and after throwing away the unripe kernel, boiled 
to a jelly, and eaten with salt and capsicum. 

8. The leaves are boiled with water, and given as a 
medicine in several diseases to both men and cattle. 

9. The milk of the green fruit and of the tender bark 
is given also as a medicine. 

10. The bark is used to cure the itch. 

11. The wood is as hard and durable as Teak wood, 
but not so easily worked, nor is it procurable of such a 
length for beams and planks, except on clay-ground, 
where it grows to a considerable height, but in such 
a soil does not produce so many branches, and is less 
fruitful than when in a sandy or mixed soil, which is 
the best for them. In a sandy soil the branches shoot 
out nearer to the ground to a great circumference, and 
give more fruit. These trees require but a little atten- 
tion and watering during the first two or three years in 
the dry season, and being of so great use, we have here 
whole plantations of them on high and sandy grounds, 
where no other fruit tree will grow. 

12. We may still add, that the owls, squirrels, lizards, 
country dogs and jackals, take a share in the flowers, but 
the report is that the latter, especially in the time of blos- 
som, are apt to grow mad by too much feeding on them. 



526 POLYANDRIA RIONOGYNIA. BaSSia. 

2. B. laiifolia. Willd. 2842. Corom. pi. 1. No. 19. 

Leaves oblong. Calyx four-leaved. Stamina from 
twenty to thirty, within the gibbous tube of the corol. 

Madhaca, is the Sanscrit name. See Asiat. Res. 1. p. 
300. vol. ii. p. 301, a?id iv. p. 280. 

Mudhooka, Gwroodshpoo, Madhararaa, Voonaprwstha, 
Mwdhooshpootheela, Mwdhoo. 

Mahwa, Mwhooa, and M?<hoola of the Bengalese. 

Teling. Ipie. 

A middling sized tree, a native of the mountainous 
parts of the Circars and ofBengal. Leaves deciduous dur- 
ing the cold season, and appearing again with the llowers 
in March and April. The seed ripens in July and August. 

Trunk straight but short, covered with smooth, ash- 
coloured bark. Branches very numerous^ the lower ones 
spreading horizontally. Leaves alternate, petioled, crowd- 
ed about the extremities of the branches, oblong, rigid, 
smooth above, somewhat whitish below, from four to 
eight inches long, and from two to four broad. Peti- 
oles round, about an inch long. Stipules subulate, downy. 
Floivers numerous, crowded from the extremities of the 
branchletSjpeduncled, at all times bowing, viz. bent with 
the mouth of the flower directly to the ground. Pedun- 
cles about an inch long, round, thickened, covered with 
rust-coloured down. Calyx as in the genus. Corol tube 
as in the genus. Border from seven to fourteen-parted. 
Germ ovate, hairy, from six to eight-celled, with one seed 
in each, attached to the upper end of the large axis. Ber- 
ry, the size of a small apple. Seeds from one to four, ve- 
ry rarely more. Embryo erect, and without perisperm. 

This is a very useful tree. The w ood is hard, very 
strong, and proper for naves of wheel carriages, &c. 

The flowers are eaten raw by the natives of the moun- 
tainous parts of the Circars, and by jackals. They have a 
sweet spirituous taste. An ardent spirit is distilled from 
them by the hill people, which is strong and intoxicating. 



Diospyrifs. polyandria monogynia. 527 

The seeds yield a large quantity of oil by expression ; 
but it is thick, of a quality inferior to castor oil, and used 
only by the poorer people to burn. Large plantations of 
B. longifolia are to be found about Tranquebar, Karikal, 
Nagur and Nagapatam ; but the proprietors do uotlind 
them answer their expectations. 

On the apices of the flowers, before they open, there is 
frequently a drop of a whitish, soft, tasteless resin to be 
found. 

3. B. huiyracea. Roxh. in Asiat. Res. 8. 477. 

Leaves obovate. Calyx five-leaved. Stamina from 
thirty to forty crowning the subcylindric tube of the corol. 

Frelwa or Phuhvara, of the natives of the Almora 
hills, where the tree is indigenous. Flowering time the 
month of January ; the seed ripens in August. For a 
full account of this valuable species, see the volume of 
the Asiatic Researches above quoted. 



DIOSPYRUS. Schreb.gen. n. 1598. 

Gen. Char. Polygamous. Hermaphrodite. Ca- 
lyx and corol four, rarely five-cleft. Stamina varying in 
every species, and often abortive. Germ superior, many- 
celled, cells one-seeded, attachment superior. Styles 
three or four, rarely five, or one and variously divided. 
Berry from one to twelve-seeded. Embryo inverse, and 
furnished with a peri sperm. 

Male in general on a different tree. Calyx and 
corol as in the hermaphrodite, but with stamina more nu- 
merous, and frequently with twin-anthers. 

1. Diospyrus. Kaki. Suppl p. 439. Willd. 4. 1110. 

Leaves bifarious, ovate-cordate, downy. Male pedun- 
cles three-flowered. Stamina about twenty ; hermaphro- 
dite solitary, octandrous. Style four-clefr. Stigmas bifid. 



528 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Dlospi/rUS^ 

Kaki. Kempf. amoen. p. 805. 6. 7. 

The Chinese gardeners employed in the Botanic gar- 
den at Calcutta call it Chin. 

A native of China, and from thence introduced into 
the Botanic garden at Calcutta, by the late Col. Kyd, 
where it blossoms in March. 

In twelve years they have only grown to be from 
twelve to fifteen feet high, withbut few sub-erect branches. 
The bark is pretty smooth, but of a dark brown colour, 
that of the young shoots downy. 

Leaves alternate, short-petioled, cordate, more or less 
acuminate, entire, very downy on both sides, particu- 
larly while young ; from, two to five inches long, and from 
one to four broad. Stipules none. 

Abortive Hermaphrodite, or rather male flowers 
small, yellow, sometimes on the same, sometimes on a dif- 
ferent tree. Peduncles axillary, and from the base of 
the young shoots, recurved, short, villous, from one to 
three or more-flowered. jSracfes small, caducous. Ca- 
lyx four-cleft ; divisions ovate, half the length of the co- 
rol. Corol urceolate ; mouth four-cleft ; divisions con- 
torted, sub-orbicular, emarginate, becoming revolute soon 
after expansion. Filaments from sixteen to twenty- 
four, or even more, very short, inserted sometimes by 
hairs, sometimes singly round the bottom of the tube of 
the corol. Anthers sagittate, hid in the tube of the corol. 
Pistil none, or in some trees a small, conical villous 
gland. 

Fertile Hermaphrodite flowers solitary, on short 
drooping peduncles. Calyx and corol as in the abortive 
hermaphrodite, but larger. Fitomew^s generally eight, short, 
inserted into the bottom of the tube of the corol. Anthers 
sagittate, with the barbs bearded. Germ superior, coni- 
cal, smooth, eight-celled, attached to the top of the axis. 
Style four-cleft. Stigmas two-lobed. Berry nearly round, of 
the size of a small orange, when ripe yellow, smooth, and 



Diospyrus. polyandria monogynia. 629 

abounding in edible yellow, fleshy pulp, covered with a 
firm but soft skin, eight-celled. Seeds one in each cell, 
when all come to perfection, which is uncommon, from 
semi-orbicular to linear-oblong, compressed, attached 
from the apex to the top of a soft central receptacle. 
Integuments single, firm, pretty thick, brown, polished, 
two-valved, with a slender, lighter coloured groove run- 
ning down the back, or convex edge. Perisperm con- 
form to the seed, cartilaginous, pearl-coloured. Embryo 
inverse, half the length of the perisperm. Cotyledons 
two, ovate-oblong. Radicle subcylindric; straight, su- 
perior, with its apex close to the umbilicus. 

This tree is now pretty common about Calcutta, and 
I find it is not only a native of Japan but of China, and 
the mountains of Nepal, to the northward of Bengal. 
The fruit is tolerably pleasant, though by no means equal 
to a good apple, but what is worse, the trees about Cal- 
cutta are uncommonly unproductive. 

1. D. Ebenum. K'un. in. Suppl. pi. 440. 

Leaves short-petioled, alternate, bifarious, oblong, en- 
tire, polished. Male Flowers sub-racen.ed, with about 
twenty anthers ; Hermaphrodite solitary, octandrous. 
Style single. Stigma four-cleft. 

D. Ebenum. Suppl. p. 440. 

Hebenaster. Rump. Amb. vol. 3. p. 13. t. 6. appears 
to be the same. 

2. D. Ebenaster. Willd. 4. 1109. 

This species is a tree of considerable magnitude, a 
native of Ceylon. There are many young trees in this 
garden, they grow slowly, and flower during the hot sea- 
son, but have not yet produced Iruit. 

Leaves short-petioled, bifarious, alternate, oblong, en- 
tire, of a firm texture, and smooth on both sides ; from 
two to four inches long. Male Flowers on a separate 

Goo 



530 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. DiospyrUS. 

tree. Peduncles axillary, drooping, many-flowered. Ca- 
lyx funnel-shaped: tube a little bellied, and considera- 
bly longer than the calyx. Border four-parted. Fila- 
ments, number uncertain, inserted into the very base of 
the tube of the corol ; some are simple, others two, three, 
or even four-cleft. Anthers generally about twenty, that 
is, one on each division of the filaments. 

Female Hermaphrodite Flowers axillary, sub- 
sessile. Calyx beneath, four-parted, with a callous, elevat- 
ed, four-lobed, permanent, marginal ring round its mouth, 
inside villous. Corol; tube cylindric, about as long as 
the divisions of the calyx. Border four-parted. Fila- 
ments eight, very short. Anthers small, sterile. Germ 
conical. Style, shorter than the tube of the corol. Stigma 
four-parted. Berry nearly globular, succulent, when ripe, 
yellow, and about the size of a large cherry, resting on 
the permanent, reflexed calyx; cells, eight is the natu- 
ral number. Seed, one in each cell semi-ovate, thin on 
the inner edge, of a light brown colour, and smooth, 
united at the apex to the central receptacle. 

There are many species of this extensive genus, which 
yield a hard, black wood. I mean, pure intensely black 
(not variegated,) to all of which we give the general ap- 
pellation Ebony; my D. Melanoxylon is one. The spe- 
cies I am now describing, a second. Ebenus, Rumph. 
Amb. vol. 3. p. 1. t. 1, seems a third. From all these 
I know that of the Mauritius differs essentially, by the 
entire fruit, with ripe seed, just received from that Island, 
and now before me. The mountains of Bengal, Bootan, 
and Nepal produce at least another very distinct species, 
viz. my tonientosum, several young trees of which are now 
in this garden. 

3. D. melanoxylon. Willd. 4.1109. Corom.pl.l.N.AQ. 

Leaves sub-opposite, oval and oblong, obtuse, villous. 

Male Peduncles from three to six-flowered. Herma- 



Diospyrus. polyandria monogynia. 531 

PiiRODiTE, solitary, sub-sessile with calyx and corol five - 
cleft. StTjles three or four. Berry with as many as eight 
seeds. 

Tumhalli of the Tamuls. 

Tindoo of the Hindoos. 

Coromandel Ebony-tree. 

Tiimida of the Telingas. 

The Ebony tree is a native of most woody mountainous 
countries in India, viz. Ceylon, Malabar, Coromandel, 
Orissa, &c. It grows to be very large, particularly the 
male tree; the wood of this sort is also more esteemed. 
Leaves deciduous in the cold season ; the new ones ap- 
pear with the flowers in April and May. 

Trunk tolerably straight in large trees, from twenty 
to twenty-five feet to the branches, and about eight or 
ten in circumference. Bark scabrous, or deeply crack- 
ed, somewhat spongy, colour a mixture of grey and black, 
in irregular strata. Branches very irregular, numerous, 
rigid, forming a large spreading, shady head ; young shoots 
very downy. Leaves nearly opposite, shor*-petioled, ob- 
long, entire, obtuse, when young very downy, when old 
pretty smooth ; about four inches long, and one and a 
half broad. Stipules none. 

Male Peduncles axillary, single, short, bearing three 
or four small whitish flowers, supported by short bowing 
pedicels. Bractes a small one at the insertion of each 
pedicel, and one or two, still smaller pressing the calyx. 
Calyx and corol as in the genus. Filaments generally 
twelve or thirteen, short, inserted into a receptacle. 
Anthers linear, erect. Pistil none. 

Hermaphrodite Flowers rather larger-than the 
male, axillary, single, nearly sessile. Bractes, a small one 
pressing the calyx. Calyx always five-cleft, downy. Co- 
rol five-cleft. Filaments about ten, short, inserted into a 
receptacle ])etween the germ and flower. Anthers small, 
seemingly sterile. Styles three, nearly erect; stigma 

O 2 



532 FOLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. DiospyrUS. 

bifid. Berry round, of the size of a small apple, yellow, 
pulpy. Seeds as many as eight, immersed in the pulp, 
kidney-shaped, sharp on the inner straight edge. 

The black part of the wood of this tree is too well 
known to require any description in this place. It is 
only the centre of large trees that is black and valua- 
ble ; which part is more or less in quantity, according 
to the age of the tree. The outside wood is white and 
soft, which time and insects soon destroy, leaving the 
black untouched. The ripe fruit is eaten by the natives ; 
it has an astringent taste, and is not very palatable. The 
bark is also astringent. Powdered and mixed with pep- 
per, it is given for the dysentery by the native doctors. 

4. D. tomentosa. Roxb. 

Dicecous, all the tender parts very downy. Leaves 
opposite, and alternate, oval, entire. Male Peduncles 
three-flowered. Calyx and corol gibbous, four- toothed. 
Stamens twelve, on a receptacle. Female solitary, vAih 
the calyx and corol five-parted; berry as far as five seeded. 

Kakindoo, the Sanscrit name. 

Beng. Kyou. 

A native of the northern parts of Bengal, where it 
grows to be a tree of great size ; the wood is black, hard, 
and heavy ; in short the Eljony of that country. In a 
garden at Allipore, formerly belonging to Mr. Hastings, 
are some of the oldest trees about Calcutta. They may 
be about thirty years old. The trunk and whole tree 
very erect, tall and slender, not unlike the form of the 
common Cypress. The leaves are completely deciduous 
during the cold season, and appear again with the 
flowers in April. 

Trunk of the trees just mentioned, erect, though not 
perfectly straight, with deeply cracked, spongy bark. 
Leaves sub-opposite and alternate, petioled, oval, en- 
tire, very downy while young, particularly underneath; 



Diospyrus. polyandria monogynia. 533 

from four to six inches long, and from two to three 
broad. Petioles short, very downy. 

Male Peduncles axillary or round the base of the 
young downy shoots, round, recurved, very downy, 
three-flowered. Flowers small, whitish. Bractes small, 
covered with much ferruginous down. Calyx gibbous, 
very downy, four-toothed. Corol ; tube gibbous, downy. 
Border of four cordate, downy, contorted divisions. 
Stamens about twelve, inserted on a receptacle in the 
centre of the corol, and shorter than its tube. 

Female Peduncles axillary, solitary, very short, 
one flowered. Calyx five-cleft, downy on the outside, 
and hairy on the inside, divisions triangular, with waved 
reflexed margins. Corol; tube short, cylindric, hairy; 
mouth five-parted. Stamens none. Germ round, hairy, 
five-celled, with one ovula in each. Styles two. Berry 
ovate, as large as a pigeon's e^g, covered with a smooth, 
hard bark, which becomes yellow when ripe, and is 
filled with a soft yellow, edible pulp. Seeds as far as 
five, when all come to perfection. 

5. D. glutinosa. Konig. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, smooth. Male Peduncles 
from three to four-flowered, with about twenty filaments, 
and forty anthers. Hermaphrodite solitary, with from 
one to four. Styles four. 

Embryopteris glutenifera. Willd. 4. p. 836. R. Co- 
rom. pi. 1. N. 70. and I suspect Embryopteris pere- 
grina. Goert. Sem. 1. 145. t. 29 to be the same, and 
that by some mistake or accident, the fruit, &c. have 
been inverted. 

Tmdooka, the Sanscrit name. 

Hind, and Beng. Gaub. 

Teling. Tumika. 

Panitsjika-marum. Rheed. Mai. 3. t. 41. 

A middle sized tree, growing in the moist coo vallies, 



534 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. DwspyrUH. 

amongst the mountains in the Circars. Leaves not deci- 
duous. Flowering time, March and April. 

Trunk erect, straight, middle sized. Bark pretty smooth, 
of a dark blackish rust colour. Branches spreading, 
scattered; young shoots smooth. Leaves alternate, short- 
petioled, bifarious, linear-oblong, pointed, smooth, firm, 
shining; when young soft and red, six inches long and 
•two broad. Stipules a single variegated one which bursts 
and falls when the leaf begins to expand. 

Male Peduncles axillary, single, bowing, bearing 
three four or more small white flowers. Bractes, a small 
deciduous one, below each pedicel. Calyx and coiol as 
in the genus. Filaments about twenty, bifid at the point. 
Anthers about forty, linear, erect. 

Hermaphrodite Peduncles axillary, single, un- 
divided, bearing one white flower, which is considerably 
larger than the male. Calyx and corol as in the genus. 
Filaments one, two, three, or four, small, short. Anthers 
linear, small, sterile. Germ globular, eight-celled, with 
one ovula in each, attached to the top of the axis. Styles 
four, spreading. Stigmas branched, generally three-cleft. 
Berry globular, as large as a middle-sized apple, pulpy, 
rusty, yellow when ripe and covered with a rust colour- 
ed farina. Seeds generally eight, immersed in pulp, re- 
niform, straight, thin at the edge. The wood of this tree 
is but of an indifferent quality, and not much used. 

The ripe fmit is eaten by the natives, but I cannot 
say it is palatable ; it is strongly astringent. 

Sir William Jones writes me from Calcutta on the 29th 
December 1791, that the name by which this tree is ge- 
nerally known in Bengal is Gaub, (in Sanscrit it is call- 
ed Tindooka,) and that the astringent viscid mucus of the 
fruit, is used all over that country, for paying the bot- 
tom of boats. The unripe fruits contain a very large 
proportion of Tannin. An infusion is employed to steep 
fishing nets in, to make them more durable, and proba- 
bly adds to their strength. 



Diospyrus. polyandria monogynia. 685 

6. D. sapota. Roxb. 

Leaves bif'arious, oblong^, entire, obtuse, polished. Male 
Peduncles many-flowered, with about sixteen hairy an- 
th*ers, on eight or ten hairy filaments. Hermaphrodite 
solitary, w ith about the same number of filaments and an- 
thers. Berry globular, the size of a large orange, with a 
few irregular-shaped seeds, 

Sapotte-nigra, Sonnerat it. nov. Guin. p. 45. 1. 14. 15. 
and 16. 

A. native of the Mauritius, and from thence introduc- 
ed by the late Hyder Ally, into his garden at Seringa- 
patam; from thence in 1804, Dr. Berry of Madras sent 
Dr. R. good specimens, and the entire ripe fruit. Since 
that time the tree has been introdticed from the Mauri- 
tius into the Botanic garden at Calcutta, where it grows 
most luxuriantly and blossoms in the hot season, but has 
not yet perfected its fruit in Bengal. 

7. D. ramiflora. Roxb. 

Arboreous. Leaves lanceolate, glossy ; hermaphrodite 
and male flowers in fascicles from the large w^oody 
branches. Calyx and coroZ from five to six-parted. Style 
from five to six-cleft. Berry with ten or twenty seeds. 

Oore-gaub, also goolul of the natives of the eastern 
frontier of Bengal, where the tree grows wild, and to a 
great size, and supplies the natives with very strong, hard 
w ood. A single hermaphrodite tree only of this species 
grows in the Botanic garden at. Calcutta. It is about 
twenty years old, and was brought from the hills immedi- 
ately east of Tippera. Flowering time, the end of March 
and April ; and the fruit, which is as large as an orange, 
takes about twelve months to ripen. 

Trunk straight. Branches, numerous, spreading; 
branchlets alternate, bifarious. Bark of the old woody 
parts smooth, of a dark olive brown, that of the young parts 
smooth and green. Height of the individual tree in this 



536 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. DlOSpyVUS. 

p-arden about sixteen feet; on the mountains of Tippera, 
Silhet, &c. where indigenous, they grow to a great size; 
but it is evidently a tree of very slow growth, as are 
most, if not the whole of the genus. Leaves alternate, 
bifarious, short-petioled, lanceolate, acute, entire, of a 
firm texture, and deep smooth shining green on both 
sides, from six to ten inches long, and about two or 
three broad. Flowers collected in small, subsessile fasci- 
cles, over the thick woody branches, the hermaphrodite 
ones on one tree, and the male ones on another. The 
short, thick, scaly peduncles and calyx are clothed with 
much dark, olive-coloured down; the corol white and 
smooth. Calyx five or six-toothed, half the length of the 
tube of the corol. Corol one-petalled ; tube somewhat 
gibbous, margin five or six-parted; divisions contorted, 
sub-reniform, at first spreading then revolute. Filaments, 
ten or twelve, inserted into the base of the tube of the 
corol. Anthers sub-sagittate, small, and containing little 
pollen, whence I conclude there is a male tree, which I 
have not yet seen. Germ in the hermaphrodite flowers 
ovate, smooth. Style short' Stigmas five or six, thick- 
ening, expanding. Berry globulaV,^ large apple, slight- 
ly scabrous, resting on the very thick enlarged calyx, 
replete with yellowish edible pulp. Seeds ten or twelve, 
oblong, thin on the inner edge where they are united to 
the central receptacle, 

8. D. racemosa. Roxb. 

Leaves from oblong to lanceolar, obtuse, glossy. Both 
male and hermaphrodite flowers on axillary, comose 
racemes, the former with twenty or thirty stamina, the 
latter with twelve or sixteen ; germ four-celled. Style, 
none; stigma four-cleft. Berries round, smooth, with 
as many as four seeds. 

Goolul, the vernacular name in Silhet. 

A middling sized tree, a native of the mountainous 



Diospyrus. polyatsdria monogynia. 537 

countries east of Bengal, where it blossoms in April ; the 
fruit ripens in November, and is eaten by the natives. 



9. D. lance(Gfolia R. 

Leaves short-petioled, lanceolate, and polished. Flow- 
ers sessile ; the male flowers crowded in axillary heads ; 
the hermaphrodite solitary. 

Goohd the vernacular name in Silhet, where it grows 
to be a pretty large tree, and furnishes the natives with 
hard durable timber, for the construction of their habita- 
tions, &c. Flowering time in April; the fruit is edible. 

Leaves alternate, bifarious, short-petioled, lanceolate, 
entire, lucid ; texture particularly hard ; from four to six 
inches long, and from one to two broad. 

Male Flowers sessile, and crowded together in the 
axills of the present leaves as well as in those of last year ; 
it is the only species I have yet met with that has sessile 
flowers. Calyx downy, four- toothed. Corol with gib- 
bous tube and imbricated four-parted border. Filaments 
about sixteen, short, inserted into the receptacles. An- 
thers linear. 

Hermaphrodite Flowers axillary, solitary, sessile, 
cernuous. Calyx downy, from four to five-toothed ; from 
the apex a keel runs dow n on the outside. Corol downy 
on the outside. Tube gibbous. Border from four to five- 
parted; segments cordate, imbricated in the bud. Filaments 
from eight to ten, short, inserted on the base of the tube of 
the corol. Anthers linear. Germ hairy, ovate, torulose, 
eight-celled, with one ovula in each attached to the top of 
the axis. Style scarcely any. Stigma \\ ith about as many 
short divisions as there are cells in the germ. 

10. D. sijlvatica. Willd. 4. 1108. R. Corom. R. 1. No. 47. 

Leaves from oval to oblong, smooth. Male peduncles 

many-flowered, with about eighteen single-anthered fila- 

ppp 



538 POLYATSTDRIA MONOGYNIA. DiospyVUS. 

ments ; female hermaphrodite, solitary, with an ample 
caljrx. Berry with as many as eight seeds. 

Tella-goda of the Telingas. 

A native of the Circars, where it blossoms during the 
hot season. 

11. D. montana. Willd. 4. 1110. R. Coroni.pl. 1. AT. 48. 
Armed. Leaves ovate-oblong, smooth. Male flowers 

numerous, with about eight filaments, and sixteen anthers; 
female hermaphrodite solitary, with only four sterile sta- 
mina, as many as eight seeds. 

Yerra-goda of the Telingas. 

A native of the Circar mountains ; it flowers during 
the hot season. 

12. D. chloroxylon. Willd. 4. 1112. R. Carom, pi 1. 
N. 49. 

Armed. Xearesoblong, downy underneath. Male flow- 
ers fascicled, with about twelve filaments and sixteen an- 
thers ; hermaphrodite solitary, w ith about eight single sta- 
mina ; styles four. Berry two or three-seeded. 

Nella-wool/mera of the Telingas. 

A native of the Circars; it flowers during the hot season. 

13. D. cordifolia. Willd. 4. 1111. R Corom.pl. 1. N. 50. 

Armed. Leaves linear cordate, downy. Male pedun- 
cles three-flov^ ered, with about eight filaments and sixteen 
anthers; hermaphrodite single, with twelve single stamina; 
styles four. Berry eight-seeded. 

Twmala ; the Sanscrit name. 

Teling. Kok wohmera. 

Beng. Bun-Gaub. 

Found over most parts of India, and with the whole 
of the other species blossoms during the hot season, that 
is, from the beginning of February to the end of May. 



Symplocos. polyandria monogynia. 539 

14. D. stricta. R. 

Trunk straight to the top of the tree. Leaves ovate- 
lanceolate. Male peduncles from three to six-flowered ; 
stamina sixteen on a convex receptacle. 

A tall slender conical tree with a trunk perfectly straight, 
as in the Firs:, to the very top ; a native of Tipperah ; it 
flowers in March. 

The female tree unknown. 

15. D. hracteata. R. 

Leaves oblong-, acute. Fertile flowers solitary and 
bracted: styles four. Berry with as many as eight seeds. 

A native of the Dooab ; the male tree has not been 
found. 



SYMPLOCOS. Schreh. gen. n. 1223. 
Gen. Char, Calyx superior, five-parted. Corol 
one-petalled, rotate, with the stamina inserted on its base. 
Germ semi-infera, three-celled; cells few-seeded; attach- 
ment to the upper end of the axis. Drupe inferior, thir- 
teen-cellcd. Seeds one or two. Embryo inverse, and fur- 
nished with a perisperm. 

1. S. racemosa. Roxb. 

Racemes axillary. Leaves oblong, smooth, serrulate. 

Sans. Sa.\uva, Lodhra. 

Beng. Lodh. 

A small tree of from twelve to twenty feet high, a 
native of Burdwan and Midnapore in Bengal. Flower- 
ing time the month of December ; the seed ripens in May. 

Compare this plant with Myrtus Retz. obs. 4. p. 26. 

Trunk about twenty inches in circumference. Bark 
somewhat rough, with a spongy, friable, exterior grey 
coat, inwardly of a firm, fleshy texture; when fresh, of 
a very pale yellowish colour and the taste mildly as- 

Ppp2 



540 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. SymploCOS. 

tringent. Leaves alternate, short-petioled, from ovate- 
oblong to broad-lanceolar; margins serrulate, both sides 
smooth, of a thick firm texture, from two to six inches 
long, and from one to one and a half broad. Stipules 
none. Racemes axillary and terminal, single and gener- 
ally simple, shorter than the leaves, many-flowered. 
Flowers solitary, approximate, small, short-peduncled ; 
colour a lively yellow. Bractes three to each flower, 
ovate, villous, one, viz. the largest under the pedicel, and 
two placed opposite at the base of the germ. Calyx 
superior, five-parted, permanent; segments broad-ovate 
or nearly round-obtuse. Carol one-petalled, rotate. 
Border five-parted ; segments oval, deeply divided, con- 
cave, smooth, thrice the length of the calyx or more. 
Filaments numerous, as long as the corol, and inserted into 
its base. Anthers small, two-lobed. Germ inferior, tur- 
binate, three-celled, with from two to four ovula in each, 
attached to the inner and upper angle of the cells (up- 
per end of the axis.) Style shorter than the stamina. 
Stigma three lobed. Drupe oblong, smooth, with a 
beautiful purple pulp in small quantity, when ripe purple, 
crowned with the permanent calyx. Nut conform to the 
drupe, three-celled. Seed generally solitary, (with the 
abortive integuments of the other one or three close by 
its apex) linear^ablong, attached to the inside of the top 
of the cell. Integument seems single, tough, and thick, 
colour on the outside light brown. Perisperm conform 
to the seed, rather soft. Embryo cylindric, inverse. 
Cotyledons small, o\ long ; radicle three or four times 
longer than the cotyledons, cylindric, superior. 

The bark of this small tree is in request amongst the 
dyers of red in Calcutta, and is met with in the markets in 
that city for a trifling price. 

It seems to be used as a mordant only. To dye with 
Munjeet (East India madder,) in which the bark called 
Lodh is an ingredient. For three yards of cloth take 



^ymplocos. polyandria monogynia. 541 

LodJi, the bark is meant, Biira Hur (Myroholana Che' 
bula. Mat. Med. Terminalia chebula Roxb.) of each one 
chatwk, or two ounces, pound and rub them with water on 
a stone ; mix them up with water, and steep the cloth in it, 
then dry it. Take one chatj/k of alum, dissolve it in water, 
and boil it, put the cloth into this solution, and let it boil 
for an hour, then wash and dry it. Then take Al, viz. 3Tor- 
inda tinctoria. Roxb. one chatwk Dhawra flowers, Gris- 
lea tomentosa. Roxb. one chatak Munjeet Rubia Mun~ 
jeet. Ro.xb. half a seer, nearly a pound, separately, mix 
them with lukewarm water, and let it boil. Then put in 
the cloth, and let it remain boiling for forty minutes. 

Aboor the red powder used by the natives during the 
Hoolee holidays is made about Kheerpaee, of the bark of 
this tree. 

2. S. spicata. Roxb. 

Leaves from lanceolar to oblong-serrate, acute. Spikes 
axilla ry, compound . Drupes, curceolate-torose ; nut one- 
celled, one seeded. 

Booree, the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is in- 
digenous, growing to be a middle-sized tree. It flowers in 
August, and the seeds ripen in the cold season. They 
are very hard, about the size of a pea, and resemble a mi- 
nute fluted pitcher; when bored, they are strung like 
beads, and by the natives put round the necks of their chil- 
dren , to prevent evil The nuts only ofNageia Putranjiva 
are employed in the same manner, and for the same end. 

Young shoots smooth and straight. Leaves alternate, 
short-petioled, from lanceolar to oblong-serrate, acumi- 
nate, smooth, texture hard, and in drying turn yellow; from 
four to six inches long and one and a half broad. Stipules 
none. Spikes axillary, solitary, compound, I may say 
panicled, scarcely half the length of the leaves, smooth. 
Flowers numerous, sessile, small, scattered, yellow. 
Bractes three, roundish, concave and ciliate, embracing 



542 POLYANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. SymploCOS. 

the base of each germ, like a calycle. Calyx superior, five- 
parted, the five oblong segments being only slightly united 
at the base into one ring with the insertion of the filaments. 
Filaments about forty, twice the length of thecorol. An- 
thers t\\o-\ohed. Germ inferior, three- celled, with three or 
four ovula in each, attached to the axis. Style the length 
of the filaments. Stigma large and perforated. Drupes 
the size of a pea, short, urceolate, torose, about twelve- 
ribbed, olive-coloured. Nut conform to the whole drupe, 
thick and hard, one-celled, cell annular, &c. conformable 
to the cell in the nut. Integument single. Perisperm 
conform to the seed, oily. Embryo shorter than the pe- 
risperm, arched. Cotyledons semi-columnar. Radicle 
cylindric, much longer than the cotyledons. 

3. S.ferruginea. Roxb. 

Leaves lanceolar, serrulate, acuminate, parallel- veined, 
downy underneath. Spikes axillary, solitary, compound, 
downy. 

Foolinazur is the vernacular name in the Garo coun- 
try, where it is indigenous ; it grows to the size of a small 
tree, with much soft, ferruginous pubes. Flowering time 
the latter part of the rains. 

Leaves alternate, short, villous, petioled, lanceolar, ser- 
rulate, acuminate, texture hard; smooth above, downy un- 
derneath ; from four to seven inches long, and from one to 
two broad. Stipules none. Spikes axillary, solitary, com- 
pound, not half the length of the leaves, very downy. 
Flowers sessile, crowded, middle sized, yellow. Bractes 
three to each flower, like a calycle, broad ovate, downy. 
Corol rotate. Tube very short ; segments of the border five, 
oblong. Filaments numerous, inserted on the sharp tube of 
thecorol. Anther stv^o-lohed. Germ semi-inferior, downy, 
three-celled ; cells with from two to four ovula in each, 
attached to the upper end of the axis. Style the length 
of the stamina. Stigma three-lobed. 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 543 



MIMOSA. Sckreb. gen. n. 1595. 
Gen. Char. Aggregate. Ca/yx five -toothed. Corollets 
one, diadelphous legume. I call them corollets because 
inclined to consider the whole as one aggregate flower. 



SECT. I. ^inarmed Spikes globular. 

1. M. Kceringa. R. 

Leaves conjugate-pinnate; leaflets three pair, short, 
petiolate, lanceolate, when young highly coloured. Pa- 
nicles axillary, and lateral. Legumes many-jointed, spi- 
ral ; seed enveloped in an edible fleshy arill. 

A large unarmed tree, a native of the peninsula of 
Malacca, where it is called Koeringa by the Malays. 
The legumes are very large and spiral, like a cork screw; 
the joints are nearly circular, compressed, and often two 
inches in diameter; each containing a single seed, as large 
as a common garden bean, covered with a considerable 
quantity of edible fleshy pulp. 

2. M. Xylocarpa. R. Corom. pi. 1. N. 100. 

Leaves conjugate pinnate ; leaflets from two to four pair, 
with a single one on each side below the pairs. Stipules 
lanceolate. Spikes axillary, round, long-peduncled; 
corollets deciduous. Legumes falcate, ligneous, many- 
seeded. 

Acacia xylocarpa. Willd. 4. p. 1055. 

Teling. Konda-tangeroo. 

It is called Pingadoo in Pegu, where it is used for knees, 
crooked timbers, &c. in ship building. 

A large stately timber tree ; a native of various parts 
of India. It blossoms during the hot season, at which 
period it is nearly destitute of foliage. The timber is 
remarkably strong and durable. 



544 POLYANDRIA MO^'OGYNIA. MWiOSa. 

S. M. lucida. R. 

Leaves bipinnate, and conjugate-pinnate ; pinncB one or 
two pair; leaflets from one to three pair, oblonir, lucid. 
Spikes terminal, sub-panided, round j coroUets from ten 
to twelve, monadelphous. 

A large and beautiful tree, a native of the mountains 
north east of Bengal. Flowering time the hot season. 

4. M. monadelpha. R. 

Leaves bipinnate ; pinncB and leaflets about two pair of 
each, the latter obliquely oblong and smooth. Panicles 
terminal. Tube of the numerous united filaments very 
long. Legume pedicelled, one or two-seeded. Nut black 
uncertain. 

5. M. Sirissa. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves bipinnate, pinnce from two to three 
pair. Spikes axillary, round ; corollets monadelphous. 
Segments leafy, dry, long-linear and broad, not opening 
spontaneously. 

S^r^sha, or Shirish in Sanscrit and Bengalee. 

Teling. D?<rsh?ma. 

This tree is very common in every part of India; all 
soils and situations seem to please it equally. It 
grows to be a pretty large tree, but with a short thick 
trunk covered with ash-coloured bark. It has a very 
extensive but thin head. Flowering time the hot and 
rainy season ; the greatest part of its leaves drop dur- 
ing the cold season. 

Leaves about the ends of the branchlets bipinnate, 
and about a span long. Pinnce from two to four pair, 
sometimes the lower pairs are somewhat alternate. Leaf- 
lets opposite, from four to eight pair, obliquely linear- 
oblong, slightly emarginate, otherwise entire, smooth, 
about an inch and a half long and three-fourths broad. 
Petioles common, round, tapering, with a large gland. 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 545 

a little above its base on the upper side, and sometimes 
one at the extremity ; there are also two small glands 
near the base of the partial petioles, and smaller ones 
between the leaflets, but their presence and number is 
always uncertain, except those near the base. Peduncles 
axillary, one, two, or more, each supporting a globular 
head, of white, fragrant corollets. Filaments numerous, 
united below, monadelphous, very long. Legume leafy, 
from six to twelve inches long, and from one to two broad. 
Seeds from eight to ten, remote, lodged in the middle, 
where the legume is alternately elevated and depressed. 

The wood of this tree, is much like that of M. Xylo- 
carpa, and equally serviceable. The flowers are very 
fragrant. I liave often seen large masses of very pure 
gum upon it. 

6. M. heterophylla. R. 

Arboreous, Leaves bipinnate, pinnce from two to three 
pairs; leaflets from three to six pairs, varying in shape 
from unequally round-cordate to lanceolar. Panicles ax- 
illary; corollets pedicelled, monadelphous. Legumes en- 
tire, spirally twisted, into one or more circles. 

Kawahurunee the vernacular name in Silhet, where it 
grows to be a lari,'e and useful timber tree. It flowers 
in February, March, and April ; its seed ripens in May 
or June. 

Young shoots angular and smooth. Leaves alternate, 
bipinnate, from six to twelve inches long. Pinnce from 
two to three pairs. Leaflets from two to three pairs on 
the lower pinnae, from five to six the exterior ; the infe- 
rior pairs small, say from half an inch to an inch each 
way, and unequally cordate: the exterior pairs from four 
to five inches long, and one and half broad ; all are firm, 
entire, and glossy. Petioles, common and partial, smooth. 
Glands, a large umbilicate one at the base of the com- 
mon petioles and one between each pair of pinnae and 

Qq q 



546 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. MimOSa. 

leaflets. Panicles axillary, crowded ; divisions umbelled 
even to the globular heads of coroUets. Calyx five- 
toothed. Carol tubular, four times longer than the calyx j 
mouth five parted. Filaments many, twice the length of the 
corol, united toward the base, and inserted on the bottom 
of the tube of the corol. Anthers oval, incumbent. Germ 
pedicelled, lanceolar. Stijle the length of the stamina. 
Legume entire, not articulate, contracted between the 
seeds, spirally twisted into one or more circles, smooth 
and brown on the outside, orange on the inside. Seeds 
from six to eight, remote, of the size of a kidney- bean, 
smooth, deep black. 

7. M. trapezifolia. R. 

Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce from three to four pairs ; leaf- 
lets from four to seven pairs, trapeziforin, downy under- 
neath. Panicles terminal, ultimate divisions three ; com- 
posed of small umbellets of spherical heads of monadel- 
phous corollets. 

A native of the Molucca Islands ; it is the only spe- 
cies 1 know, that bears its flowers in umbellets. 

8. M. odoratissima. R. Carom, pi. 2. No. 20. 

Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce from three to four pairs ; leaf 
lets ten pairs; panicle terminal; spikes round; coroUets 
monadelphous. Legumes thin, linear. 

Acacia odoratissima. Willd. 4. p. 1063. 

Teling. Shindifga. 

Tarn. Solomanim. 

A native of Coromandel. It flowers during the hot sea- 
son, the tree is large and handsome, the timber particu- 
larly hard and strong. Flowers with a gland consider- 
ably above the base of the petiole. 

9. M. elata. Roxb. 

Arboreous. Leaves bipinnate ; pinnm, from three to five 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 647 

pairs, leaflets from six to ten pairs, oblong, a concave 
gland on the base of the petiole. Panicle axillary, com- 
pound. Spikelets globular. Stamens monadelphous. 
Legumes linear, thin, from six to eight seeded. 

A large, tall, most stately and excellent timber tree, a 
native of the interior parts of Bengal. In the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta it blossoms at the close of the rains, 
and the seed ripens during the dry season. 

Trunk of trees sixteen or seventeen years old, from 
twenty-five to thirty feet to the branches, and from four 
to five feet in circumference, four feet about the ground. 
Bark in the above trees still smooth ; but in old trees it 
is cracked in various directions, and of a dark ash co- 
lour. Branches spreading to a great extent ; young shoots 
flexuose and smooth, the whole height of the just men- 
tioned young trees is from fifty to seventy feet. 

Leaves bipinnate, from one to three feet long ; pinncB 
from three to six pairs; four is the most common. Leaflets 
from six to ten pairs, subsessile, opposite, oblong, emargi- 
jiate, smooth on both sides, from one to two inches long. 
Petioles with a ridge on the upper side, and one large, 
oblong, concave, brown gland near the ba.se of the com- 
mon one, and ^enerally one between or rather below the 
last one, two, or three pairs of leaflets. Racemes or pani- 
cles axillary, generally compound, being composed of 
several diverging, pedicelled, globular heads of white 
corollets. Ca/i/a* subcylindric, five-toothed. CoroZ funnel- 
shaped, five-cleft, twice the length of the calyx. Sta- 
mens numerous, monadelphous, twice the length of the 
corol. Germ oblong. Style rather longer than the sta- 
mens. Stigma minute. Legume linear, pointed, smooth, 
thin (leafy) six inches long and scarcely one broad. Seeds 
from six to eight. 

10. M. Kalkora. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce from four to six 

Q q q 2 



548 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. MimoSa. 

pairs ; leaflets fromiifteen to thirty pairs, sublinear , smooth ; 
there is a smooth, convex gland on the base of the com- 
mon petiole, and one at the last pair of pinnae. 

Beng. Kalkora. 

A large timber tree; a native of the hills in the vicinity 
of Gwalpara, and from thence brought to the Botanic gar- 
den by Mr. R. Kyd. 

11. M. procera. R- Corom. pi. 2. No. 21. 

Leaves bipinnate ; pinncB four pairs ; leaflets ten pairs; 
stipules er\si(oxm. Paw/cZes terminal and axillary. Spikes 
thereoC round ; corollets monadclphous. Legumes linear- 
lanceolate, pointed. 

Acacia procera. Willd. 4. p. 1063. 

Teling. Pedda Patseroo. 

A native of Coromandel, where it grows to be one of 
their largest trees. 

12. M pulchella. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves bipinnate ; pinncB from nine to ten- 
pairs ; leaflets from twenty to twenty-five pairs, lii)ear-ob- 
long, glaucous ; there is a gland above the base of the 
common petiole. Stipules subulate. 

A most beautiful, stately tree, with an immensely large, 
dense head, the larger branches spread much and the 
smaller droop, but what renders it most conspicuous is the 
dark bluish grey colour of its numerous large leaves. 

It is a native of Malabar, and from thence was sent to 
the Botanic garden at Calcutta by Dr. A. Berry. 

13. M. amara. R. Corom. pi. 2. No. 122. 

Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce ten-pair; leaflets twenty-pair; 
stipules lancfolale; spikes axillary, crowded, peduncled, 
round ; coro/Zefs monadclphous. Legumes thin, linear and 
broad. 

Acacia amara. Willd. A\. 1074. 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 549 

Teling. Nella renj^a. 

Tain. Shokram. 

A middling sized tree, a native of Coromandel. 

14. M. fructicosa. R. 

Shrubby, smooth. Leaves bipinnate; pinna i^rom eight 
to ten pair; halets from ten to twenty pair, sub-falcate, 
minute, a o^land towar.l the base of the common petiole. 
Stipules minute, subulate. 

From China it has been introduced into the Botanic 
garden at Calcutta, underthe Chinese name Tham-yeaong- 
ton. 

15. M. stipulacea. R. 

Leaves bipinnate; pinnce from ten to twenty pair; leaf- 
lets numerovLs, scymitar- shaped ; stipules and bractes se- 
micordate. Panicles terminal; spikes pedicelied. globu- 
lar; corollets monodelphous. Legume linear, leafy, from 
six to twelve-seeded. 

Beng. Amlooki. 

A native of the mountains north of Bengal. It flowers 
during the hot season, and is probably the largest of the 
genus; fi)r I have seen a young (say twenty years old) tree 
which measured thirteen feet in circumference, five feet 
above ground ; one in the Botanic garden, planted by 
myse'.f was forty-eight and a half inches in circumference 
four feet above the ground, when only seven years old. 

16. M. microphylla. R. 

Sub-arboreous, Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce from ten to 
fifteen pair ; leaflets from three to five pair, obliquely- 
linear. Panicles terminal; corollets monodelphous. Le- 
gumes thin, few-seeded. 

Tetooleeya, the vernacular name in Silliet where it 
grows to the height of twelve feet. Flowering time. May 
and June; the seed ripens in March and April. 



550 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Mimosa. 

Young shoots dark brown and scarcely villous. Leaves 
bipinnate, from six to eight inches long, of a bright green 
colour. PinncB from ten to fifteen pair. Leaflets from thirty 
to forty pair, minute, obliquely-linear, smooth. Petioles 
common and partial, downy. Panicles terminal and 
axillary, villous, composed of globular heads of minute 
greenish-yellow corollets. Bractes subulate, villous. 
Calyx and Corol as in the genus, both villous. Filaments 
from ten to twenty, monodelphous. Germ long-pedicelled. 
Legumes thin, leafy, smooth, long, broad, obtuse-point- 
ed, from three to six-seeded, from six to eight inches long 
and rather above one broad. Seed oval, flat, smooth, 
light brown. 

With the bark of this tree the mountaineers make an 
intoxicating liquor which they drink as we do beer; on 
the Coast of Coromandel the natives distil an ardent spi- 
rit from a fermented mixture of the bark of Mimosa 
leiicophlea, coarse sugar, and palra-wine. 

17. M. Smithiana. R- 

Arboreous, ieaigs bipinnate ; pinnce from twelve to tif- 
teen pair, leaflets thirty pair, semi-lanceolate. Panicles 
terminal; coroZ/e^5 monodelphous. Legumes thin, linear, 
from ten to twelve-seeded. 

Swris, the vernacular name in Silhet, where it is indi- 
genous, and grows to be a very large tree. Flowering 
time May, the seed ripens in December. 

Young shoots somewhat angular, a little villous, and 
spotted with light grey dots. Leaves alternate, bipin- 
nate, about a foot long, greenish. Pinnce from twelve to 
eighteen pair. Leaflets numerous, from twenty to forty 
pair, semi-lanceolate, scarcely half an inch long, and 
about one- fourth of that in breadth. Petioles common and 
partial, villous. Glands one near the base of the common 
petiole, and one between each of the last two or three 
pairs of pinnae. Stipules semicordate, in young luxuriant 



Mimosa. polyandria monoqvnia. 551 

plants remarkably large, viz. one inch and a half long 
and one broad. Inflorescence terminal, panicled, and in 
the exterior axills a single, lon<j-peduncled raceme, all 
composed of long-pedicelled globular heads of white 
coroUets, the whole downy. Calyx and corol as in the 
genus, and both villous. Filaments i'rom twelve to fifteen, 
very long, united toward the base into a tube which 
is inserted into the bottom of the tube of the corol. Germ 
pedicelled. Style as long as the stamina. Legumes linear- 
lanceolar, thin, straight-margined, and smooth, from three 
to four inches long and rather under one inch in breadth, 
from ten to twenty-seeded. Seeds oval, much flattened, 
smooth, of a greyish olive-colour. 

18. M. pedunculata. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves bipinnate, pinna from twenty to 
forty pair, sub-alternate ; leaflets from sixty to a hundred 
pair, a pair of umblicated glands on the base of the 
petiole, and one between each of the last, from four to 
eight pair. Spikes subclavate, corollets monodelphous, 
decandrous. 

An elegant tall large tree, a native of the Islands to 
the eastward of the Bay of Bengal, where it blossoms in 
May, and the seed ripens in December. The Malays 
are said to be fond of the seeds, which taste like garlic, 
and of the meally matter which surrounds them, as in 
M. biglobosa, to which it is in many respects nearly allied. 

19. M. biglobosa: Jacq. Amer. 267. t. 179. f. 87. 
Arboreous. Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce from ten to thirty 

pair ; leaflets from twenty to thirty pair, linear, an um- 
blicated gland on the petiole below the lower pair of the 
pinnae, and one between each of the last three or five 
pair. Panicles terminal. Spikes few, long-peduncled, 
clavate; corollets decandrous, monodelphous. Legumes 
linear, many-seeded, in a mealy pulp. 



552 POLYANDRIA MOXOGYNIA. Munosa. 

Bcng. SMpota, 

A native of the forests of Silhet, and its neighbour- 
hood, where it grows to be a large tree, flowering in De- 
cember, and ripening the seed in April. 

Trunk straight, when full grown about two feet in dia- 
meter, or six in circumference ; young shoots villous. 
Leaves scattered, bipinnate, from twelve to twenty-four 
inches long, from ten to twenty pair ; pinncE opposite, 
from three to six inches long; leaflets from twenty-five 
to tifty pair, linear, lucid, half an inch long. Petioles 
common and partial, villous ,• glands an umblicated one 
under the lower pair of pinnaj, and one between each of 
the last three, four, or five pair. Stipules minute, su- 
bulate. Paw tc/es terminal, composed of a few, alternate, 
very long pedunclel, large, snb-clavate, pale yellow fra- 
grant spikes, (or flowers.) Bractes or scales of the cia- 
vate receptacle, solitary under each corollet, spatulate 
with the apex broad, and villous on the out-side. Calyx 
tubular, mouth cut into five unequal, roundish, villous 
segments. Coral five-parted. Filaments ten, united from 
the middle downwards. Germ linear, many-seeded. Style 
the length of the stamina. Legumes about a foot long, 
and an inch and half broad, flat, swelled at the seeds, 
where a quantity of mealy matter is found to surround 
each seed ; surface smooth, brown when ripe ; it can 
scarcely be called jointed, except when very old. Seeds 
from twelve to twenty, oval, smooth, dark brown. 

Note. About the base of the spikes on the sub-cylin- 
drical part, the corollets are generally raale-neuter. 

20. M. triquetra. Vahl. Symh. 3. 102. 

Bi-triennial, prostrate. Leaves bipinnate : pinnce two 
pairs; leaflets from ten to twelve pair. Peduncles axil- 
lary, solitary, bracted ; spikes round, erect; corollets five- 
petalled, decandrous. Legumes linear, from four to six- 
seeded. 



Mimosa. polyandria monogyma. 553 

Desmanthus triquetrus. Willd. i. 1045. 
A small procumbent species, a native of Coromandel. 
In flower and seed the whole year. 

SECT. II. Unarmed. Spikes cylindric 

21. M. nafaiis. Corom. pi. 2. N. 119. 

Annual, flowing. Leaves bipinnate; pinntE from two 
to three pairs ; leaflets ten pairs. Stipules obliquely-cor- 
date. Flowers axillary% five-celled, decandrous^ the lower 
ones barren. Lequme falcate, many-seeded. 

Desmanthus natans. Willd. 4. 1044. 

JNTitti-todda-vaddi. Rheed. Mai. 9. t. 20. 

Neptunia oleracea. Lourier. Cochin Ch. 804. 

Beng. Panee laJMk. 

Teling. Neeroo tavulupoo, and Xidra-yung. 

This species is annual ; it is found growing on pools 
and lakes of sweet water, or where water has stood. 
Flowering time the wet and cold seasons. 

Branches or stems round, jointed, flexuous piped, 
tufts of radical fibres from the joints, between the joints 
spongy bodies are formed, which prevent the plant from 
sinking, the roots have not any connection with the earth, 
except when the water leaves it, and then it soon perishes. 

Leaves alternate, bifarious, bipinnate; pinniB two or 
three pair, opposite. Leaflets from eight to twelve pairs 
minute, smooth, possessing much sensibility, I think next 
to that of JM. pudica. Stipules cordate, caducous. Pe- 
duncles axillary, single, longer than the leaves, support- 
ing an oblong head of fertile and neuter florets. Bractes 
solitary, lanceolate, one-ilowered. Fertile flowers above, 
decandrous. Calyx five toothed. Corol five-petalled. 
Legumes falcate, acute, smooth, from six to eight-seeded, 
torose. Neuter flowers below the fertile ones. Calyx and 
Corol as in the genus, but the ten stamens are here ten 
linear, lanceolate, waved, yellow petals. 

Note. It agrees pretty well with Miller's figure of M. 

R r r 



554 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. MimOSa. 

plena, but the East Indian plant wants the bractes on the 
middle of the peduncles. The flowers are either neuter or 
hermaphrodite, and the latter have always ten stamens. 
Piukenet's 4th figure of plate 307 is certainly intended 
for this plan. 

22. M. adenanthera. R. 

Terminal, erect, smooth. Leaveshipmnate; pintKB three 
pair ; leaflets from twenty to thirty pair with coloured 
margins. Stipules obliquely cordate, acute. Peduncles 
axillary, bracted ; spikes ovate, nodding, inferior corollets 
double, neuter ; the superior ones, decandrous ; anthers 
crowned with a gland. Legumes sub-falcate, many- 
seeded. 

Native place uncertain. Flowering time in Bengal the 
rainy season. It is a pretty slender, somewhat flexuous, 
sub-erect, shrubby plant. It is nearly allied to Willd- 
enow's Desman thus punctatus ; if the anthers have a gland 
on the apex, as in Adenanthera, I think v,'g may conclude 
they are the same. 

23. M. scandens. R. 

Scandent. Leaves bipinnate, ending in a tendril ; 
pinntB two pair ; leaflets from three to four pair, oblong, 
emarginate, glossy. Spikes panicled, lateral ; corollets 
decandrous. Legume jointed, with an entire margin. 

Mimo Entada. Willd. 4- 1041. 

Acacia scandens. Willd. 4. 1057. 

Perim-kaku-valli. Rheed. Mai 8. t. 32. 33. and 34. 

Entada. Rheed. Mai. 9. t. 77. 

Beng. Giila. 

An immense scandent plant of many years duration ; 
the oldest in the Botanic garden has been there fifteen 
years, and has not yet blossomed. Flowering time in the 
forests of Silhet where it is common, March and April ; 
the seed ripens toward the close ol" the year. 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 555 

Trunk thick in proportion to the age and soil ; in the 
above mentioned fifteen years old plant in the Botanic 
garden, it is twenty-four inches in circumference. Bark 
rough, olive grey, and like most of the genus, astringent. 
Young shoots remarkably long, smooth, slender, and shin- 
ing, and while very young, furrowed. Leaves alternate, 
bipinnate ; from six to twelve inches long. Pinnce two 
pair. Leaflets three or four pair, oblong-emarginate, lucid, 
entire, from one to three inches long. Petiole common^ 
ending in a two-cleft, powerful tendril ; all are polished, 
without glands, but channelled. Stipules subulate, small, 
embracing the branchlet. Spikes generally from four to 
eight, on a common peduncle, from the axills of the former 
leaves, upon the two or three years old branchlets, and 
there is often more than one such peduncle in the same 
axill. Rachis and the minute bracte clothed with ferrugin- 
ous pubescence. Flowers numerous, small, pale yellow. 
Calyx cup-shaped, five-toothed. Corol one-petalled, but 
divided to very near the base into five lanceolate seg- 
ments. Filaments ten, inserted into the short tube of 
the corol. Anthers two-lobed, with a glandular point be- 
tween them, Gen/i liiiear, containing many ovw/a. Style 
the lengtli of the stamina. Stigma simple, but large. Le- 
gumes of an immense size, often several feet in length, and 
from four to five inches broad, spirally twisted, surround- 
ed with a thick very firm, polished, entire rim, which is 
found to remain, like a picture frame, when the less durable, 
jointed body of the legume has disappeared ; joints from 
ten to thirty, one-seeded, ligneous, swelled in the centre 
where the seed is lodged, and more or less transversely 
furrowed, otherw ise pretty smooth, and of a greenish ash 
colour when ripe. Seeds sub-ovate, nearly as large as 
a pullet's egg. Integument single, thick and hard, in fact 
a powerful, polished, shining, chesnut-coloured nut. Peris- 
perm none. Embryo straight. Cotyledons equal, conform 
to the seed, amygdaline. Radicle patelliform, lodged at 
the umbilicus of the seed. 

R r r 2 



556 POLYATSDRIA MONOGYNIA. MiniOSa. 

SECT. III. Thorny. Spikes globular. 

24. M. dulcis. R. Corom. pi. 1. N. 99. 

T/*orws stipular3^ Leaves b'lp'mnate \ leaflets suhsemi- 
eliiptic. Panicles terminal ; spikes round, subsessile; corol- 
lets monodelphous. Legumes twisted, turgid, with sweet, 
firm pulp, and smooth black seeds. 

J9iga dulcis. Willd. 4. p. 1005. 

A native of the Philippine Islands. It flowers during 
the cold season in India, where it grows quickly to be 
a large beautiful tree, yielding annually abundance of 
nourishing, edible fruit. The timber is also of a good 
quality. 

25. M. concordiana. R. 

Arboreous. 77<or«s stipulary. igaves bipinnate; pmw^ 
one or two pair ; leaflets from three to seven pairs. Spikes 
globular; corollets pcdicelied, monodelphous. Legumes 
curved, many-jointed, notched on the exterior margin. 

A low tree. Trunk short, a few feet only, thickness 
various. Bark light ash colour, and scabrous. 

Branches numerous, forming a very large spreading head, 
which is out of all proportion to the trunk; branchlets 
flexuose. Thorns often solitary, large, diverging ; leaf- 
and flower-bearing, they then appear as small branch- 
lets, with sharp points ; from one line to three inches 
long. Leaves bipinnate ; on the young shoots, alternate, 
on the older parts collected. Pinnce one or two pair, 
from one to three inches long. Leaflets from three 
to ten pairs, opposite, sessile, linear-oblong, smooth, 
entire, the exterior largest, and obliquely obovate-oblong, 
from six to twelve lines long, aud about the same 
breadth. Petioles common, short, downy, with an um- 
bilicated gland between each pair of pinnae, and a short 
point at the apex. Peduncles one or two, axillary, about 
two inches long, each supporting a globular head of a few. 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 557 

white, subpedicelled corollets. Calyx and Corol five- 
parted. Filaments numerous, monodelphous. Legume 
large, articulate, compressed, much curved, often I'ormin^ 
a circle, or more, as in M, dulcis, hard, dark brown or 
blackish, a little scabrous. Seeds round, compressed, 
smooth, brown. 

Note. It ought to be compared with Vabl's M. nitida. 
I think his description agrees tolerably well with this 
plant, except in the stamina, his being polyandrous, 
mine most perfectly monodelphous, but if Willdenow is 
correct in his detinition of the legume in his genus Acacia, 
this plant, which has a most perfectly articulate legume, 
cannot be his Acacia nitida. ed. sp. 4. 1086. the only 
species observed by me, which it resembles. Vahl is 
silent about the leguaie. 

26. M. Farnesiana. Linn. Sysf. Veg. ed. 4. p. 916. 
Shrubby. Thorns stipulary. Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce 

from four to five pairs : leaflets from ten to tifreen pairs. 
Spikes axillary, long-peduncled, round ; corollets polyan- 
drous. Legumes turgid, with two rows of seeds enclosed 
in pulp. 

A c'dcia farnesiana. Willd. 4. p. 1083. 

Teling. Kustoori, or Piktooraee. 

Sans. Vvimeda. V^tkhira. 

Beng. Gooya-hdihula. 

Sami. Asiat. Res. 4. p. 307, is this plant, though the 
specimens of the Sami tree sent to me by Capt. AVilford, 
belong to my Adenanihera aculeala. See Prosopis acu- 
leata. Asiat. Res. 4. p. 405. 

A native of every part of India. It flowers in the cold 
season. 

27. M. arabica. Lamarck. Encyclop. 1. 19. R. Corom. 
PL 2. N. 149. 

T^orws stipulary. Leaves bipinnate ; pinna five pairs ; 



558 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. MilllOSa. 

leaflets fifteen pairs. S2)ikes axillary, round ; corollets po- 
ly and rous. Legumes pedicelled. 

Biirhura the Sanscrit name. 

Acacia arabica. Willd. 4. p. 1085. 

Teling. Nella-tooma. 

Bejig. Babool or babwla. 

Very common all over India, flowering and ripening 
its seed at various times of the year. 

28. M. eburnea. R. Corom. pi. 2. N. 199. 

Shrubby. Thorns stipulary, often longer than the 
leaves, and united at the base. Leaves bipinnate ; pinniB 
six pair ; leaflets nine pair. Spikes axillary, round ; co- 
rollets polyandrous. Legumes linear, and variously bent. 

Acacia eburnea. Willd. 4. p. 1081. 

A native of Coromandel, where it flowers during the 
cold season. 

29. M. lencophlea. R. Corom.pl. 2. N. 150. 

Thorns stipulary. Leaves bipinnate ; pinncc ten pair; 
leaflets twenty-five pair. Panicles terminal, spikes round ; 
corollets polyandrous. Legume, long, linear, curved. 

Teling. Tella-tooma. 

Acacia lencophlea. Willd. 4. p. 1083. 

A native of Coromandel. It flowers during the rainy 
season. 

30. M. tomentosa. R. 

Arboreous; tender parts tomentose. Thorns stipulary. 
Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce from ten to twelve; leaflets twen- 
ty pair, downy. Spikes globular, peduncled, axillary, 
single or paired ; corollets polyandrous. Legume com- 
pressed, falcate. 

Acacia tomentosa. Willd. 4. 3089. 

Beng. Sain babifl. 

Tarn, Kodi-velo. 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 559 

This I have met with in Bengal, in the state of a small 
tree, but it appears as if it would be large if permitted to 
remain. Flowering lime the beginning of the cold season; 
young shoots downy. 

lliorns stipulary, straight, divaricate, about an inch 
long, very strong and sharp, when young downy. Leaves 
bipinnate ; pinnce ten or twelve pair. Leaflets from fif- 
teen to thirty pairs, very minute, downy. Petioles com- 
mon and partial, downy, with an umbilicated gland or two 
between the last pair or two of pinnae, and an oblong 
one below the lower pair. Spikes axillary, globular, 
white, peduncled, one, rarely two, together, small, rather 
offensive. Peduncles pretty long, and bracted at the 
middle. Legume linear, compressed, falcate; from six 
to eight-seeded. 



SECT. IV. Thorny. Spikes cylindric. 

31. M. dumosa, R. 

Shrubby, very ramous. Thorns stipulary, somewhat 
recurved ; pinn^ from two to ibur pairs ; leaflets four or 
five pairs, oval, minute. 

A small, very bushy tree, or large shrub of uncommon 
beauty, a native of the country immediately west of Delhi; 
its leaves are minute, and of a greyish colour. 

32. M. latronum. Linn. Suppl. 4. 38. 
Subarboreous. Tliorns stipulary, united at the base, 

often dreadfully large. Leaves bipinnate, pinnce four 
pair ; leaflets about ten pair. Spikes axillary, pedun- 
cled, subcylindric ; corollets polyandrous. Legume thin, 
broad-falcate, three or four-seeded. 

Teling. PMkee-tooma. 

Acacia latronum. Willd. 4. 1077. 

A native of the coast of Coromandel, where it blos- 
soms about the beginning of the hot season. It is a small 



560 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. MtmOSa. 

tree, or large ramous shrub, Avith numerous, interwoven, 
flexuose branches, co\ ered with a dark brown bark, dot- 
ted with white. 

Spines united at the base often very larjje, round, ta- 
perins: to an acute, hard, brown point, the rest white, and 
smooth, particuhirly when young. Inwardly hollow, and 
the habitation of ants. From the fork, where the two 
unite, often a small branchlet, or leaf issues. Leaves bi- 
piunate, in the young growing shoots they are solitary, 
from the fork of the spines all over the older branches seve- 
ral are frequently found together. Pinn(B from three to five 
pair, opposite and rarely an inch long. Leaflets from ten 
to twelve pair, minute, smooth. Petioles common, acute, 
pointed, with a gland on the upper side a little below the 
first pair of pinnae. Stipules no other than the spines. Pe- 
duncles generally in pairs, from the axills of the spines, 
and mixed with leaves, short. Spikes cylindric, about 
as long as the leaves. Flowers polyandrous, rather re- 
mote, fragrant, pure white when they first expand, but 
becoming yellow. Cahjx minute, from four to five-tooth- 
ed. Corol three or four times longer than the calyx, from 
four to five cleft. Stamens numerous, distinct. Germ ob- 
liquely oval. Style crooked, as long as the stamens. Le- 
gume thin, broad-falcate, three or four-seeded. 

33. M. fera. Lour. Cochin Ch. 801. 

Thorns solitary, often much branched. Leaves bipin- 
nate and pinnate ; when bipinnate Wiepinnce are from four 
to eight pairs ; leaflets sub-alternate, from six to ten pairs. 
Spikes axillary, cylindric; Corollets with from five to 
ten stamina. Legumes long, linear, variously bent. 

Gleditsia horrida. Willd. 4. 1098. 

A native of China and Cochin China ; young trees 
reared in the Botanic garden at Calcutta, from seeds of 
Gleditshia triacanthos received from America, do not 
in any respect diflfer from our China plant, which is 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 561 

evidently a Mimosa, and most likely Loureior's/er«, It 
is a tree of very slow growth, and the wood particularly 
hard. Trees in this garden about twenty-five years old 
are not above twenty-five feet higli, with slender, crooked, 
poor-looking trunks. 

34. M. cinerea. R. Corom. pi. 9. N. 174. 
Subarboreous. Thorns solitary ; leaves bipinnate ; 

pinnce from eight to nine pair ; leaflets fifteen pairs. Spikes 
axillary, subcylindric ; corollets decandrous, the lower, 
ones sterile. 

Desmanthus cinereous. Willd. 4. p. 1048. 

Teling. or Yellow. 

Tam. Warfataro. 

A native of Coromandel. The spikes of this plant are 
large, droop much, and are particularly elegant. 

SECT. V. Prickly. Spikes cylindrid ' 

35. M. obovata. R. 

Arboreous, armed with stipulary, recurved prickles. 
Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce about three pairs ; leaflets about 
four pairs, obovate. Spikes cylindric, axillary. Legumes 
linear, oblong, leafy. 

A native of Rohilcund, where it blossoms in March. 

36. M. ferruginea. R. 

Arboreous. Prickles sitpulary. Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce 
from four to six pairs ; leaflets from ten to twenty pairs. 
Spikes axillary, cylindric ; corollets raonadelphous. Le- 
gumes leafy, from five to six-seeded. 

Teling. Woanee. 

This species I cannot well reduce to any of those 
mentioned in the works of Linnaeus. It is a native of 
the mountainous paris of the country, where it grows 
to be a pretty large tree. Bark deeply cracked, of a 
dark, rusty colour, and strongly astringent. 

S s s 



562 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. MiiUOSa. 

Thorns stipulary, recurved, strong, short and very sharp, 
they are not always present. Leaves alternate, bipin- 
nate, from two to three inches long. Pinna from three 
to six pair, opposite, one or one and a half inch long. 
Leaflets from eight to twelve pair, linear oblong, smooth, 
small. Petioles common, now and then armed with a 
few small prickles on the under side. Peduncles axillary, 
from one to three, and about the extremities of the branch- 
lets, short, each ending in an erect, cylindrical spike of 
pale yellow corollets. Filaments many, conjoined into 
a tube near the base. Legumes membranaceous, rust- 
coloured, about six inches long, and one broad. Seeds 
from five to seven. 

37. M. catechuoides. R. 

Arboreous. Bark dark brown. Prickles stipulary. 
Leaves bipinnate ; pinnae from ten to fifteen pair ; leaflets 
from thirty to forty pair. Spikes axillary, from one to 
three, cylindric; corollets monadelphous. Legumes linear, 
thin. 

38. M. Catechu. R. Corom. PL 2. N. 174. 

A mistake I was not aware of till I found the real M. 
Catechu in Bengal. 
Teling. Podol Maun. 
A pretty large tree, a native of Coromandel and Bengal. 

39. M. Sundra. R. Corom.pl 3. No. 225. 

Arboreous. ^arAr dark brown. PncA;?e* stipulary, re- 
curved, with decurrent base. Leaves bipinnate ; pinnce 
fifteen pair ; leaflets from twenty to forty pair. Spikes 
axillary, from one to two, cylindric; corollets monadel- 
phous. Legumes lanceolate, thin, two or three-seeded. 

Acacia Chundra. Willd. 4. p. 1079. 
Teling. Sundra. 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 563 

A native of Coromandcl. It flowers in July and Au- 
gust. 

40. M. Siima. R. 

Arboreous, with remarkably white bark, twigs villous. 
Prickles stipulary, broad based, straight. Leaves bipin- 
nate ; pinn(B from ten to twenty pair ; leaflets fifty pair. 
Spikes (from one to six) axillary, cylindric ; corollets po- 
lyandrous. Bractes lanceolate. Legume linear, thin, from 
six to eight-seeded. 

Acacia polycantha. Willd. 4. p. 1099. 

Sans. Shi/mee. 

Beng. Sai-kanta. 

A very common tree about Calcutta, and over Bengal, 
and is remarkably conspicuous on account of its white 
bark. Flowering time the rainy season. There is a laroe 
concave gland above the base of the petiole, and two or 
three between the last two or three pairs of pinnee. 

41. M. Catechu. Linn, suppl. 439. 

Arboreous. Bark dark brown, armed with most acute, 
stipulary, recurved aculei. Leaves bipinnate ; y^m^tE from 
ten to thirty pair; leaflets a.s far as fifty pair; pe^<o/e* arm- 
ed. Spikes axillary, cylindric. Bractes from lanceolate 
to triangular ; Corollets polyandrous. Legume brittle, li- 
near, thin, from six to eight-seeded. 

Acacia Catechu. Willd. 4. p. 1079. 

42. M. Catechu. Medical observ. v. 5. p. 151. t. 4. 
Beng. Khira. 

Khad<ra in Sanscrit and Kudhir the name of the ex- 
tracts. • 

The last five species are nearly allied to each other, and 
require no small degree of attention to point out their 
difi'erences in a short definition. Probably they are equally 
fit for yielding the extract now called Catechu. Flower- 

s s s 2 



564 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. MimOSa. 

ing time the hot and rainy seasons. The seed ripens 
after the rains. 



SECT. VI. Prickly. Spikes globular. 

43. M. pudica. Willd. 4. 10. 31. 

Perennial, diffuse, aculeate. Leaves digitate, pinnate; 
pinnce about four ; leaflets many ; corollefs pentandrous. 

Beng. Lajuk. 

Native place uncertain, but common in gardens through- 
out India. 

44. M. mutahilis. R. 

Shrubby, scandent, armed with remote recurved pric- 
kles. Leaves bipinnate ; piniKB four pair ; leaflets from four 
to eight pairs. SpjA-^s panicled, round; coro/fefs octandrous. 
Legume curved, three jointed, with a prickly margin. 

A native of the banks of the Ganges near Benares, and 
particularly conspicuous on account of its numerous flow- 
ers, which appear during the rains ; they are of a bright 
lively purple when they first expand, but become white by 
age, the reverse of the greater part of our Indian change- 
able flowers which generally acquire colour by age. 

45. M. octandra. R. Corom. pi. 2. No. 200. 

Shrubby, scandent, prickles scattered. Leaves bipin- 
nate ; pinnce from three to six pair ; leaflets eight pair. 
Spikes panicled round ; corollets octandrous. 

Teling. Wallag-doora, or Poota ; witli prickly, jointed 
margins, Korinta. 

M. ruhicaulis. Willd. 4. p. 1038. 

Beng. Shai-kanta. 

A native of the warmer parts of Asia, and like the last 
blossoming in the rains, and the flowers changing their 
colour in the same manner ; 1 doubt if they are sufficiently 
removed from each other to make distinct species. 



Mimosa. polyandria monogynia. 505 

46. M. Intsia. sp. pi. 1508. 

Shrubby, scandeiit, prickles scattered. Leaves bipin- 
nate ; pinnte four or five pair ; leaflets about nine pair, 
shining, jrlands, one near the base of" the petiole, and an 
obconical one between each pair of pinntie. Stipules nar- 
row, cordate. Spikes panicled, round ; corollets polyan- 
drous. Legumes leafy, linear. 

Teling. feorinta. 

Intsia. Rheed. Hort. Mai. 6. t. 4. 

Acacia Intsia. Willd. 4. p. 1091. 

A large rambling plant, corauion in forests all over Coro- 
mandel. 

47. M. concina. Willd. 4. p. 1039. 
Subarboreous, climbing, prickles numerous. Leaveshi- 

pinnate ; piriJice from four to eight pair ; leaflets from ten 
to twenty pair. Stipules and bractes obliquely semicor- 
date. Spikes axillary, crowded, round ; corollets polyan- 
drous. Legumes fleshy, scarcely jointed. 

Teling. Chicaee. 

Beng. Bun-reetha. 

A considerable trade is carried on, in some parts of In- 
dia, with the saponaceous legumes of this species. The 
plant is common in most forests, and blossoms during the 
rains in Bengal. 

48. M. ccesia. sp. pi. 1507. 

Shrubby, scandent, armed with numerous recurved 
prickles. Leaves bipinnate; pinnce about eight pair; co- 
rollets polyandrous. Legumes leafy, linear. 

Acacia ccBsia. Willd. 4. p. 1090. 

Teling. Konda Korinta. 

A native of Coromandel. 

49. M. petinata. sp. pi. 1507. 

Arboreous, ^vith long scandent branches, armed with 



566 FOLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. CappariS. 

recurved aculei, none of which are stipulary. Leaves 
bipinnate ; pinncB from t\Aelve to fourteen pair; leaflets 
about forty pairs. Panicles terminal; spikes globular, 
corollet polyandrous. 

Hind. Biswool. 

Acacia pennata. Willd. 4. p. 1090. 

Acacia aculeata. Burm. Tieyl. 2. 11. 

A native of Hindoostan of tlie Ballo and Pa yen Ghaut 
mountains. Flowering time the month of October ; the 
seed ripens in March and April. 

50. M. torta. R. 

Sub-arboreous, with scandent branches, armed wiih 
recurved prickles. Leaves bipinnate; pinnce as many as 
thirteen pair ; leaflets as many as forty pair ; petioles with 
a large oblique conic gland at the base, and between each 
of the last half of the pinna?. Racemes terminal ; spikes 
globular, corollets polyandrous. Legumes leafy, from six 
to ten-seeded. 

A native of the mountains of Coromandel. In those 
prickly, scandent, species, the small lateral branchlets 
twist round whatever they meet with and give powerful 
spuport to the whole plant, after having taken a turn or 
two their length extends, &c. like the other branches. 



CAPPARIS. Schreh. gen. n. 876. 
Gen. char. Calyx four-leaved. Corol four-petalled. 
Stamina long. Germ pedicelled, one-celled ; ovula numer- 
ous, attachment parietal. Berry pedicelled, one-celled, 
many-seeded. Embryo spiral, no perisperm. 

1. C. acuminata. Willd. 2. 1131. 

Shrubby, armed with stipulary, straight thorns. Leaves 
frum broad-lanceolate to cordate-acuminate, smooth ; pe- 
duncles solitary, one-flowered. Berries obovate. 



Capparis. polyandria monogynia. 5G7 

Beng. Kaloo-kera. 

Teling. Pahkee. 

A middle sized, or rather a low, scraggy, ramous shrub, 
growing common on dry, barren, rocky, or stony ground. 
It flowers about the end of the cold season. 

Young shoots of a bluish purple colour, and covered 
with a little white dust. Thorns stipulary, straight, short. 
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, from broad-lanceolate 
to oval, firm, smooth ,• margins somewhat scabrous, and 
for the most part ending in a small, hard, sharp point; 
about two inches long, and one and a half broad. Pedun- 
cles axillary, solitary, one-flowered, nearly as long as the 
leaves. Flowers pretty large, the two upper petals tinged 
yellow. Anthers blue. Germ long-peduncled, oblong, 
hairy, one-celled with four partitions projecting from the 
opposite sides of the walls to near the centre, but not meet- 
ing. Ovula numerous, attached in two vertical rows to 
each angle formed by the partial partitions and the 
seeds on the germ. Berry sub-rotand, size of a pigeon's 
egg, pretty smooth, soft, and when ripe red, one-celled. 
Seeds many, scattered in soft foetid white pulp, beaked, 
reniform. I?ifeguments four : the ej^^eWor one asii-coloured 
and membranaceous; the second, thick, brown, tolerably 
hard, two-valved ; the third, a thin white membrane lining 
the second, or shell; and the/o?/r^7i, membranaceous and 
attached to the seed. Perisperm no other than the fourth 
or inner integument of the seed. Embryo spirally rolled 
up. Cotyledons two-folded, petioled, ovate, veined. Ra' 
dicle three or four times larger than the cot3ledons, 
spirally rolled up with its thick point to the umbilicus. 

2. C. Zetjlanica. Willd. 2. p. 1132. 

Shrubby, climbing; young shoots ferruginous, armed 
with stipulary recurved thorns. Leaves long, oval, acu- 
minate. Peduncles one, two, or three, abo:^e the axills. 



568 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Cappai'lS. 

one-flowered. Petals ciliate, shorter than the stamina; 
berries obovate obtusely four-sided. 

Teling. Adonda. 

This species is readily known, by the tender shoots> 
leaves, and calyces being: covered with much rust-colour- 
ed pubescence, by there being often three flowers in the 
axill, and by the petals being much shorter than the sta- 
mina, and ciliate, and lastly by the germ being nearly 
round. 

3. C. subspinosa. R. 

Scandcnt, armed with minute, stipulary thorns. Leaves 
linear-oblong, acute. Racemes corymluform, axillary, and 
terminal ; the whole forming a leafy panicle. Carols al- 
most regular. 
A native of the Moluccas. 

4. C. sepiaria. Willd. 2. 1132. 

Shrubby ; stipules thorny. Leaves oval. Umbels ter- 
minal. Carols irregular. Berries one-seeded. 

Beng. Kanta-goor-kamaee. 

Teling. Nella puee. 

A middle sized very ramons, strong shrub, common in 
hedges, for which it is a most excellent plant. 

Trunk scarcely any. Branches numerous, winding, very 
stifl". Prickles stipulary, recurved, very strong and sharp. 
Leaves alternate, short-petioled, ovaI,emarginate, smooth'; 
about one inch and a quarter long and three quarters 
of an inch broad. Umbellets simple, terminal, globular, 
many-, and one-flowered. Flowers small white. Calyx 
unequal. Pe^iofe unequal, ascending on one side. Fila- 
ments ascending on the other. Berry the size of a small 
cherry, smooth, black, one-seeded. 

5. C. bisperma. R. 

Arboreous; stipules thorny, recurved. Leaves oval. 



Capparis. polyandria monogynia. 569 

obtuse. Racemes terminal, corymbed. Corols irregular. 
Berries globular, two-seeded. 

Teling. Goolee, 

A timber tree, a native of the extensive forests a- 
mongst the mountains. 

Trunk thick, tolerably erect, but of no great height. 
Branches numerous, spreading in every direction. Thorns 
stipulary, recurved, small, frequently wanting. Leaves 
alternate, short-petioled, oval, obtuse or slightly emargi- 
nate, smooth ; about two inches long, and one and a half 
broad. Racemes terminal, corymbiform. Calyx four- 
leaved, unequal. Petals four, oblong, waved, unequal, 
ascending, placed on the upper side, inserted into the 
insterstices of the calyx by short claws. Filaments nu- 
merous, ascending on the under side opposite to the 
petals. Berry the size of a nutmeg. Seeds two, kidney- 
formed. 

Note. This differs from C. Grandis of Dr. Konig in 
having thorns, and obtuse, or emarginate leaves. Can 
soil and situation cause the difference ? 

The wood is heavy, hard and durable, the natives em- 
plqy it for various uses. 



6. C. corymhosa. R. 

Shrubby, climbing, armed with stipulary, recurved 
prickles. Leaves long, obovate ; corymbs terminal. Coj'ol 
irregular. Berries globular. 

Teling. Aguba. 

A large climbing shrub, a native of hedges and forests. 

Branches twiggy. Prickles stipulary, recurved. Leaves 
alternate, remote, short-petioled, oblong-ovate, obtuse, 
smooth, shining, entire, about two inches long and one 
broad. Racemes corymbiform, terminal. Flowers large, 
very beautiful, white, slightly tinged with yellow. Fruit 
the size of a pullet's egg, globular, smooth, when ripe of 

a beautiful dark purple. 

T tt 



570 poLYANDRiA MONOGYNIA. Capparis. 

7. C. heteroclita. R. 

Shrubby, climbing, unarmed. Leaves elliptic ; Corymbs 
terminal. Calyx four-cleft. Corol regular. Stamina on 
the receptacles. Berries long, compound. 

Teling. Putta tiga. 

A large unarmed climbing shrub, a native of the most 
unfrequented and inaccessible Avoody parts of the Circar 
mountains. It flowers during the cold season. 

Trunk and branches climbing. Bark of the old lig- 
neous parts brown, and rough; of the young, round 
shoots, smooth and green. Leaves alternate, petioled, 
oval, entire, smooth on both sides; from one to two 
inches long, and from half an inch to an inch broad. 
Flowers pretty large, pale greenish white, terminal, form- 
ing small corymbs, of from four to eight on pretty long 
round, smooth peduncles. Bractes minute, one under 
the base of each peduncle. Calyx one-leaved. Tube 
short, campanulate, four- sided. Border four-parted ; di- 
visions broad-lanceolate, acute, entire, smooth. Corol 
four-pe tailed. Petals inserted into the calyx over the 
fissures, equal, lanceolate, waved, acute, about half the 
length of the calyx. Filaments many, longer than the 
calyx, inserted on a clavate receptacle, which is as long 
as the tube of the calyx. Anthers oval. Germ elevated 
on a long, slender style-like pedicel, even with the anthers, 
oblong, two-celled, each containing two vertical rows of 
ovula, attached to the partition. In what I consider the 
real species of Capparis, the receptacles are parietal, 
here septal. Style none. Stigma large, rather rough, 
and convex. Pericarp a long, compound, pendulous, 
berry, or rather four rows of berries, aflixed along a re- 
ceptacle: the whole is from two to five inches long, 
singly they are about the size of a cherry, covered with 
a thin, dry bark. Seeds only one in each single berry, 
or lobe of the compound fruit. 

Note, I should imagine this, with several of Jacquin's 



Argemone. polyandria monogynia. 571 

species, will form a new genus, the short turbinate recep- 
tacle is exactly like that of Grewia. 

The unripe fruits are boiled, and eaten by the natives. 

8. C. trifoliata. R. 

Arboreous, unarmed, ieaues terminal. Coro/ irregu- 
lar. Berry spherical. 

Crateva religiosa. Willd. 2. 853. 

Nurvala. Rheed. Mai. 3. t. 42. 

Sans. Wuwona, also Tikta-shaka. 

Beng. Buroon. 

Teling. Telia woollee mera. 

Common every where throughout India, it flowers about 
the beginning of the hot season. 



PAP AVER. 

Calyx, two-leaved. Carol four-petalled. Capsule supe- 
rior, one-celled, crowned by the permanent, dehiscent 
stigma. 

P. somniferum. Willd. 2, 1147. 

Calyx and capsule smooth. Leaves stem-clasping, 
garbed, 

Beng. Post ; and Afin, the opium. 

Pers. Kooknar. 

Arab. Khus kash. 

The large single, white flowered variety, with white 
seed, is extensively cultivated in many parts of India. 



ARGEMONE. 

Calyx three-leaved. Corol six-petalled. CapsuU 
unilocular, opening at the apex; receptacle parietal. 
Seeds many. 

A. mexicana. Willd. 2. 1148. 

T t t2 



572 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Gordotlia. 

Annual. Leaves stem-clasping, spinous. Capsule 
five-valved. 

Beng. Bura sheal kanta. 

A common weed byroad sides, &c. throughout India; 
it blossoms and ripens its seed during the dry season. 



GOJRDONIA. Schreh. gen. n. 1144. 

Gen. Char. Calyx five-leaved, or five-cleft. Petals 
five, inserted on the base of the united filaments. Germ 
superior, five-celled ; cells from two to three-seeded ; 
attachment m\.cx\or. Crt/jsu/^s superior, five-celled. Seeds 
winged. Embryo inferior, ceiJtripetal, with scanty peris- 
perm. 

Note. Notwithstanding the union of the ring formed 
by the filaments, and the malvaceous structure of the seed 
vessel and seed, I am for the present induced to place this 
genus in the class Polyandria. 

1. G. integri folia. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves broad-lanceolar, entire, acuminate. 
Peduncles axillary, solitary, one, two, or three-flowered. 
Capsules spherical. 

Hind. Makrisal. 

A large timber tree, a native of the hilly tracts on the 
eastern frontier of Bengal, where it flowers in April and 
the seed ripens in December. 

2. G. ohlata. R. 

Arboreous. Leaves broad-lanceolar, serrate, acute, co- 
riaceous. Peduncles axillary, solitary, long, one-flowered. 
Capsules oblate spheriodical, with two or more seeds in 
each cell. 

A tree, a native of Pulo Penang, where it was discover- 
ed by Dr. William Hunter. 



Anneslea. polyandria monogynia. 573 

3, G. decandra. R. 

Leaves oval, entire; corymbs axillary, three or four 
times dichotomous. Flowers decandrous. A native of 
Pulo Penang, where it blossoms in May. 

Leaves alternate, petioled, oval, smooth, entire, emar- 
ginate, of a firm texture, almost coriaceous, about three 
inches long and two broad. Petioles short, channelled. Sti- 
pules none. Corymbs axillary, as long as the leaves, three 
or four times dichotomous. Flowers numerous, small. 
Ca/yx five-leaved, leaflets imbricated, ovate, concave, per- 
manent. Petals five, obovate, scarcely longer than the 
calyx, and like it permanent. Filaments ten, five or six 
times longer than the corol, united near the base only, 
forming a cup round half of the germ, with the pollen round 
the margin. Germ superior, ovate. Style as long as the 
stamens. Stigma large, sub-peltate. Capsule oblong, of the 
size of the second point of a man's forefinger, five-celled, 
five-valved. Each valve has a deep, sharp, longitudinal 
keel on the inside, half dividing the cells, which are se- 
parated by a continuation of the inflected margins of 
the valves, which unite in the centre and form the recep- 
tacle of the seed. Seeds two in each cell, separated by the 
keels of the valves, ending above in a long superior wing, 
and inserted near its apex into the inner margin of the 
partitions. 

ANNESLEA. R. 

Gen. Char. Calyx, four leaved. Corol many-petal- 
led. Style none. Stigma concave, peltate, with about six 
rays. Germ inferior, from six to eight-celled ; cells five- 
seeded. Berry many-seeded. Seeds arilled. Embryo di- 
cotyledonous, and furnished with both perisperm and vi- 
tellus, direction various. 

A. spinosa. R. 

A native of the sweet-water lakes and ponds in the dis- 
trict of Tippera, Chittagong, &c. to the eastward of Cal- 



674 POLYANDRIA MONOGYNIA. Anneslea. 

cutta, \\here it blossoms most part of the year, and is 
known to the natives of those countries by the name 
Makana. 

Root, consists of numerous, thick, fleshy fibres, which 
descend deep into the soil at the bottom of the water the 
plant grows in. Stemnone. Leaves radical, with petioles 
sufficiently long to admit of their floating on the surface 
of the water, peltate, from orbicular to oval, entire, having 
the upper surface dark green, with ferruginous veins, and 
armed with a few very slender prickles, of a most beau- 
tiful purple, underneath and there reticulated with numer* 
ous, very large, prominent, dichotomous, finally anas- 
tamosing veins, armed with long, straight, very sharp, 
strong spines ; size of the leaf from one to four feet each 
way. Petioles round, and armed with straight spines. 
Peduncles radical, one flowered, round, armed with 
straight spines ; if the water is shallow they are gene- 
rally so long as to elevate the flower above its surface; but 
if deep, they blossom under water. Flowers small for the 
size of the plant, colour a lovely blue-violet. Calyx four- 
leaved, inserted on the cro\Mi of the germ, armed on the 
outside with recurved spines, smooth and coloured on the 
inside. Carol, petals about twenty, narrow, ovate-oblong ; 
the exterior ones nearly as large as the calyx, gradually 
lessening till they become very small, and nearly colour- 
less next to the stamina. Filaments numerous, and like 
the petals, lessening towards the centre. Anthers oval. 
Germ beneath, ovate, armed, from six to eight-celled, each 
containing from six to ten seeds attached to the partitions, 
and to the exterior angles of the cells as in nymphaea. 
Style none. Stigma cup-shaped, with the margin only 
slightly marked with six, seven, or eight elevations. Berry 
inferior, nearly round, size of an orange, swelling out in 
various places by the growth of the seeds within, crowned 
with some portion of the calyx and the rays of the sessile 
peltate stigma which are from six tonight. Ce//« obscure. 



Anneslea. polyandria monogynia. 575 

as the partitions become obliterated in the ripe state. 
Integuments, or bark, fleshy, armed with straight, sharp 
spines not opening into any number of valves, but, as in 
Nymphaea putrifying or crumbling away. Seeds nuciform, 
about twenty, nearly round, each enveloped in a complete, 
fleshy rose-coloured aril. Integuments two, the exterior one 
or shell nuciform, dark brown, uneven, with a very conspi- 
cuous pit near the oblong umbilicus which covers the vitel- 
lus ; the inner one thin, and light brown. Perisperm con- 
form to the seed, of a pure white, amygdaline consistence. 
Vitellus lenticular, penetrating the perisperm about one 
fourth its diameter, enveloped in its proper thin white in- 
tegument, which adheres more firmly to the perisperm than 
to this organ. Embryo lodged in the exterior half of the 
vitellus, and attached to its exterior, elevated point, or 
dome, oval, with the inner end divided into two equal 
lobes. The part between these lobes and the apex, or 
exterior end, which is united to the point of the vitellus, I 
call the peduncle of the embryo, which lengthens as germi- 
nation proceeds, and first forces the exterior end, or dome 
of the vitellus, through the pit in the shell, already menti- 
oned, and there taking a square from, the corners thereof 
become ragged and blackish. The sheath or thickened 
integument of the vitellus, which connects this part, 
lengthens also, and opens in one side to give passage to 
the two lobes of the embryo ; the peduncle continues 
lengthening, and when from half an inch to an inch in 
length, the two lobes, now evidently the two cotyledons, 
begin to separate. The exterior one, and yet the largest, 
takes a simple subulate shape ; and the inner, or smaller 
lobe now advances fast, soon becoming not only the larg- 
est, but long-peduncled, and trifid; from the bosom of 
these the plumula advances, and from the base of the 
petioles of the leaves thereof, and that of the trifid co- 
tyledon the real roots issue, and give sustenance to the 
little, now independent plant. 



576 poLYANDRiA MONOGYNiA. NyiYiphaea. 

The seeds are farinaceous, much liked by the natives, 
and sold in the public bazars to the eastward of the 
mouths of the Ganges, where the plant is indigenous. 
The method of preparation, to fit them for the table is as 
follows ; a quantity of sand is put into an earthen vessel, 
placed over a gentle fire, in the sand they put a quantity 
of the seed, agitate the vessel, or the sand with an iron 
ladle, the seed swells to more than double its original 
size, until it becomes light, white and spongy; during 
the operation the hard husk of the seed breaks in vari- 
ous parts, and then readily separates by rubbing be- 
tween two boards, or striking it gently with a bye board. 
The Hindoo physicians consider these seeds to be pos- 
sessed of powerful medical virtues, such as restraining: 
seminal gleets, invigorating the system, &c. &c. 



NYMPHAEA. Sckreb. gen. n. 886. 
Calyx and coroZ many-petalled. Germ inferior, many- 
celled, cells many seeded ; attachment septal. Berry many- 
celled. SeetZs numerous. Embryo furnished with a pe- 
risperm; direction various. 

1. N. rubra. R. 

Leaves sub-orbicular, margins sharply sinuate-toothed, 
downy underneath. Flowers red. Stamina from forty 
to fifty. Berries spherical, from ten to twenty-celled. 

Teling. Yerra-kalwa. 

Sans. lluWiika, and Rukta Swudhyuka. See Asiat. Res. 
vol. 4. p. 285. 

Hind. Rwkta chwndMna, or Swudhj/ka. 

Beng. Rukta kumhula. 

A native of India. It flowers during the rainy season. 
In Bengal there is a small rose-coloured variety with from 
twenty to twenty-five stamina, and from twelve to fifteen 
rays in the stigma, consequently the same number of cells 



Nymphaea. polyandrta monogynia. 577 

in the capsule. In all other respects they agree. It is by no 
means so common as Lotus but infinitely more gaudy. 

2. N. Lotus. Willd. 2. 1153. 

Leaves orbicularly-peltate, margins sharply sinuate- 
toothed, downy underneath. Flowers white. Berries 
about twenty-celled, 

Teling. Tella-kalwa. 

Ambel. Rheed. Mai 11. t. 26. 

Hind. Koee. 

Sans. Koomooda. 

Beng.